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Alfred 
Werner 

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Jacob Epstein 
Humanist 



BY ALFRED WERNER 




Self-porlrait in a cap, 191 2, 19'/: inches high. 



BRONZE PORTRAiTURE has come down to US from an- 
tiquity, yet in modern times few sculptors have emerged 
as outstanding practitioners of this time-honored arl. Au- 
guste Rodin was the great luminary of 19th Century por- 
trait sculpture, but following him there were very few 
who reached these heights. Sir Jacob Epstein ( 1 880- 1 959) 
was perhaps the most outstanding artist working in this 
genre during the 20th Century. In his own lifetime Ep- 
stein had few real competitors; the only names that come 
to mind are those of the Frenchman Charles Despiau, the 
French-born American Gaston Lachaise, and the Ger- 
man sculptress Renee Sintenis. 

Epstein was still attending The Art Students League of 
New York at the time'Henrik Ibsen wrote his last play, 
When We Dead Awaken. The hero of this play, a disillu- 

18 



sioned, embittered, elderly sculptor named Professor Ru- 
bek, explains that the "plutocrats" who sit for him, and 
pay dearly for the privilege, were unable to see that un- 
der the "striking likenesses" he produced lurked the 
sculptor's contempt of his patrons and the images of the 
animals they actually were. 

In his autobiography, first published in 1940 under the 
title Let There Be Sculpture, Epstein cites Professor Ru- 
bek as the contrary of what a sculptor should be. The 
American-born artist Jacob Epstein time and again as- 

failed to arouse sympathy in him. Though frequent at- 
tacks upon him gave him cause for bitterness, he did not 
share Professor Rubek's cynicism, nor could he under- 
stand why so many critics were contemptuous of the art 
of the Portrait. He added, "Personally I place my portrait 
work in as important a category as I place any other werk 
ofmine, and I am content to be judged by it." 

Epstein's earliest bronze portrait, of his first wife, was 
executed in 1905, a time when the career of Auguste Ro- 
din was approaching its end. Sir Jacob was still doing 
portraits some fifty-odd years later, when he finished the 
bust of the youngest daughter of an aristocrat. About this 
piece, the artist's devoted biographer Richard Buckle has 
written that it revealed some of the characteristics most 
peculiar to Epstein's work, namely, "the irregularities of 
surface despite the mainly smooth finish, the dissymetry 
of the eye-pupils to give expression, the feeling for the 
growth of hair, the dramatic vitality." In the intervening 
decades, some of the most outstanding personalities had 
posed for the master. Included in this list are such figures 
as painter Augustus John; novelist Joseph Conrad; ac- 
tress Sybil Thorndike; American singer and actor Paul 
Robeson; Albert Einstein; Chaim Weizmann, first Presi- 
dent of Israel; George Bernard Shaw; Emperor Hailie 
Selassie; novelist J. B. Priestley; Violinist Yehudi Menu- 
hin; Winston Churchill; pianist Dame Myra Hess; Pan- 
ditNehru; Somerset Maugham; Gina LoUobrigida; Yid- 
dish novelist Sholem Asch; Bertrand Russell; and 
conductor Otto Klemperer. 

This is, of course, only a partial list. In addition to these 
and other famous sitters, Epstein also modeled likenesses 
of members of his immediate family, intimate friends 
who were not necessarily celebrities, and professional 
modeis, mostly female, whose looks and expressions at- 
tracted him. 

During the decades of his incessant activity as a por- 
traitist, Epstein had to contend with two prejudices. The 
first was that there was no longer a need for portraiture, 
due to tfie advances made by photography. Many people 
forgot, of course, that truly great portraits-like Ep- 
stein's-were more than accurate documentary records, 
more.than just skillful renderings of appearances. 
Rather, these portraits were complete penetrations and 
interpretations by a sensitive and perceptive observer, 
and therefore anything but obsolete. For Epstein was 
never satisfied with literal transcription, but attempted to 
interpret these personalities, even if his harsh observa- 
tions frequently led to something akin to caricature. 

The second objection was raised soon after 1900 by 

American Artist 




Albert Einstein, 1933. Collection Princeton Universitv. 




Paul Robeson, 1928, hronze. 12 inches high. 






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Joseph Conrad. 20 inches high. 




George Bernard Shaw. 1934, hronze, 25 '4 inches 
high. Courlesv Bernard Danenherg Galleries. 



January 1973 



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Laughing Girl. 1^49, 20 inches hli^h. 





Rosalyn Tu reck. 1956, ünted plasier. 12': inches hii^h. Collcctinn 
The Museum of Modern An, New York. 



Fhc Visitation. / '_r.i. dioh^l. ". ihl/uw ///i;/'- k^ "nci. iki/i Fhe Solo- 
nuin R. Ciui^i^enheim Museum. 



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young sculptors (among them Modigliani, better known 
as a painter) who' argued strongly against modeling in 
clay, asserting that the only way to save sculpture was to 
retum to direct carving. This viewpoint could be sup- 
ported, of course, by citing Michelangelo's famous State- 
ment that sculpture was to be defined as carving, while 
sculpture that was made by "adding on" resembled 
painting and was therefore bad. But even the divine 
Michelangelo could be wrong— as was proven by the 
glorious bronzes by Donatello or Verrocchio. 

Epstein often cut his visions into marble, alabaster, 
and other kinds of stone. But he found that tempera- 
mentally he was better suited to a medium as malleable 
as clay, a medium that quickly responds to nervous ma- 
nipulation, than he was to stone, which demands stub- 
bom and patient work. A carver must hammer away at 
the block for untold hours, attacking it with thousands of 
blows, and thereby risking loss of some spontaneity and 
immediacy. Epstein was a born modeler: "It is the creat- 
ing of something out of nothing," he remarked about the 
technique, "an actual building up and getting to grips 
with the material." 

No one after Rodin managed to animate the inert ma- 
terial, to make the best use of the flow of light and shade, 
as much as Epstein did. It has been said that he modeled 
clay as if it were molten bronze and that the metal was 
always in his mind. His modeling was rough. He once ex- 
plained, "No face is entirely round and smooth. The face 
is made up of numberless small planes, and it is a study 
of where those planes begin and end, their direction, that 
makes the individual head . . . The rough surface breaks 
up the light and accentuates the characteristics, giving 
Ufe to the work." 

Epstein's work in bronze has the rugosity one finds in 
the best work of Rodin. Both men liked to transfer 
quickly into clay the spontaneous attitudes Struck by the 
sitters. Both were stimulated by the play of light over the 
rippling surfaces of shaped masses. Weither man was ad- 
dicted to the conventionalized beauty or elegance that 
dominated official art right into the Edwardian era. Both 
discovered "beauty" in the seemingly ugly and even in- 
sisted that only that which possessed no character was 
ugly in art. 

Rodin said of his sitters, "I reach down to the very 
depth of their being and express exactly what they are." 
His New York-born "disciple," Jacob Epstein, could 
have said the same. Epstein did not feel that it was the 
task of sculpture to compete with Madame Tussaud's 
waxworks, although, when he began, portraiture in 
sculpture had deteriorated into taxidermy or, in painting, 
into color photography. 

Epstein refused to undertake a commission unless the 
sitter interested him both spiritually and "plastically." 
This does not mean that he lacked versatility and had to 
limit himself to a few admired friends. On the contrary, 
his ränge was astonishing. He observed with great em- 
pathy young children no less than famous old men. His 
subjects comprised soldiers as well as members of the 
clergy, actors as well as scientists, men as well as women. 
Nor did he Start with a predefined conception; instead, 

January 1973 



he allowed the sitter's character to impose itself gradually 
on the clay as he worked. 

While he moved quickly, he paused to bestow love and 
care even on the slightest details, such as the little wrinkle 
around the eyes, the folds and coils of the ear, or the way 
the beard grows. Concentrating upon what might be 
called the "soul," he knew that he could express it only by 
selecting the significant details that defined the individ- 
uahty of his sitter. 

Epstein's aims were neither mechanical perfection nor 
complete verisimilitude. In his own words, "A mathemat- 
ically correct rendering of a person would neither be a 
work of art nor a likeness. It is always necessary to accen- 
tuate some particular trait that gives the character to the 
face and distinguishes it from other faces. A man is an 
artist because he has the necessary judgment and skill to 
know what accentuation is necessary . . . [the artist has to] 
translate what he has seen into terms of his art, but never 
to copy it." 

Epstein was a consummate craftsman who thought in 
bronze, who retained the finished metal in his mind's eye 
while studying the sitter, even before any sort of actual 
work had commenced. Applying with the spatula small 
pellet upon small pellet of clay, and making corrections 
with the fingers or the palm of the band, he worked pre- 
cisely, deliberately, stopping briefly now and then to ob- 
serve, to reflect, until, after a couple of hours, the outline 
emerged. There were additional sessions, for Epstein was 
very conscientious. He considered nothing trivial, not 
even the way a coUar or a bit of blouse related to the 
body. 

He did not think that his work was finished when the 
clay model was done. As one of his biographers, L. B. 
Powell, reported, "The model is subjected to the most 
careful retouching where necessary and, finally, the 
whole of the casting in bronze is supervised by the sculp- 
tor. From the clay to the finished bronze . . . Epstein 
works with unremitting care for detail and never loses 
sight of the eff'ect at which he aims until the last touch of 
patina is complete." 

Epstein spurned the concept of symmetry. In fact, he 
built the head asymmetrically on a displaced axis, cutting 
away sharply on one side while slanting away on the 
other. Due to this lack of symmetry, several images 
emerge as the viewer changes position. It has been noted, 
for instance, that the portrait of India's great leader 
Jawaharlal Nehru, appears priest-like and grave with his 
inwardlooking eyes while, seen from another angle, he 
seems to have a sense of irony and even humor. 

Asked to name his most striking portrait bust, some 
may choose the Nehru, others the bust of Paul Robeson, 
or Winston Churchill, or Albert Einstein— in fact, every- 
one is likely to have a diff'erent favorite. Yet if only one 
photograph of a portrait by Epstein were to be used for 
an illustrated history of 20th Century sculpture, it should 
be Joseph Conrad. The Polish-born British writer, whose 
novel Lord Jim was a best-seller in pre-World War I Eng- 
land, posed in 1924, a few months before his death. Ep- 
stein, who had a way with words but confined his pub- 
lished writing to his autobiography (in its final, expanded 



21 



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Fourth Portrait of Leda (with Coxcomb), 1940, tinted plaster, 8'/h 
inches hi^h. Collect ion The Museum of Modern Art. 




Ahove: Leda-Fifth Portrait. /944, hronze, 8'/: inches high. 

Opposite Page: First Sketch of Pandit Nehru. 1946. tinted nlaster, 
n/8 inches high. Collect ion The Museum of Modern Art. 

22 



form it was issued by E. P. Dutton & Company post- 
humously, in 1963), described the encouiitei with Joseph 
Conrad: 

"Conrad had a demon expression in the left eye, while 
his right eye was smothered by a drooping Hd, but the 
eyes glowed with a great intensity of feehng. The droop- 
ing, weary Hds intensified the impression of brooding 
thought. The whole head revealed the man who has suf- 
fered much. A head set on Shoulders hunched about his 
years. When he was seated, the Shoulders had the impres- 
sion of a pedestal for the head. His gnaried hMn.ds were 
covered with woolen mittens, and his^habit of tugging at 
his beard when in conversation or thought gave me the 
idea of induding the hands in the bust, but Conrad re- 
coiled from so human a document." 

Conrad was thoroughly pleased with the finished 
work: "It is wonderful to go down in history like that," he 
Said modestly. 

To be honest, not all men of letters who posed for Ep- 
stein were as satisfied as was Conrad. George Bernard 
Shaw was an ardent champion of Epstein's work, not be- 
cause Shaw had a good understanding of the plastic arts, 
but simply because he sided with the underdog that Ep- 
stein was in England for a long time. The sculptor superb- 
ly caught the playwright's independent and pugnacious 
Personality while retaining all the identifiable features. 
But Shaw's vanity was wounded: "I became a Brooklyn 
navvy in your hands," he wrote to his protege. "My wife 
. . . Said that if that bust came into our house she would 
walk out of it." 

Novelist and critic J. B. Priestley, on the other hand, 
talked about his portrait in a rather facetious manner: 
"It's this way, Epstein. I look upon this bust as an insur- 
ance for both of us against gettmg forgotten. If you get 
forgotten, there is your bust of me. If I am forgotten, 
there is your bust of me." 

To be sure, not every one of the scores of busts he pro- 
duced is on the same high level as the half-dozen of his 
best works in this genre are. Yet there are no complete 
failures, partly because of the artist's inherent talent as a 
modeler and partly because of his sincerity, which did 
not allow him to flatter his sitters. 

He was far from soft-minded or conciliatory. I remem- 
ber a visit to the septuagenarian in his London studio at 
Hyde Park Corner. Another caller made an unfortunate 
remark, and suddenly the warm, quiet, grandfatherly 
face of the artist assumed the aspect of an angry demi- 
god. But the wrath evaporated quickly. After all, he had 
acquired wisdom and some serenity and could rise above 
the turbulence and confusion of ordinary life. Super- 
ficially, this big-boned, homely man looked more like a 
New York taxi-driver than the stereotype of the artist as 
a lean, nervous, over-excited individual. He was not a 
witty conversationalist and limited himself to a few 
words in a broad Lower East Side accent. But he let his 
sculpture speak for him-in a clear, sonorous, earnest 
voice. As his younger colleague Henry Moore so aptly ex- 
pressed, "He was an intensely warm man, who in his 
work transmitted that warmth, that vitality, that feeling 
for human beings immediately." 

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JEWISH HERITACE, Publicaciön de la B'nai B'rith. 

Comisiön de Educaciön Judt'a de Adultos, 

Consejo Internacionai. 

Editor tat B'nai ß'riHi Latinoamericana. 

LIL Y EDELMAN, Editor. 

Dr. Louis L Kapfan: 

Martin D. Cohn; 

Rah. Benjamin M. Kahn; 

Dr. Seymour Siegel; 

Elie Wiesel. 

Comite Editor idi, 1640 Rhode Island Ave. 

Washington D. C. 20036. Estados Unidos. 

EDICION EN CASTELLANO: 
HE HM AN SCHERSON M., Director. 
Asesori'a: Rab. Günther Fried/ander. 
Oiseno Gräfico: Vicente Larrea. 
Vicuna Mackenna 179, Casilla 6015, 
Santiago, CHILE. 

EDICION EN PORTUGUES: 
ELIEZER LEVIN, Director responsable. 
Edda Bergman, Coordinaciön gener al. 
Editora B'nai B'rith S.O. 
Rua Cacapava 105, 
Sao Paulo, BRASIL 

R EVISTA DEL PENSAMIENTO JUDIO CONTEMPORANEO 

PUBLICADA POR LA B'NAI B'RITH 

APA REGE TRIMESTRALMENTE 

SUBSCRIPCION POR TRESAlQOS: USS 8. 

B'NAI B'RITH, CASILLA 6015, SANTIAGO-CHILE 







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Alfrpd Werner 



un pintor sabra 
moshe castel 



Trad. Alicia N. de Anani'a. 

Moshe Castel, uno de los artistas israeh'es mäs conocidos, es un 
judi'o oriental. Su misnno nombre tiene connotaciones romänticas; 
deriva de Castilia, ei reine espanol que sus antecesores, 
expulsados por fanäticos gobernantes, tuvieron que abandonar, 
instaländose en Palestina en 1492. 

Castel daseiende de una larga Imea de rabinos y maestros. 
Su padre, el rabino Yehuda Castel, ensenö hebreo como una lengua viva 
antes que Eliezer ben Yehuda; su tfo paterno, 
distinguido rabino en Hebron, 
tue muerto por los ärabes en los motines de 1929. 

Nacido en Jerusalenn en 1909, recibiö su primera educaciön en la 
Academia Bezalel. Todavi'a estudiaba alli'cuando, alrededor de 1920, 
descubriö por si' mismo el intrmsico esplendor de Safed. 
La ciudad era entonces una "bella durmiente". 
Como no habi'a energi'a electrica, 

la mayon'a de los habitantes iba a dormir cuando obscurecTa 
y se levantaban cuando saii'a el sol. 

En su mayor parte eran ärabes, el resto, judTos ortodoxos que 
vesti'an en forma alegre y colorida, 
aün cuando atendi'an los servicios reiigiosos. 

Cuando Castel tomö conciencia que necesitaba mäs instrucciön 
que aquella que podi'a obtener en Bezalel, viajö a Pari's, 
donde ingresö en la famosa Academia Julien. 
Tema dieciocho aiios. 

Su talento tue reconocido tanto por maestros y cri'ticos, como por sus 
colegas mayores; 

participö en exhibiciones grupales en el Salon d'Automne 
y en el Salon des Independants. 

En 1930 presentö la primera de sus numerosas exposiciones 
individuales. En el Louvre estudiö a los viejos maestros, 
pero tambien se familiarizö con el trabajo de los contemporäneos, 
como Rouault, Klee y Chagall, que in'an a influir 
considerablemente en su estilo. 

Notable cn'tico de arte y autor, Alfred Werner 
es un asfduo colaborador de "Herencia Judi'a". 



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Aün durante su periodo "frances" (1927-1940), 

el escenario frances tiene poco eco en sus temas; 

asi' como Marc Chagall, en su estudio parisiense, segui'a pintando las 

imägenes infantiles del Gheto de Vitebsk, 

el palestino Castel llenaba sus telas con 

sonadoras visiones de la Tierra Santa. 

A pesar de su gran exito en Pan's, senti'a nostalgia 
y cuando estallö la Segunda Guerra Mundial, 
Ge sintiö feliz de retornar a la tierra de sus padres. 
Alli' continuö trabajando en el estilo representacional, 
fuertemente cromätico de su pen'odo "frances". 
En SU juventud, entre judi'os que eran orientales como el, 
estuvo expuesto a grandes paroxismos de color. 

Tuvo una enorme ventaja sobre aquellos artistas inmigrantes que 
provem'an de climas mäs templados y a los que se les haci'a dlfi'cil luchar 

contra los fuertes colores y la luminosidad casi tropical de Israel, 

Para Castel los vigorosos colores le surgen naturalmente, 

rojos flui'dos, azules y verdes de una traslücida cualidad, 

que traen reminiscencias de los "vitraux" medievales. 

Sus pinturas teni'an espesor, pero, a diferencia de Chaim Soutine, que 

derramaba en sus telas montones de pigmento, Castel creaba superficies 

de niveles suaves y utilizaba un pesado barniz que le daba, 

a muchos de sus Ultimos trabajos, una apariencia de "Viejo Maestro". 

Entre sus temas favoritos figuraban los interiores 
de las antiguas casas y sinagogas de Safed, 
con sus enjoyados colores, brillando contra obscuros fondos. 
Pero Castel pintaba mäs que lo que vei'a con sus ojos. 
Tema la audacia de sonar, 
de tener visiones del Reino de Salomön, 
de la Israel de los Jueces, 

aün de los primeros di'as cuando los Intrepidos guerreros hebreos 
invadieron Canaän. 

Con referencias subyacentes y a menudo directas hacia el pasado, 
muchas de estas telas fueron pintadas como si el artista quisiera decir: 

"Si mi certif Icado de nacimiento determina que vT la 
luz del mundo en 1909, ese certif icado es erröneo... 
Yo naci' hace dos mil anos, quizäs tres mil... 
Los principios del arte Israeli', del cual sou un representante, 
difieren mucho de los cläsicos principios del arte occidental. 
Debemos mirar hacia el Oriente". 

Esto es exactamente lo que hizo, 
en especial en los arios cuarenta. 

Anteriormente habi'a estudiado el arte oriental del pasado remoto: 
los frescos de la antigua Sinagoga Dura Europos, 



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con sus sublimes Interpretaciones de patriarcas y profetas; 

los mosalcos de aquella otra Sinagoga antigua, Beth Alpha, cuyo piso 

estä tachonado con representaciones humanas, 

asi' como de leones, bueyes y päjaros, 

todos entremezclados, 

en una fascinante mezcia de lo primitivo y lo sotisficado. 

Tambien escudrino profundamente las obras de arte egipcias, 

las pinturas folklöricas ärabes sobre vidrio, 

las miniaturas persas 

y los esciarecedores manuscritos de la Hagadah. 

Castel tomö cosas de todos ellos, 

acercändose a ia obra de estos artistas anönimos 

con la misma devociön con la que un compositor moderno 

escuchari'a lascanclones folklöricas, 

antes de comprometerse a crear una sinfoni'a. 

En estas pinturas de la decada del cuarenta, como en 
El Sacrificio de Isaac o La Leyenda del Sabath en Safed, logrö cubrir a 
sus objetos en un envolvente misticismo. 
Descubriö asi' un mundo de fantasi'a, 

coexistiendo con la realidad concreta de los kibutzlm y jalutzim, 
de fäbricas y tanques. 

Despues de haber producido mucho en este tipo de estilo durante 
un cierto pen'odo de tiempo, 
Castel decidiö parar y buscar un nuevo rumbo 

y comenzö a comparar sus realizaciones con aquellas de algunos audaces 
contemporäneos, 

destacändose especialmente Joan Miro. 

Gradualmente abandonö las formas claramente reconocibles para 
embarcarse en lo que podn'a Ilamarse 
una "abstracciön li'rica". 

Librö a sus obras de todo vestigio del ideal renacentista de la ilusiön 
de espacio y profundidad, y, alrededor de 1950. 
comenzö cinendose a formas claramente definidas de colores lücidos, 
dentro de otras formas claramente concebidas. 
como sus telas Aleluya y Pägina Cabah'stica. 

Algunos de los cuadros realizados en este nuevo estilo fueron inclui'dos 
en la revolucionaria exhibicion grupal 
Ofakim Hadashim (Nuevos Horizontes), en Tel Aviv, 1949, 
que tambien incluyö obras de Giladi, Janco, Meyerowitz. Zaritzky 
y otros, que buscaban crear lazos mäs cercanos con la 
"avant-garde" europea. 

Pero mientras muchos artistas israeh'es senti'an que los di'as se un 
autentico arte regional-nacional habi'an pasado, 
y creaban pinturas, esculturas, etc.. 



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con un estilo que no ofreci'a ningün signo sobre si el artista trabajaba en 

Tokyo, Tulsa o Tel Aviv, Castel era, y aün es, 

un pintor sabra "nacionalista". 

Cuando lo conoci', en su casa de Safed, 

hace mäs de veinte anos, 

ya insisti'a sobre la creaciön de un arte Israeli' distintivamente nacional. 

"Debemos - dijo - enlazar nuestro talento creativo 

directamente con la cadena arti'stica 

que se extiende desde la antigüedad judi'a". 

Senti'a y siente que las obras, 
en SU segundo estilo - caligräfico, bi-dimensional, enfatizando la textura 
de superficie - refiejan una modalidad del Medio Oriente. 
Sea conno fuere, lo cierto es que el talento del "nuevo" Castel 
- concretado en las pinturas de los ültinnos diez o doce anos - 
transmiten algo del misticismo que todo visitante sensible 
percibe al confrontar las rocas y colinas, 
las cuevas y los cauces de los ri'os de Israel, 
aiejados de la edif icaciön moderna. 

Esto es particularmente välido en los relieves en basalto de Castel, 
algunos de los cuales fueron exhibidos recientemente en la Lefebre 
Gallery (Manhattan), donde expuso individualmente en 
la primavera de 1971. 

El basalto, una roca i'gnea densa y de granulado suave, abunda en Israel, 
(en el Desierto del Negev, donde tiene color verde y no el negro 
corriente). 

Castel muele esta piedra hasta convertirla en delgada arena, 
la mezcia con pintura en polvo y con este "barro" cubre sus telas 
en forma irregulär, 

dändoles una profundidad de una pulgada o mäs. 

Despues que esta masa se fija, el artista, utilizando un instrumento filoso, 
talla en ella formas que semejan inscripciones antiguas, 
que uno deseari'a descifrar, pero no puede. 

Su tecnica es importante, 
como en la mayor parte de los artistas de post-guerra. 
Algün cn'tlco acunö la fräse: 

"metaf i'sica de la materia" y Castel es solo uno de los muchos 
pintores contemporäneos que en sus creaciones dan la impresiön 
sobrenatural de antiguos muros, 
carcomidos por el tiempo, 

sobre los que se han apiicado arbitrariamente manchas de color, 
quizäs no por la mano del hombre, 
sino por las lluvias, tormentas y demäs 
accidentes atmosfericos. 

A diferencia de otros artistas, 



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a los que no les importa si el espectador puede o no leer imägenes en sus 
grietas y manchas, hendiduras y descoloraciones, 
Castel nos ofrece mäs alimento 
- un elemento mäs "humanista" 
para dejar actuar a nuestra fantasi'a. 

Sus nuevas telas, de gran tamano, semejan murales que pudieron haber 
sido extrai'dos cuidadosamente de algün sitio de excavaciön del 
Medio Oriente; 

como esos murales, sus telas estän cubiertas con seudo letras que uno se 
tienta a vincularlos con los antiguos y fragmentados 
mensajes asirios, sumerios o proto-hebreos. 

Pero en tanto las autenticas inscripciones antiguas en general se preservan 
intactas, talladas en ta piedra y hundidas debajo de la superficie 
del material, sucede lo contrario en el caso de las 
"inscripciones" de Castel; su tecnica es una reminiscencia de la del 
tallado de madera: 

las inmensas tablas parecen enormes bloques impresos en relieve, 
como matrices producidas al extraer todas las porciones indeseables de 
a suave superficie, dejando solo Imeas y äreas levantadas. 

Con estas piedras se podrfan hacer tallas fascinantes, como 
aquellas antigüedades Chinas que a menudo contienen decretos 
gubernamentales. 

Pero, icuäl es el significado inherente en la caligrafi'a de Castel? 
Ninguno, a menos que uno quiera decir: 

El estilo es el mensaje" o "El medio es el mensaje". 
Aün en la pintura "representativa" el significado estä 
subordinado, en general, a la forma, 
con la excepciön del arte publicitario. 

Hace algunas decadas, uno de los portavoces del arte moderno, el pintor 
Maurice Denis, advirtiö que un cuadro, cualquiera fuese su contenido, 
era escencialmente una superficie plana cubierta 
con colores reunidos en un cierto orden. 

Encontramos en Castel una multitud de expresivos jerogli'ficos 
ni sagrados ni legibles, pero dotados, sin embargo,, 
del poder de evocar respuestas a fuerza de ambigüedad e imprecisiön, 
de irracionalidad, acrecentado por los fluorescentes verdes, 
rojos o azules en los que estos signos no-simbölicos 
estän incrustados. 

En varios trabajos realizados despues de la Guerra d6 los Seis Di'as, 
el artista aparenta haberse apartado de su visiön 
bäsicamente abstracta, • 

para acercarse a una modal idad mäs racional, mäs consciente, 
casi propagandi'stica. 
Lo que ahora surge frecuentemente de sus sustancias rocosas nos 



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recuerda drästicamente a los guerreros que sostienen ianzas y 

tambien largas ametralladoras antiaereas; 

la escena se completa con objetos redondos que podn'an 



cor ant" ir^i lorlac Kfil'^^ r4r\ ^^^A.-« 



En general, se objeta menos la mezcia de armas de diferentes peri'odos 

que la en realidad antipoetica evidencia de los si'mbolos, 

trazados con una falsa "naivete" que hace que tanto los soldados 

Israel i'es como sus armas 

parezcan el trabajo de ninos pre-escolares. 

<i Podrän estas regresiones ser consideradas como concesiones al 
espi'ritu de exaltaciön, coraje y desafi'o que ha posei'do a Israel 
durante los Ultimos cinco anos? 

<:0 serän solo tretas para promover la venta de estos cuadros a las 
congregaciones o centros judTos, 

donde el mensaje parecen'a ser aün infinitamente mäs importante 
que el medio? 

Probablemente, estos son solo violentos peri'odos de ensayos en un 
hombre, ingenuo como a menudo lo son los artistas, 
quien, arrebatado por una sensaciön de felicidad. 
se permite temporariamente una sobredosis de sentimentallsmo 
para exagerar su inherente sensibilidad estetica. 
Me inclino a elegir la ultima posibilidad. 

Picasso, Chagall y otros celebres contemporäneos han desconcertado a 
sus admiradores con unlnesperado giro hacia lo "vulgär". 
Solamente un paso tan equivocado pudo haber movido a Castel a crear 
Mure de Gloria (1967), un tablön rojizo, con "escrituras" sobre el. 
El cuadro estä atravesado por dos agujeros, llenados por un collage cuyo 
ingrediente principal es una burda foto-color de alegres soldados 
Israel res en el Muro Occidental y otra de Moshe Dayän con casco. 

No hay nada crlticable en el hecho de que un artlsta de salida a sus 
sentimientos patriöticos. 

Pero un hombre con el talento de Castel podria haberlo hecho con 
medios puramente artisticos, tales como su ecriture llena de misterlo y 
sus Inolvidables texturas en tinta lo permiten. 

Afortunadamente, existen amplias razones para creer que Castel. 
a esta altura, 

ha abandonado la narrativa sobre-expli'clta y estä a punto de retornar a la 
metäfora, 

a la sugestlön inherente, en vez de la primitive teatricalidad. 

Su mäs reciente trabajo - ejecutar dos grandes murales para la sala de 

ceremonial de la Residencia Presidenclal de Israel - 

le proporclonarä una oportunidad de volver a ser otra vez el mago que usa 

sus herramlentas plästlcas del mismo modo 

qu2 e! musicö üliliza n'tmicdmente los soniüos.'A' 



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' Misccllany 



ABOUT 




BOOKS 




THINGS 







V/ews and Visions 



Modigliani: Among Great Artists 



By ALFIU:i) WEH \ ER 

(Jewish News Art Critic) 

The art-conscious public 
was recently disniayed to 
learn that a nuniber of 
treasures from the collec- 
tion of New York's Metro- 
politan Museum of Ali had been 
sold. 

The Chief objection was Ihat 
liicsc ijiciuies uid nul, ai leasi, 
go to otljcr American museums, 
but vvere acquired by private 
collectors. 

Among these "de-accession- 
ed' oils was a paintin,ii by Am- 
edeo Modigliani (1884-1920). a 
Portrait of his friend, Beatrice 
Hastings; it fetched $220,000, 
and has gone to Japan. 

A little latcr. Ihe Perls Gal- 
leries exhibited a small, but 
nevertheless very impressive 
group of oils and drawings most- 
ly portraits, plus one sculpture, 
by the same master. 

Modigliani died relatively 
young, and hence his Output 
was limited. Ajjproximately 400 
oils by him aro known. in addi- 
tion to 20 üdd sculptures. and 
numerous watercolors and 
drawings. 

Because his works now rare- 
ly come on the market, and be- 
cause of the "legend" that en- 
.«^hrouds the brief and tumultu- 
ous lifc of this Italian - Jew- 
ish artist. whatever oils are 
available command high prices, 
ranging, accoiding to size and 
quality, from $100,000 to a mil- 
lion dollars. 

Genuine Irony 

There is a tragic irony in this 
fact, since the maker of these 
now so expensive oils ölten 
could not pay his rent and had 
to slip out like a thief. . . 

Of course, the.se figures teil 
US nothing about the intrinsic 
value of the work. They mere- 
ly demonstrate that at this .junc- 
ture Modiglianis happen to be a 



much desired commodity. the 
"blue chip" Stocks of the art 
market. 

Yet, just as we must not lend 
too much attention to sky-rock- 
eting prices for pictures, we 
should not concentrate on what 
an artist did or said outside his 
studio. For whatever absurdi- 
ties engage a man of genius in 
his leisure, what ultimately 
counts is the time he .spent in 
the soiitude ol his studio, cre- 
ating works that outlive him. 

Modigliani's extravagant be- 
havior did not obscure his true 
\alue from the discerning. His 
colleague V'Iaminck, who was 
very choosy in his friendships, 
wrote about Modigliani: 

"I knew him when he was 
hungry. I have seen him drunk. 
But in no instance did I ever 
lind him lacking in nobility or 
generosity. I never knew him 
to be guilty of the least ba.se- 
ness, although I have seen him 
ii-ascible at having to adniit 
the power of money 
scorned but which 
hamper him and 
piidc." 

Remarkably Creative 

Astonishingly. in those months 
and years when he was most 
beset by disappointment and 
sickness. he managed to pro- 
duce canvases unmatched in 
balanco, harmony and pensi\e 
aristocratic detachment. 

Artists do not always fit pre- 
conceived notions, so far as the 
character of their work is con- 
cerned. For if art were a sim- 
ple reflection of biographical 
facts, one would expect from 
Modigliani torrents of orgiastic 
color, untidily smeared into the 
canvas in thick impasto. 

Yet, even if he did not have 
the strength to resist the Iure of 
alcohol, he was able to dedi- 
cate him seif to the most com- 
plete and perfect aesthetic 
transformation of the inner im- 
agery, ignited by his subject. 



which he 
could so 
hurt his 




JEAN COCTEAU, by Amedeo ModrgÜani 



Thus, if one were required to 
write about the master on the 
strength of the extant pictures 
alone, without any biographical 
detail or other evidence. he 
might conclude that the Cre- 
ator of these serene paintings 
had led a quiet, sheltered life. 

Still, Modigliani's 14 years in 
Paris were probably not as un- 
happy as an ordinary observer 
would think. He was really 
frustrated only to the extcnt 
that poor he alt h — he suffered 
from tubcrculosis — and lack 
of funds required him to give 
up the physically strenuous and 
also costly practice of sculpture, 
and to turn to a metier less 
dear to him — the making of 
pictures. 

Great Sculpting .\bility 

Conceivably. he might have 
beconxe a greater figure as a 
sculptor than he did as a paint- 
er. Nonetheless. it cannot be 
doubted that. with brush and 
pigments, Modigliani achieved 
what is a creative man's high- 
est goal: to forge a vocabulary. 
a language entirelv his own. an 
expression satisfactory to his 
needs. 

Perhaps, tben. our artist suf- 
fered less during his short. hec- 
tic life than might many a 
l}oui'geois with a .secure Job. 
After all, from his feverish. 
frail bodv and from his drug 
and alcohol - stimnlated mind, 
he produced paintings and 
drawings on a par with those of 
bis happicr, moro successful 
colleagues. especially the solid, 
professorial Matisse and the 
sharp-witted, calculating Pi- 
casso. 

Despite the soididness of the 
'home" that he shared, first 
with Beatriee Hastings and 
thon with the always loyal, al- 
ways seif effacing Jeanne He- 
buterne. and despite all the ob- 
stacles he accumulated a work 
noted for a refinement. a sub- 
tleness dexoid of any incrus- 
tration of dross. 

Even in the paintings done in 
bis final months when he was 
noticeably marked by death, 
thore is not the slightost indica- 
tion of a physical weakness or 
a lessening of the "will-to- 
form.'* 

His Own Style ' 

Had not Modigliani died at 
35, had he been allowed to 
round out his life. and perhaps 
even to reach the venerable age 
of his coevals Picasso and 
Chagall, in all likelihood he 
would have continued to paint 
in the style that now makes his 
pictures easily identifiable. 

Unwilling or, perhaps. unable. 
to Switch from one style to an- 
other every two or three years, • 
as does the protean Pablo, he 
would have gone on creating 
"Modiglianis." But they might 
very well have been better ones 
than tho.se we know. 

For, with increasing maturity, 
coupled with greater emotional 
security — w hieb usually comes 
as a by-product of longcvity — 
these putative post 1920 Modigli- 
anis might have been even 
more refined than the earlior 
ones. 

After all, a painter is much 
like a Violinist who, after years 
of practice, manages to elimi- 
nate the last vestigcs of un- 
couthness and erudeness in 
tone, to extract from his instru- 




MADAM CZECHOWSKA, by Amedeo Modigliani 



ment pure sounds whose very 
existence he could not have 
imagined in the awkwardness 
of his youth. 

He might have become an 
even more accomplishod paint- 
er. Yet he was remarkable as 
one even at 24 or 25, when he 
painted "The Jewess," and the 
portraits of the first of his few 
|)atrons, the Parisian physician. 
Dr. Paul Alexandre. 

Paintings of Strength 

These early pictures. tiiough 
not \ et "typical," are quite 
strong. They have none of the 
sweetness and slickness of the 
conventional portraits of "La 
Belle Epoque." 

The thick black outlines. the 
vigorously accentuated red lips 
and the unruly brushwork are 
reininisccnt of the German Ex- 
pressionists, though any direct 
influence is most unlikely. 

With their vehement striving 
for expression. their feverish 
unrest. these pre-World War 1 
pictures have the haunting qual- 
ity we find in El Greco. 

They are more than just mere 
exercises in painterly crafts- 
manship. Young Modigliani, 
thrce years after he gave up 
academic studies in his native 
Italy. already appears as a 
searcher for character who con- 
eentrates on the essentials of 
face and hands, giving only 
summary treatment to the tor- 
so. 

As the lovely show at Perls 
Galleries again demonstrated, 
Modigliani retained his interest 
in characterization even when, 
eventually, his concession,s to 
'Realism'" became fewer, and 
less and less marked. 

He never went so far in de- 
composing reality as did the 
Cubist painters, whose sitters 
almost disappear in a mass of 
fi'agmented detail. 

Admittcdly, the geometric 
siniplification in the work of the 
"mature" Modigliani is as *'un- 
naturali.stic" as the color he 
often gives to hair or skin. 
without regard for the actual 
hue. Yet. the deft pattern -mak- 
er never skimped on the .sit- ' 
ter's Personality. 

This trait is. of course, not 
always noted by the hurried 
gallery-goer w hose quick glance 
gra<ps only the superficial as- 
pects by which anyone bclieves 
hc can spot a typical Modigli- 
ani from a hundred feet away. 

These are the main features: 



the frontal pose: the sitter's 
S-shapc: the flat. masklike 
face; the almond eyes; the 
head thinncd out to the ex- 
treme; the neck either over- 
long or virtually non existent; 
the calculated disproportion be- 
tween head. torso and legs; the 
sculptural ajiproach (maintain- 
ed despite the artist's total in- 
difference to modeling, light 
and atmosphere): and. finally, 
the resonant and intensely lu- 
minous, yet uncomplicated color 
applied \vith an accuraey that is 
absent in the majority of pic- 
tures by the m asters to whom 
he is often linked by historians 
— the Express ionists. 
At 1951 Show 
At the Museum of Modern 
Art show of 1951, I had had my 
first opportunity to observe the 
artist's focus on a sitter's 
firmly defined eyes and eye- 
brows; on a siightly curved 
nose, determined lips, a power- 
ful chin. 

I noted how^ he stressec' the 
large forehead, the bony struc- 
ture of a face. One sitter glan- 
ces at US in a supercilious man- 
ner: another may not look at 
US at all. A beggar is painted 
with deep sympathy. A person 
nolorious for a savage and truc- 
ulent Personality is shown mer- 
cilessly with all his personal 
flaws. 

This memorial show. 22 years 
ago, revealed to me Modigli- 
anis ability to characterize 
people in the most subtle ways: 
by a stronger tilting o<f the 
head, a Variation of the angle 
of the no.se. an iionic, surly or 
sensitive mouth; the position of 
arms or hands; or by the delib- 
eiate choice of bot or cold pig- 
ment to provide the desired 
mood. 

His sitlers often ai)pear as 
they actually were — elegant 
or slovenly, sensuous or dis- 
passionate. arrogant or humbJe, 
intellectual or dull. 

He would lend female mo<lels 
some of the spiritual beauty in 
his own soul. even if they hap- 
(See VIEWS — Page 22) 



ORIGINAL OIL PAINTINGS | 


LITHOGRAPHS MODERN 


PRINTS 


« ' L & M 


Picfurt 
Frames 


. 124 ELMORA AVE 


, 


ELIZABETH 




CLOSED ON MONDAYS 1 



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'r«.rttinuril from r;igp 12) 
^ntil tu bo slroet vvalkcrs. 
rhou^'h in his woiks thrse 
vonnj; \\onitti are not nccos- 
sarily prt'tly. thcy, am \hv oth- 
er band, evoke sympathy. 

So (lo the nciuliborhood chil- 
ilrrn, as \et unlinged by their 
soriJid militii. And so (lo the 
domestifs, »>n iheir feol (vom 
daybr<'ak tili late eveninf;. their 
Chores leaving them fati.j^ued 
and unlidy. 

Among Toolest' 

As for his nudes — m si»r- 
roundinfjs baroly skelched in 
;.'encral tiM'ms. or summarily 
ifnorcd — thcy are aniong the 
'•eoolost" ever painted. and yet 
enormoiisly seductive to the 
viewtT vvho rcsponds to the ex- 
citement that went into thcse 
transfii:urations cif ordinary 
bfKlies into chromatic y>r>i'nis, 
siniious arabesques of Ihin 
limbs and hijjh waists. 



sjnee Modigliani died in tV 
charity ward ol a Paiisian hos. 
pital. His companion, Jcanne 
Uebiiterne. i.<miniiUt'd suicide 
a few hoiirs iattr. 

Hut their dauiihter. Jeanne. 
surxived, and is now livinj.' in 
I'aris, niarried to a lolle.t'e Pro- 
fessor, and a niother aml a 
piattisin^ painter. 

Of MfKliLjJiani's |"x"'rso?ial 
friends who sal for hini, few 
are still alive. The niost out- 
stantling is the celebrated 
sculptor, Jacques Lipchitz. who 
still admires his late friend not 
oinly for his talent. but also be- 
caiise of the strm.^th o( his con- 
viclions, his pride. his coi»ra,i:;e. 

Lipchitz recalls that Amodeo 
often told him that all he want- 
ed was "a short but intense 
life."" Unquestionably, his wish 
was j^'ranted. 

-» * ♦ 

Dr. Werner bas just com- 
)>leted a seminar on "'Art and 
the Jewish Kxj>criente" at The 
Women's Institute of Nassau 



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Lnthrrajfs iul 
Soviel Jenry 

WASIlINtJTON ( JTA )-Meni- 
bers of a I^utheran conj^rejjation 
here telebratcd their Christ- 
mas by (MU'anizin«! supporl 
lor Soviel Jewi'y. More than 
$lü<» has been lüised from 
a series of «»pen hoiiso parlies 
i-iven by the Luiher l'Jace 
Memorial ('hureh, 

The fund raisinu drive is 
sp<^arhea<kHl by Pastor John 
.Steinbruck, whose im eres! in 
the cause of So\iet Jev\j*y is a 
long-stanilin^' ano. P^)r the p.ist 
ivvo years Pastor Steinbi-uck 
has parlicipalwl rc^^iilarly in 
the daily \ i^^'il at the Soviet 
Embassy. 

He was instrumental in his 
C(m.t;regati()ns adoption of a 
Soviet Jewish pnsoner, Valery 
Kukui. Mfmbers of the <'on,t,'re- 
^'atian send letters to Kukui reg- 



ulär] y and have attempted to 
^et throufih t/> hjm by tele 
r»hone several times. They have 
also planted a tree in his iiame 
in Israel. 

Past^>r Steinbruck disclaims 
his nn»t]vei, für hclpin.u' Soviet 
Jews are primarily allruistic. 
Involvemcnl 'Aith this cause. 
he maintains. enables members 
•>f his conj^'Toj^wtitm "to fulfill 
themsclve.s as Christians, to M« 
whal they profess to be.'' 

Pastor Steinbruck believes 
that the j^ospd |)rovides n(»t 
on!y a justification, but a man 
date for aidinj: all oppresst-d 
ixople. 'I'his Christmas, ibe 
pa<lor said. Ihc issue of So\ iet 
Jewry has ,i,'iven puipose to 
fev;tivilies of his ci>n.i,Mo,ciati<m. 
• Next year," he says, - we 
hope to have more lime to plan 
projects more carcfully Hut of 
course/' he concluded. "I 
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for Svime artists, and most of them in 
color) are oil paintings, but bronzes and 
other sculptures hold their own very 
well, as do prints and the other painting 
media. 

Similar books, contents wi.se, have 
crossed our desk, but none were nearly 
as well produced, nor did we find them 
in bookstores; Artists/ usa we have seen 
selling in bookstores and, as the text 
takes great pains in providing prices tbr 
each piece and the names and addresses 
of all the artists and their galleries— plus 
lists of exhibitions, awards, and collec- 
tions— we have also seen it on art eollec- 
tors' coffee tables. There are 208 indexed 
pages, 1 1 X 8'/2, representing hundreds of 
artists, and there may be room tbr you. 
Include this publisher on the first of your 
New Year's Resolution rounds. 

Happy hunting, then; have a banner 
year. d.p. 

Käthe Kollwitz: Life in Art, by Mi na C. 

Klem and H. Arthur Klein, 10 x 9, 192 
pp.. illustrated. Holt. Rinehart & Win- 
ston, $11. 

This is the fourth book about Kollwitz 
available in English. The pioneer work 
was of large format, with many illustra- 
tions, but a rather short text, compiled by 
Carl Zigrosser (1946). Next came The 
Dianes and Letters of Käthe Kollwitz 
(1955), edited by her son Hans, who 
wrote a very personal, very touching in- 
troduction. Käthe Kollwitz by Otto Na- 
gel (1971) is aLso a translation; the au- 
thor was a coUeague and close friend of 
the great woman. This new book is by an 
Ameriean couple who never met the 
German artist but knew pre-Nazi Berlin 
and, stirred by Kollwitz' prints, returned 
lo Germany after World War II to do ex- 
tensive study on the master. 

This book, written with all the earnest- 
ness and intensity the subject requires, 
makes clear that Kollwitz was remark- 
able for many rea.sons. She was the first 
German woman to gain an important 
place in art, and she succeeded in a diffi- 
cult three-fold task: to be a good wite (to 
a high-minded doctor, whose practica 
was in Berlin's poorest neighborhood), 
an affectionate mother to two sons (one 
of whom she lost in the first World War), 
and a prominent artist with progressive 
ideas among a people whose leaders 
most of the time resented and rejected 
her work. She was also a brave person 
who always stubbornly clung to her 
humanitarian ideals. As a draftsman, 
printmaker, and sculptor she was supe- 
rior to any of her colleagues in Central 
Europe, with the exception of her friend 
Ernst Barlach. 

Her personal integrity comes through 
on every page of the book. She did not 
yield to the limited esthetics of the Kai- 
ser, who termed her offerings "gutter 
art" and vetoed the gold medal the jury 
of a Berlin group exhibition wanted to 
award her for a cycle of prints about the 



revolt of the exploited handloom weav- 
ers of Silesia. Chapters 8 and 9 deal in 
detail with Kollwitz' plight in Nazi Ger- 
many. She and her husband were among 
the intellectuals who vainly urged all 
anti-Nazis to band together to defeat 
Hitler in Germany's last free elections. 
Thereafter she was purged from the 
Prussian Academy of Art, losing her 
teaching position and eventually also her 
studio there. Yet, as the Kleins put it ". . . 
it Käthe Kollwitz nad kowtowed to the 
top Nazi leaders and completely altered 
her work to fit their wants and their 
Propaganda, they would have been more 
than willing to claim her as one of their 
true, great German artists." 

She would not— in fact, could not have 
done so. For she often portrayed people 
who are sick, who suffer, and did .so wjth 
utter defiance of the Nazi-approved 
rules of classical art demanding figures 
to be "beautiful" and bodies to display a 
flawless perfection they never have in 
real life. Ostracized, she was very much 
alone in her final years, and she was 
crushed by the death of her husband and 
of her grandson (who was killed in ac- 
tion in World War II). Yet she remained 
active almost to her end: "One can live 
without work," she said, ''but then life 
lacks strength and savor." The end came 
on April 22, 1945. Had fate allowed the 
grand old lady a few additional days, she 
would have been able to rejoice in the 
fall of the loathsome Nazi regime. 

Through more than a hundred repro- 
ductions, the Kleins acquaint us with the 
major features of her substantial work, 
from a Student self-portrait drawn in 
1889 to one made 54 years later. Hers is 
an art for the serious who appreciate her 
sensitivity, warmth and unpretentious- 
ness, clothed in gripping craftsmanship. 
The Kleins have done füll justice to her 
in a book that is readable, well illus- 
trated, and on a solid scholarly level. A.w. 

The New and Classic Sculpture Meth- 

ods, by Arthur Zaidenberg, 174 pp., 10'/2 
x7'/2, World, $12.50 

A noted sculptor, well versed in a variety 
of materials and styles and equally con- 
scious of prehistoric, classic, oriental, 
and contemporary sculpture, explains 
the fundamental principles of this most 
ancient branch of art, which in its three 
dimensional forms is closer to reality 
than painting. It was comparativ ely ea.sy 
for prehistoric man to shape stones and 
to di.scover the modeling qualities of clay 
through imprints in mud. Wood torn 
from trees, or found as driftwood, in- 
spired him at an early age, by evoking 
images in his mind. 

Although sculpture on the highest 
level is a difficult, time-consuming work, 
it is just as much within the capability of 
amateurs and students as any other 
branch of the arts. Zaidenberg teils you 
all you have to know about Space, forms, 
masses; the need for drawing; a basic 



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January 1973 



15 



\ knowledge of human anatomy, propor- 

\ tions and gestures. He lists the tools, and 
quickly dives into the simplest form of 
sculpture: modeling, in which the statue 
is built up, and can easily be changed. 
Modeling requires armatures, but he 
shows you how easy it is to prepare them. 
Casting is shown step-by-step, including 
the lost wax method, casting stone and 
death masks. Good photographs illus- 
trate all this. 

Carving is more difficult, as one can- 
not put back what has been cut off, but it 
is a most creative and challenging proc- 
ess, also fully shown in appropriate pic- 
tures. Wood and stone carvings of primi- 
tive tribes as well as great civilizations 
are shown, with a section on the carving 
of precious stones and Pre-Columbian 
jewelry. 

Other illustrations clarify welding, sol- 
dering, the melting and plating of met- 
als, the applying of patinas. 

Plastics, stainless steel, mobiles, the 
often exciting kinetic and power-driven 
sculptures, are also described and illus- 
trated. Interesting materials are avail- 
able, such as plastic metals modeled like 
clay but drying like real metal, liquid sol- 
ders and a variety of wires. Also, im- 
permanent but most enjoyable work can 
be done in paper, sugar, ice, even butter; 
and a certain Swedish artist uses many 
dissimilar pieces, boxes, metals, wood, 
paper, to asemble into a nonobjective 



work, and he invites the purchaser to 
take apart and reassemble the pieces to 
suit his own taste. This is called the "art 
game." The book is Hkely to stimulate 
you to try your hand at sculpture. (We 
only regret that a picture of the Aphro- 
dite of Melos still carries the completely 
erroneous title Venus de Milo. Must mis- 
takes last forever?) r.f. 

Symbolist Art, by Edward Lucie-Smith, 
185 ill., some in color, 216 pp., 8'/2 x 6, 
Praeger Publishers, $10; Gustav Klimt, 
by Werner Hofmann, 60 pp. text 10'/: x 
12, 125 illus., some in color, New York 
Graphic Society, Greenwich, Conn., 
$24.95 

When the abstract movements began in 
the '60s to lose importance and signifi- 
cance, attention became focused on 
some neglected movements of the past 
whose participants might be redis- 
covered for the benefit ofthose who had 
grown to maturity after World War II. 
Indeed, Lucie-Smith's book could not 
have been published two decades earlier, 
when art historians still underrated the 
Rosicrucians and other late 19th Century 
Symbolist groups that, in Opposition to 
the Realists and Impressionists, stressed 
the plastic arts value of legend, myth, 
and dream. These Rosicrucians are now 
important to young and old alike; after 
all, their shows included works by the 
young sculptor Bourdelle and by the 



equally young painter Rouault, u )ng 
with those of Charles Filiger, Alexar.dre 
Seon, and other mystics who were'the 
equals of the lesser Post-Impressionists. 
Lucie-Smith traces Symbolist art back 
to certain Renaissance masters who ex- 
celled in the production of allepoties: 
story-telling pictures whose metaphori- 
cal meaning is implied rather than ex- 
plicit. He then parades before us some 
romantn. painiers of France and Ger- 
many, and England's Pre-Raphaelites, 
until we reach the 1890s, when Sym- 
bolism, which started as a revolutionary 
movement in French poetry, became an 
international phenomenon in the visual 
arts. There was no cohesive group of 
Symbolists comparable to the Impres- 
sionists headed by Monet; there were 
numerous small coteries whose aims and 
goals were not quite identical. Nonethe- 
less, a common denominator is found in 
their desire to relate the physical with the 
moral world through symbols. 

The influence of these men reached all 
over the world; even such Americans as 
Elihu Vedder, John Singer Sargent, Ar- 
thur B. Davies, and Maurice Prendergast 
feil under their spell. They were dia- 
metrically opposed to Courbet, who had 
decreed that no ideas of any sort be- 
longed in the domain of art. The critic 
Albert Aurier, however, insisted that a 
work of art should be a generally com- 
prehensible expression of an idea. The 




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Phaedra, Persephone, Penelope, your reaWy old 
friends, have been waiting for you for a thousand 
years. Awair has arranged the painting tour of a 
lifetime— to fabulous Greece in the spring. 
A famous American artist will accompany you 
through the world's most paintable treasures and 
beauty. Edmond J. Fitzgerald is your instructor 
for 15 days of professionally organized, leisurely 
painting and touring. Plan now to come to Greece 
with US and paint from April 1 to 15. You and 
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16 



American Artist 



^^^ymbolist painters and printmakers, 
am^ng them Gauguin, Redon and 
Moreau, agreed with him; their works 
y often convey abstract or spiritual ideas 

(at times of a religious character) by the 
^ rendering of natural objects. The paint- 
ings reproduced in the book clearly dem- 
onstrate their makers' Opposition to Im- 
pressionism by their stress of decorative 
colors, decided black outlines, and lack 
of interest in the mere atmospheric 
effects of sunlight. 

One is grateful to the author for intro- 
ducing here sottie excellent works by art- 
ists known only to specialists. Disagree- 
ing with those scholars who present 
Impressionism as the only important 
movement of the time, he views Sym- 
bolism as "the thread which allows us to 
make sense of the way in which Euro- 
pean art developed in the second half of 
the 19th Century." Logically, he pays füll 
tribute to Gustav Klimt, leader of the 
Vienna Secession, who is the subject of 
Werner Hofmann's large and beautifully 
illustrated volume. 

Unlike Lucie-Smith, however, Hof- 
mann is not so much concerned with in- 
stalling Klimt into his proper niche in art 
history as he is with "the problem of the 
artist in society." Hence we are given a 
social history of Vienna in the last twopr 
three decades of the Hapsburg Empire 
when, beneath the gay music of a sophis- 
ticated elite, a rumbling of the forthcom- 



ing and inevitable revolution could be 
heard. While the descriptions of slums, 
poverty, and crime provide a useful con- 
text, the American reader will find it dif- 
ficult to condemn Klimt, as the author 
does, for not having paid much attention 
to the social problems. Klimt was no 
Kaethe Kollwitz; he had a perfect right 
to be just Gustav Klimt, to paint por- 
traits of the dazzingly beautiful wives of 
Austrian industralists, as well as laree 
philosophical and quite enigmatic pic- 
tures related in their dream-like style to 
the works of Symbolists in France, Ger- 
many, and elsewhere. But even those 
who do not endorse Hofmann's quota- 
tion, "Art can come only out of protest," 
will read his lucidly written introductory 
text with profit. 

They will also admire the excellent 
quality of the illustrations that recall a 
time and a place with some affinity to the 
Upper bourgeois culture of America's 
Fifth Avenue mansions, filled with rare 
and precious objects of art. a.w. 

Plastics for Artists and Craftsmen, by 

Harry B. Hollander, 224 pp., 1 1 x 8'/4, 
over 260 black/ white illus., 18 color 
plates, Watson-Guptill, $14.95 

Ours will probably be called the plastic 
age, certainly in the field of arts and 
crafts, where plastics are an exciting and 
innovative medium for the general pub- 
lic as well as for those who use plastics in 



their creative work. Hollander, a leading 
industrial chemist and technical adviser, 
has combined 25 years' experience in 
plastics research with conducting Work- 
shops in art schools and craft centers in 
the United States and Canada. In this 
handsomely produced and truly compre- 
hensive volume, as a matter of fact, the 
greatest sources of information were the 
projects developed in plastic Workshops, 
as the result of Student creativitv and 
suggestions. 

Anyone, artist or layman, looking at 
certain plastic creations— such as the al- 
most incredibly lifelike figures by Allen 
Jones, Frank Gallo, and Arlene Love, 
the precisional masterpieces by Bruce 
Beasley and Dennis Byng, the fabulous 
stained-glass murals by Alfred Pellan, 
the kind of creation which looks like 
your own face in a distorting mirror, as 
executed by Carol R. Levy, or the mag- 
nificent jewelry by Walter Schluep— 
must wonder how such amazing objects 
can be made, and how much chemistry, 
artistry, skill and patience must go into 
them. 

The book has chapters on polyester 
and epoxy resins, silicones, polyure- 
thanes, polystyrenes, and every phase of 
the work: internal decoration, three di- 
mensional Windows and murals; casting 
reliefs; gelatine, cellulose, acetate and 
wax molds; opaque and translucent 

Continued on page 61 



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with our MASTER ARTISTS PAINTING COURSE. 

She enjoys the same, identical program of instruction 
that is taught in our resident school. Difference is, Mrs, 
Wilkinson paints at home — at her own pace. Each lesson 
is analyzed by her instructor, then promptly returned with 
an overlay of graphic instructions along with a personal 
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BOOKS (from page 17) 

scurpture; non-glare glass coating. dye- 
ing, bleaching, painting; transferring 
color; enameling, ceramics, jewelry; and 
epoxy-metal casting. Each step is de- 
scribed, explained, and illustrated with 
excellent black /white or füll color pho- 
tographs. Every picture has a complete 
caption. 

A list of suppliers in the u.s.a. and 
Canada and a glossary of many stränge 
terms already developed in this new field 
are helptul. It's difficult to imagine a 
more lucid handbook for those who wish 
to try their hands on plastics. It isn't an 
easy branch of the arts and crafts. 
There's much more to it than chemical 
formulas. but the sky's the limit to its po- 
tentials. r.f. 



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Pascin: 110 Drawings, selected. edited, 
and introduced by Alfred Werner, 109 
pp.. 8% X 11 '/4, Dover, $2.50 paper 

Juhus Mordecai Pineas (1885-1930). 
known to the art world as Jules Pascin, 
was an outstanding painter of the Ecole 
de Paris and an internationalist of the 
early 20th Century. Pascin was a master 
of the line, adding pale, muted colors to 
his drawings, more as an afterthought, as 
it were. His paintings partake of the 
same quality, delicate in color but, in his 
many nudes, frankly sensual. His Status 
as a sensitive arlist was somewhat 
clouded over by stories of his dissolute 
life, his eroticism, and his bizarre suicide 
on the eve of an important one-man show 
in Paris. Subsequent judgments have 
assured his place as one of the great 
draftsmen of his time. 

Satisfactory books on Pascin are hard 
to find and are generally expensive; this 
Dover edition is therefore a great bar- 
gain; Dr. Wemer's masterly introduction 
is alone worth the price. The full-page 
reproductions of drawings from 1902 to 
1929 are about equally divided among 
nudes and erotic subjects, outdoor scenes 
and interiors, intimate studies of friends 
and entertainers. Quality of printing is 
high. Not least interesting are the earlier, 
less familiär drawings of the firstdecade; 
they are heavily flavored with the spirit 
and elaborate pungency of Simplicis- 
simus. for which publication Pascin had 
madeover SOdrawings. f.j. 

Flemish Painting from the Van Eycks to 
Metsys, Leo van Puyvelde, 263 pp., 1 Wi 
x 10'/2, 174 black /white illus., 40 color 
plates. McGraw-Hill, $24.50 

One is reluctant to use the term "primi- 
tive" to describe the marvelous painters 
who, towards the end of the Middle 
Ages, were active in flourishing cities like 
Ghent, Louvain, and Bruges (now all 
Belgian), brilliant men like the brothers 
Van Eyck or Roger van der Weyden. But 
since the author, formerly curator of the 
royal art museums of Belgium, calls 
these and other masters "Flemish Primi- 



AMERICAN ARTIST and PAINTING HOLIDAYS 

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April is the Ideal time to join this 
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with a Jamaica the average visitor 
doesn't know exists. Tourist spots 
are out . . . serious study is in on this 
two week discovery of tropical 
charms. Time is short and class 
Space is limited, so act today if you 
wish to join this trip. 



LOOK WHAT ELSE IS IN STORE FOR YOU... 

TOM HILL in MEXICO / February 

Escape the winter drabs and let this exciting artist-teacher show you how 
to paint in sunny Mexico. Serious study first. After that. . . have tun! 

JOHN PELLEW in PORTUGAL / April 

Take olls, acrylics or watercolor. This well-known artist teaches you how 
to record the essence of Portugal as seen in two small fishing villages. 

JOHN PIKE in ITALY / May 

Little-known Camogli and well-known Venice are the scene. This süperb 
demonstrator shows you how. The time is right... betöre the summer rush. 

You should seewhat eise we have lined up for your painting pleasures. Even 
your non-painting spouse will enjoy these trips because of the many side 
activitiesoffered. Beginners and advanced, send this coupon for füll details. 



Painting Holidays, c/o American Artist 

165 West 46th Street, New York, New York 10036 

Name 
Address 



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State 



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Information please on; 



January 1973 



61 



.^ tives," we have to accept this 19th Cen- 
tury label. Early Italian masters were 
also called "primitives"; in either case, it 
is not meant as a pejorative, but rather 
an allusion to a certain degree of naivete 

> by which all of these pre-Renaissance 
practitioners of the arts were character- 
ized. 

Thirty-odd painters are presented in 
this book. The author praises their spi- 
rituality, their sincerity, their power of 

handling of a fairly new medium, oils. 
Inevitably a considerable portion of the 
book is devoted to Hubert and Jan van 
Eyck, the main forces of progress in 
Northern Europe during the early 15th 
Century. 

Van Puyvelde deals at length with the 
question of Flemish Realism. Why did 
the Creative men in the Low Countries 
develop "a tendency towards rendering 
objects precisely"? He believes that the 
Flemings were not attracted by ideas 
that were too abstract. They liked "to be 
able to grasp something immediately." 
Nonetheless, he discourages the notion 
that there was such a thing as a Flemish 
race, since the inhabitants of what is to- 
day part of Northeastern France, as well 
as Southern Holland and all of Belgium, 
were the result of the mingling of several 
groups, and the concomitant notion that 
this special view and rendering of the 
World was the creation of the people who 
possessed this territory: 

". . . Objectivity of form was rather the 
achievement of certain very gifted art- 
ists. The close Observation of nature and 
the already advanced technique seen in 
the miniatures from the great Workshops 
of the Courts of France (where so many 
Flemish artists were working at the end 
of the 14th Century) are the first indica- 
tion of this concern with formal real- 
ism." 

Of the many artists presented in this 
book, perhaps the most extraordinary 
was the very original Hugo van der 
Goes: "His frank approach, without em- 
phasis or circumlocutions, but warm and 
vibrant, has direct and wide appeal. In 
spite of their noble quality, the Virgin 
and St. Joseph are of the common 
people; they have the hands of working- 
class people. The angels, too, seem more 
human than divine. As for the shep- 
herds, they are manifestly true to life; 
rustic characters moulded by the most 
primitive form of country life." 

Little is known about van der Goes, 
yet he seems to have succumbed to the 
same illness that drove Van Gogh to sui- 
cide: insanity. While a lay brother in an 
Augustinian monastery, he was seized by 
madness: ". . . he was obsessed with all 
the pictures'he still wanted to paint . . ." 
Like Van Gogh, he had lucid moments, 
and like him, he continued to work de- 
spite his affliction. 

Another remarkable person was the 
so-called Master of Flemalle. He re- 



ceived his name because three of the 
four pictures attributed to him were said 
to have come from the "Abby of Fle- 
malle," though such a place never ex- 
isted. Thanks to modern scholarship, we 
now know that these pictures were the 
work of a contemporary of the Van 
Eycks, a certain Robert Campin (1375- 
1444). Yet in the index, looking for 
Campin, we are still referred to the 
"Master of Flemalle." 



TU 



r% ^ t r^ 



I.., 



«IC '1 ?-* 1 1 ryy r\i^r r\ 



T rf^v/^*:»!!^»^* 



color reproductions. The black-and- 
white photos are often small, but they 
are, invariably, readable. There are 
many scholarly notes to the chapters at 
the end of the volume. a.w. 



Vorticism and the English Avant-Garde, 

by William C. Wees, 273 pp.. illus.. 10 x 
6'/2, University of Toronto Press. $15. 

This book must be highly welcomed, as 
it deals with a subject known only to a 
few experts. While terms like Impres- 
sionism and Expressionism and even 
Cubism and Futurism have long been 
assimilated into the English language 
and are now used correctly and ap- 
propriately even by laymen. "Vorticism" 
still puzzles those who come upon it in 
histories of modern art. Yet, though this 
movement was brief-lived— it arose 
about 1912 and came to an end in 1920— 
it is, as Professor Wees puts it. "relevant 
to contemporary movements in art and 
letters;" that is to say, it helped usher in 
quite a few of the abstract trends that still 
dominate the field. 

in this learned volume. the fruit of 
much scholarly research. a great many 
British and American figures of the past 
are paraded. The recently deceased poet. 
Ezra Pound. at one time a resident of 
London, has been credited with having 
coined the word which. though it is often 
used to describe certain works of poetry 
(especially those of young Pound). ap- 
plies primarily to paintings and sculp- 
tures of a parlicular avant-garde associa- 
tion located in the British capital. 

Vorticism arrived in England about 
the time when the country was shakcn by 
a variety of minor revolutions that tried 
to reshape and redo every aspect of the 
conservative English society. Aware of 
advanced movements in modern art in 
Italy and France, the Vorticists created 
abstract or near-abstract forms organ- 
ized in arcs around a focal point (vor- 
tex). They sought to wrest England away 
from old-fashioned manners of expres- 
sion. such as different schools derived 
from Impressionism. and from the so- 
called Aesthetic Movement, and to make 
20th Century men understand the 
enormous importance of the machine. 
Like the Futurists. they developed a ver- 
itable cult of the machine. about the 
same way the Impressionists had ex- 
tolled the beauty of obscure villages 
amidst meadows and fields. Having fully 



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accepted the Machine Age, the Vorticists 
created pictures and sculptures charac- 
terized by hard, angular, sharp-edged 
shapes. 

Though Round was an influential fig- 
ure, the real leader was Wyndham 
Lewis, a painter who was also the author 
of satirical novels and works of criticism. 
Retrospectively-he died an old man in 
1957, decades after the movement had 
run down— he went so far as to consider 
Vorticism as his own brain-child: "It was 
what I, personally, did and said, at a cer- 
tain period." Yet he is hardly important 
as a Creator. Far more important was the 
sculptor Henri Gaudier-Brzeska (1891- 
1919), a Frenchman who "found himself 
in the swirl of London's cate-studio 
night life." Had he not been killed in ac- 
tion in World War I, he might have de- 
veloped into a first-rate pioneer of ab- 
stract art. (He is represented in New 
York's Museum of Modern Art.) An- 
other remarkable figure was Jacob Ep- 
stein who, after a brief infatuation with 
Vorticism, returned to a more realistic 
style. 

Wees is too cautious to attribute to 
Vorticism the importance of Cubism and 
Futurism in the context of modern art. 
Nevertheless, he believes that this move- 
ment, aided by the magazine B/asi (of 
which only two numbers— now collec- 
tors' items-were ever published, by 
Lewis) had a considerable significance 
on account of its "rebellion against the 
19th Century; fascination with machin- 
ery, the city, energy, and violence; com- 
mitment to anti-romanticism . . . experi- 
ments with pure forms in art. . . ." 

Good material suggested for further 
study can be found in the ample bibli- 
ography. The book is usetul to scholars 
as well as to artists and general readers. 

A.W 

Working with Leather, by Xenia Ley 
Parker, 159 pp., I0'/4 x 7'/2, over 150 pho- 
tographs and diagrams, 12 color plates, 
Charles Scribner's Sons, $8.95 

Beyond the typical leathergoods- 
change purse, wallet, pocketbook- 
leather is perhaps more fashionable than 
ever. Jackets, vests, skirts, and pillows 
made of leather are extremely populär. 
Leather is a most rewarding material to 
work with, as you can produce usefui, 
durable, as well as attractive objects 
from it. What you make yourself is in- 
comparably less expensive than what 
you can buy in a störe. If you can sew, 
you can learn to work in leather. 

Here you have füll directions, with 
easily understandable diagrams and 
photographs of every step, from simple 
articles to more and more elaborate 
ones. The author is a professional de- 
signer of leather accessories featured in 
leading Stores, and she knows how to ex- 
plain every phase of the work, starting 
with the purchase of leathers or suedes of 
the proper kinds, tools to use, necessary 



64 



patterns, marking, cutting, and lining, to 
the various types of lacing through 
punched holes. 

There are many kinds of stitches 
(cross, overcast, running, cobbler's, etc.). 
You have to learn how to use eyelets, 
grummets, rivets, cleats, clasps, buckles! 
studs, Stars, spots, appliques, cutouts! 
patchwork, fringe, tasseis, and braids.' 
Also beads, embroidery, ribbons, feath- 
ers, Shells, crochet and macrame; tool- 
ing, carving. stamninp- naintino xvjth oils 
or acrylics, staining,''and felt'tip brush 
decorations. Fully described projects in- 
clude the making of a change purse, 
plump pillows, a checkbook holder, le- 
gal-size päd, belts, suede vests for 
women and men, and a complete jacket. 

R.F. 

People and Prints: A Social History of 
Printed Pictures, by A. Hyatt Mayor, 
10'/2 X 73/4, 752 black and white illustra- 
tions, no pagination, The Metropolitan 
Museum of Art, dist. by New York 
Graphic Society, $20 

This substantial volume deserves the 
title, "Hverything the Layman Wants to 
Know about Prints." The author, who 
for many years headed the Metropolitan 
Museum's Department of Prints, does 
not rhap.sodize about the beauty of indi- 
vidual prints by the great masters, but 
initiates us cooly and soberly into the 
print as a means of communication be- 
tween people and as a conveyor of reli- 
gious and political ideas and even as an 
important vector in the strictly commer- 
cial life of nations. 

To many, the term "print" conjures up 
visions of inspired works with strong ar- 
tistic ambitions: the line engravings of 
Mantegna and Dürer, the etchings of 
Rembrandt and Goya, the lithographs of 
Toulouse-Lautrec and Bonnard, the 
woodcuts of Gauguin and Maillol, as 
well as offerings by more recent print- 
makers, such as Picasso, Matisse, and 
Klee. All of these and many more are, of 
course, discussed in this volume. But its 
author calls to our attention that the pri- 
mary function of prints has always been 
to serve the needs of the masses. Monas- 
teries obtained countless "holy pic- 
tures"— woodcuts or engravings— to be 
sold to pilgrims as amulets. The makers 
of these small religious pictures also pro- 
duced playing cards, thus, in Mr. 
Mayor's words, serving "both God and 
the devil." Printed books were, of course, 
adorned with woodcuts, some of them 
hand-colored. 

But prints also served humdrum, ev- 
eryday uses, as is demonstrated by the 
patterns for weaving, embroidery, and 
iace distributed for use by skillful nee- 
dlewomen. Professional artists did not 
consider it beneath their dignity to de- 
sign all kinds of sophisticated dccorative 
motifs for the embellishment of collars, 
sleeves, and gloves. And when well-to- 
do people wanted to fiU their homes with 

American Artist 



the most up-to-date furniture, they 
turn.ed for Information to woodcuts, 
etchings, or engravings that introduced 
families in the smallest towns to the rieh 
details of elaborate beds, mirrors, chairs, 
and cabinets from the most luxurious 
homes of Paris or Rome. But prints also 
served men on a much higher level. Sci- 
entific collaboration between artist and 
anatomist began in 16th Century Italy 
when Vesahus, teacher at the University 
of Padua, dissected bodies and commis- 
sioned the painter John Stephen of Cal- 
car to illustrate his textbook De humani 
corporis fahrica^'Wh woodcuts: 'The Ve- 
salian men," writes Mayor, "flex their 
stripped biceps and strut Hke Champions 
in a Renaissance Dance of Life that pro- 
claims the will to keep going, come what 
may . . ." 

We learn much about the various 
printing techniques developed in the 
past five centuries, but this information 
can be gotten from other books as well. 
What is so particularly interesting about 
Prints and People is its material on the 
distribution of prints. Today, prints can 
be obtained in hundreds of shops. But 
there had to be a pioneer in the sales- 
manship of prints. He was a young car- 
riage designer from Germany named 
Rudolph Ackermann who, a Century and 
a half ago in London, opened a sales- 
room, the first one there to be lighted 
with gas, where patrons could leisurely 
inspect his treasures, which were in large 
portfolios. 

So the book contains much that other 
writers have relegated to social histories. 
It has a feature that will be welcomed by 
those puzzled by foreign terms often 
found on prints, usually abbreviated: a 
list of these, with translations. "Del," for 
instance, Stands for ''delineavir and 
means "drawn" (followed by the mas- 
ter's name); "inv," for ''inventitr means 
"designed." 

The illustrations are small, but always 
clear. They reach from the ancestors of 
prints-printings for decoration made by 
Mexicans three millenia ago, using 
baked clay tubes with designs in relief- 
to a lithograph, Coal Hanger, made by 
young American Jasper Johns in 1960. 
While the pages are not numbered, all il- 
lustrations are, and a reader looking for 
book illustration in Venice or for print- 
ing on cloth can consult the index, since 
the discussion of the topic is always adja- 
centto the illustrations. a.w. 

The Standard Book of Quilt Making and 
Collecting, by Marguerite Ickis, 273 pp 
9'/2 x 7, 482 illus., Dover, $3 paper 

Whether the return to home crafts is due 
to the enormous inflation in the prices of 
good-quality materials or to the increase 
in leisure time, thanks to all sorts of la- 
bor-saving gadgets, the fact is that every 
kind of stitchery is the vogue, or even the 
rage, today. Quilt making may also be a 
natural consequence of the love for old 

January 1973 



things in the house, a desire to make 
your place homey, perhaps old-fash- 
ioned, instead of being surrounded by 
mass-produced yet expensive and ulti- 
mately commonplace modern furnish- 
ings. 

All the information you need is in this 
book, which contains over a hundred tra- 
ditional and unusual quilts, including 
basket, tree of life, flowers in a pot, 
friendship, geometric, Square and cross, 
drunkard's n^ith flvino oppcp P<^nntx/i. 

vania Dutch, crazy quilt, yo-yo quilt, and 
other intriguing patterns, with or without 
well-established names. You learn how 
to plan the quilt, how many "blocks" you 
need for a bed, and how to select pat- 
terns to go well with the color and style 
of your room. 

The pieces have to be cut, sewn, appli- 
qued. One chapter is dedicated to basic 
design Clements, sources, sewing prob- 
lems, the use of the rag-bag. There's the 
need for seam allowance, the use of bor- 
ders; you have to know how to quilt and 
tuft. Chapters on collecting quilts as a 
hobby and the history of quilt-making 
round out the book. With the necessary 
skill in sewing, and a little patience, you 
can create all kinds of quilts, including 
stuffed designs, elegant satin coverlets, 
and quilts for cribs in the newest or most 
traditional styles. The chances are that 
youVe never had an idea of the immense 
variety in quilts until you peruse this 
book. And don't forget that quilting bees 
are still possible, just as in the good old 
days. R.F. 

Character Studies in Oil, by Joseph 
Dawley, as told to Gloria Dawley, 141 
pp., 8'/4 X 11 '/2, 82 b/w illus., 29 color 
plates, bibliog., index, Watson-Guptill, 
$12.50. 

How to paint penetrating character stud- 
ies of friends and strangers, men and 
women, the very young and the very old, 
makes an interesting book. It is by a for- 
mer Newark Evening News political car- 
toonist who was the creator of a nation- 
ally syndicated comic strip as well. 

Character portraiture isn't as far from 
cartooning as it may seem. A cartoonist 
has to see the most characteristic features 
of a person very quickly and render them 
boldly, with emphasis on whatever hap- 
pens to be a little out of the ordinary. In a 
character portrait the artist has to depict 
all traits with strength, but without any 
exaggeration, lest the portrait turn into a 
caricature. 

Some of Dawley 's step-by-step illus- 
trations are true portraits in the strictly 
traditional style, but many are genre pic- 
tures, such as old men playing checkers, 
telling each other stories over mugs of 
beer, testing rifles; or one man playing 
the mouth harmonica, "serenading his 
dog," while his old friend is listening 
with a smile. Children and adults are 
rendered eating or peeling an apple; a 
young woman, with a cat, serving coffee; 



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men or women enjoying a glass of wine 
or brandy. All pictures are lucidly de- 
scribed, and every step of each demon- 
stration is explained by the artist's wife. 

Detailed illustrations of old and 
young, male and female, eyes, nose, ears, 
mouth; hands in rest or in motion, are 
very helpful. All materials and methods 
are also listed and explained. The step- 
by-step demonstrations contain five 
complete portraits in monochrome and 
four in füll color, with good notes on 
how to plan each painting; how to ren- 
der the mood of each sitter; and how to 
arrange the composition. The artist goes 
beyond the limits of regulär commis- 
sioned portraits, as he is much more in- 
trigued by character than by the socialite 
flattery that usually prevails in portrait 
painting. r.f. 

Purposes of Art. by Albert E. Elsen, over 
600 illus. in black/white, 100 in color, 
488 pp., 10'/2 X 8'/2, Holt, Rinehart & 
Winston, $13 

This remarkably rieh book is written for 
those who prefer to share a philosopher's 
thoughts about a variety of manifesta- 
tions in the plastic arts rather than to get, 
with little effort of their own, the dry 
facts of art history in a systematic, no- 
nonsense fashion. For a quick survey of 
art in the past 5000 years at least a dozen 
solid one-volume histories are available. 
But Professor Elsen tries to give some- 
thing different from the usual College 
texts that inform the reader in strict 
linear chronological sequences-he 
wishes, instead, to form his reader, to 
make him ponder over the "why" of art. 
Why have there always been people ea- 
ger to use their hands to create objects 
that are beautiful as well as meaningful, 
despite the undeniable fact that these 
men and women have often been sub- 
jected to tensions that are absent from 
nearly all other areas of endeavor? 

The answer to this— or, at least, a brave 
search for an explanation— can be found 
in the 23 chapters of Elsen's book that 
deal not only with painting and sculp- 
ture, but also with religious and secular 
architecture, with manuscript illumina- 
tions, with drawings and prints, and with 
puzzling phenomena of the 1960\s such 
as Op, Minimal, and Conceptual art. 
Elsen neither praises lavishly nor con- 
demns roundly any of the more recent 
and still very enigmatic displays of con- 
temporary searching, but tries to do jus- 
tice to them, however difficult it might 
be: "Abstract art has a context with 
which we must familiarize ourselves if 
we are to view it with understanding, 
whether or not it pleases us. Abstract art, 
like religion, presupposes faith, and one 
either acquires it or one does not." 

The writer does not dictatorially im- 
pose on the readers his feelings or 
thoughts on art. He tries to win them 
over through the strength of his argu- 
ments and even more, perhaps, through 



an enthusiasm that is contagious anu in- 
toxicating. In the beginning, there are 
fervent Statements like these: "Art takes 
its place along with science, for example, 
in the civilizing of humanity. . . . No less 
than sex, art expresses the timeless drive 
and Pygmalion dream of man to repro- 
duce himself, to guarantee his presence 
in nature and to resist oblivion*." More 
than 400 pages later, the elan has not 
abated: "Art remains like an act of love, 
a potent gesture of life, a fist clinched 
against death." 

This is not mere rhetoric. By means of 
well-chosen samples of art gathered 
from the treasures of Europe, North 
America, India, China, Western Africa, 
and pre-Columbian America, Elsen con- 
vinces us of what has been called "the 
necessity of art" and of art's "life-en- 
hancing" quality. He deals at length with 
each of the masterworks he has selected 
for illustration, and he devotes special 
chapters to each of the three giants who 
influenced mankind more profbundly 
than any of their colleagues: Michel- 
angelo, Rembrandt, and Picasso. Unlike 
so many art historians who omit archi- 
tecture irom their considerations. believ- 
ing that it Stands outside the domain of 
fine art, Elsen thinks that it cannot be 
treated as something separate from 
painting or sculpture. and provides us 
with brilliant paragraphs on a great 
many buildings, from the funerary 
templeof Egypt's King Ramses III to the 
Boston City Hall, completed only three 
years ago. 

The illustrations are generally small, 
but in all cases quite clear. There is an 
ample bibliography for each of the chap- 
ters. The glossary consists of two parts. 
The first is an essay, dealing carefully 
with certain technical terms— such as 
line, plane, color, Saturation, texture— in 
a continuous text; the second gives us 
definitions of no more than 50 or 60 
words of often used terms, not exclu- 
sively art-historical, from "aesthetic" to 
Zeus. 

A book to be enjoyed by a patient and 
dedicated reader. a.w. 

Scrimshaw, by Carson I. A. Ritchie, 48 
pp., 7'/2 X 7'/2, 43 diagrams and photo- 
graphs, Sterling, $2.95 

This "Little Craft Book," distributed in 
Britain, Australia, and Canada, as well 
as in the U.S., introduces the reader to a 
craft practiced since prehistoric times: 
the carving of bones, tusks, big teeth of 
animals, or certain seashells, and decora- 
ting them with neatly engraved pictures 
and designs. The Eskimos have scrim- 
shawed for centuries, utilizing whatever 
little material they could find in their 
desolate environment, carving and deco- 
rating it in a remarkably artistic fashion. 
But scrimshaw reached its peak during 
the whaling days of the I8th-I9th cen- 
turies, when men spent months at a time 
on a ship. Polishing, carving, and en- 



66 



American Artist 



I 



graving bone or ivory was a favorite pas- 
time of many a sailor. 

Whalebone, the dolphin's jaw, and 
walrus bone are equally useful; so are 
boar's tusks and hippo teeth and, natu- 
rally, elephant's ivory. Larger pieces 
usually require more work, but are easier 
to hold and to handle than the small 
ones. Today Plexiglas, a hard plastic 
available in opaque as well as trans- 
parent form, can be carved to the right 
shape and engraved just like any whale- 
bone. 

Scrimshaw can be executed all-around 
a whole tusk, or on tlat pieces— either 
naturally flat bones, or by slicing a round 
bone. Such flat scrimshaw is usually 
more picturesque. Marine objects and 
scenes— sailing ships, dolphins, seals, 
seabirds, in a realistic or stylized form— 
are the most common decorations, but 
nobody forbids you to engrave a mytho- 
logical theme, a landscape, or a purely 
decorative design. 

You find satisfactory information on 
all phases of scrimshaw in this small 
book. R.F. 

Working with Plastics, by George Gas- 
zner, 62 pp., 9'/2 x 7, 73 diagrams, 16 pho- 
tographs, Drake. $4.95 

Although printed in Australia, and list- 
ing manufacturers and suppliers of ma- 
terials on that continent down-under, 
this compact book goes to all important 
points in working with plastics in a very 
direct manner, so that it could serve as an 
ideal introduction to a vast field in 
present-day art. Thermoplastics (soft- 
ened with heat), and thermosetting plas- 
tics (hardened with heat), important 
properties of plastics, solvents, welding, 
adhesives, optical qualities, are all iden- 
tified. Tools for every type of work con- 
nected with plastics are described and 
shown with perfect clarity. There are 
chapters on hand tools, drilling. cement- 
ing, shaping by heat. convex and con- 
cave molds, curvatures, trimming, the 
use of an electric Jigsaw; polishing, 
scraping, bending, injection molding, 
blow molding— and it all sounds quite 
simple, but it has to be learned. 

Anyone can try to paint; the result 
may not be very good, but it will still be a 
painting, no matter how naive. This is 
not the case with plastics. You have to 
have sufficient knowledge before you 
begin to work, and Gaszner's book offers 
you the right kind of knowledge, and 
enoughofit. r.f. 

The Age of Rcmbrandt and Vermeer. by 

J. M. Nash. 271 pp., 178 ill. (48 in color), 
Holt. Rinehart and Winston. $25. 

This book might carry the title "The 
Golden Agc of Dutch Painting," but that 
has been used before repeatedly. hence 
we get a title that honors two of Hol- 
land's great Old Masters, but not the 
third and equally important Frans Hals. 
Altogether, more than 70 painters (in- 



cluding Hals, of course) are discussed 
here; all are represented with at least one 
work. though Rembrandt is given 30 il- 
lustrations, Vermeer ten (that is. one- 
fourth of his total surviving work). and 
Hals also ten. Had these three giants 
never existed. Holland could still be 
proud of the achievements of a land- 
scapist like Jacob van Ruisdael. a chron- 
icler of everyday life like Jan Steen. a 
portrayerof scenes of elegant society like 
Gerard Ter Borch. and several other re- 
markable artists. But it was the first three 
17th-century immortals who made little 
Holland the equal of Spain. and perhaps 
even Italy. in artistic merit. 

Mr. Nash provides all the information 
an art lover may require. Some of the 
artists he presents are known largely to 
specialists. such as the earliest. Abraham 
Bloemaert (1564-1651). a Mannerist, 
more important as the teacher of Cuyp. 
Honthorst. Ter Brugghen. Weenix. and 
others. than for his own elaborate histor- 
ical and genre pictures; or the last. 
Adriaen van der Werff (1659-1722). 
whose highly tinished. elegant pictures 
were much in demand despite their de- 
rivative and superficial nature. ("He 
achieved greater fame and wealth than 
almost any of the great Dutch painters." 
we are told.) 

The author cannot. of course. explain 
why painting suddenly began to thrive in 
the early years of the 17th centurv every- 
where in the provinces that had over- 
thrown the Spanish tyranny, with vir- 
tually no foreshadowing of this intense 
flowering of talent and even genius. nor 
is there any explanation of why. after 
hve or six decades of glory. Dutch paint- 
ing returned to the Status of amiable 
mediocrity. (After Hobbema. no impor- 
tant artist emerges from the Netherlandjj 
until Vincent van Gogh.) To say that the 
wealth and freedom encouraged the 
mass production of good and often ex- 
cellent art is not sufficient: wealth and 
freedom remained with the Dutch 
throughout its artistically barren 18th 
Century. 

One of the merits of the book is its em- 
phasis on some very fine artists who are 
offen overlooked. Pieter Janszoon 
Saenredam is not popularly known. yet 
this painter. who spccialized in render- 
ing with an austere poetry and charm the 
white-washed interiors oi' Dutch 
churches. fully deserves the chapter 
given him. And Hercules Segher irulv 
was "the most inventive and influential 
landscape painter of Holland" and was 
admired by Rembrandt: it is a pity that 
so few of his dramatic and hauntingly 
melancholy works survive. Then Carel 
Fabritius. who was, perhaps. the most 
giftedof Rembrandl's many students: he 
might have become the fourth oi Hol- 
land's great masters. had he lived to de- 
velop his original style. (He was killed at 
the age of 32 by an explosion in a powder 
magazine in Delft.) 



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writings about the Dutch School (includ- 
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The True Greatness of Ben Shahn 



ALFRED WERNER 



Europe's interest in the Visual arts of the 
United States did not arise betöre the mid- 
1950's, that is, until the ravages of World War 
II had been sufficiently repaired so that the 
Old World's energies could be devoted more 
fully to the exploration and enjoyment of the 
arts. This phenomenon explains why for Eng- 
land, for instance, American art begins with 
Action Painting — the term coined by the 
American critic, Harold Rosenberg, to cover 
non-geometric abstract art, the most celebra- 
ted exponent being Jackson Pollock. 

Overlooked in this process was a loose group- 
ing of American painters usually referred to 
as "Social Realists." They flourished in the 
United States in the grim 1930's and derived 
their Inspiration largely from their fervent 
Opposition to such ills as economic injustice, 
anti-Socialism, Jim Crowism and the various 
brands of Fascism (which threatened to spread 
to the Western hemisphere) In Great Britain 
during this period, and the ensuing war and 
post-war years, there was neither the money 
nor the leisure to support the arts, or to 
Import paintings from abroad (British artists 
were in straitened circumstances, and so were 
their colleagues, such as Oskar Kokoschka or 
Ludwig Meidner, who had fled to England from 
the Nazi-occupied continent). 

Yet in the 1930's some excellent paintings 
with social or political comment were done on 
the far side of the Atlantic, William Gropper 
crystallized his anger in derisive portraits of 
American Senators and judges, and in The Feast 
0/ Pure Reason, young Jack Levine pointed 
out how law-enforcement officers collaborated 
with corrupt politicians. 

These two "Social Realists" were Jews, as 
was Ben Shahn (1898-1969), whose series of 
tempera or gouache paintings on the Sacco- 
Vanzetti theme demonstrated that the two mar- 
tyred anarchists had not been forgotten. Shahn's 
importance as a sincere social critic and gifted 
Illustrator (the word is used here in its posi- 
tive rather than pejorative sense) has survived 
the avalanche of non-representational art (this 
flood once impelled Shahn to ask," Is there 
nothing to weep about in this world any more? 
Is all our pity and anger to be reduced to a 
few tastefuUy arranged straight lines or petu- 
lant squirts?"). That his work is still — or 
again — appreciated is proven by the spate of 



books about him that have appeared in the 
ihree years siiice Ins uciniSc. inc rriGst recent 
is the large volume by his widow, Bernarda, 
herseif a fine artist. Issued by the firm of 
Harry N. Abrams, New York, it is distributed 
in Great Britain by New English Library, and 
will introduce Shahn to a receptive audience. 

Shahn's cycle of early paintings, the afore- 
mentioned Sacco-Vanzetti series, is, of course 
internationally known. Less widely known, out- 
side the U.S.A., is the work of his final decades. 
It is often rather decorative in style, and it 
concerns itself frequently with moral lessons 
drawn from the treasury of Jewish ethical writ- 
ings rather than from current events. An artist 
changes his style quite naturally, since his per- 
sonality undergoes transformations, and a man 
in his sixties looks at the world around him 
with more perspective, more detachment than 
he did in his thirties. 

Shahn's political conv'ctions remained the 
same, even though he stopped being the ardent 
polemicist he was in ihe years of the Great 
Depression. If I were lestricted to one sen- 
tence to distinguish his aesthetics from that 
of the majority of his colleagues in the 1950's 
and 1960's, I would say that his was "Art pour 
l'homme", as contrasted to "Art pour L'art," 
the latter concept being one that has added 
much to the alienation of the artist from society, 
and, by the same token, to the Separation of 
the average man with interest in the Visual 
arts from contemporary works that are too 
"sophisticated" for his v^rasp. 

Shahn was a populär ortist in the best sense 
of the adjective. Perhaps his ability to address 
himself to Everyman can be traced to his early 
background. He was born in Kovno, Lithuania, 
and brought to the United States when he was 
eight. The eider Shahn, whose first name was 
Hessel, was a carpenter who worked long hours 
to support his family. Benjamin spent his 
youth in a succession of cold-water flats in 
Brooklyn, among families similar to his own 
— anxious to provide their children with the 
education needed for success in an Open Society, 
ready to recognize and reward talent. 

It is significant that Princeton University, 
upon honouring the ar.'^^ist, some years ago, 
with a "Doctor of Fine Arts" degree, made the 
citation read as follows: 

11 



t 



"In defiance of the idea that the artist in- 
habits an isolated, absorbing world of bis 
own, he (Shahn) is known equally for bis 
mastery of many artistic tecbniques and bis 
sympathy for mankind, exhibiting in bis work 
a grave laughter at tbe follies of our race 

^...^ -^ ^v,...^.w.,w wv^«««pM. ..j 1 vyii ivyi ILO OCtll c^l 1 111^, 

Shahn and bis associates — the aforemen- 
tioned group called 'Social Reabsts" — began 
with praiseworthy premises: they intended to 
close the gap between artist and society, and 
to make art as powerful a weapon in the Ser- 
vice of ideals, as it had been in the Middle 
Ages, when it fostered and spread rebgion 
among the iUiterate masses. But in its didac- 
tic purposes art can go only so far, witbout 
sacrificing its aestbetic vabdity. "Art for Party's 
Sake" is as dangerous a concept as its very 
opposite, 'Art for Art's Sake." Cboosing an 
example from foreign ratber than American art, 
we may point at so gifted an individual as 
Diego Rivera — wbom Shahn served as an 
assistant when the Mexican worked in New 
York City on bis controversial Rockefeller Cen- 
tre mural — to demonstrate how perilous it is 
for art to become degraded to the position of 
handmaiden of politics. 

Whatever bis political positions may bave 
been, from the Hoover era to that of Nixon, 
Shahn never relinquished bis aestbetic Stand- 
ards to please, or placate, people with un- 
developed taste. Above, I have called him a 






B-i-^fC^^ 




^l 1 



•■*' 7^.1" 



rnU 



l:lDV/r> i '. 






12 



populär artist. Yet Shahn bas wisely refrained 
from seeking mass appeal. at the cost of aer,- 
thetic merit, and hence did not suffer the 
aestbetic decline that destroyed Rivera, David 
Alfaro Siqueiros and others down to the artists 
currently collaborating with the neo-Stalinists 
in the Cuiiiiiiuriisi World. Had ne wanted to 
stir up more hatred in the partisans of Sacco 
and Vanzetti, Shahn would not bave exercised 
any subtle restraint, as he did. He neitber 
glorified the victims as splendid supermen, nor 
did he portray the Boston establisbment ' that 
convicted them, as sheer brutes. Radicals there- 
fore complained that the artist had "failed to 
recognize any of the omotional or idealistic 
significances" of the case, but Shabn's bio- 
grapher, James Thrall Soby, understood that the 
indictment made by tbis series was "the more 
deadly for avoiding extravagant caricature and 
allegorical disguise," and that its impact came 
"from its laconic dignity." 

I bave dwelt on this work, even thougb it 
is the creation of a relatively young man, and 
even thougb the oeuvre produced thereafter is 
so extensive that the very thougbt of cata- 
logueing it is overwhelming. But in writing on 
an artist like the late Shahn, it is more im- 
portant to seek and demonstrate the general 
trend of bis special creativeness than to try 
to describe and ennumerate, within a few pages, 
the many facets that constitute the surface of 
bis total work. 

Early he realized that there were two kinds 
of tbings he could paint best — the tbings he 
was very strongly for, and the tbings he was 
very strongly against. He discovered bis pro- 
per subject matter to be urban tbemes — the 
handball courts and fish markets, the gangs 
going to rumbles, the oleak streets of slum 
neighbourboods with their anaemic inhabitants, 
and, of course, the sinister machinations of 
power-drunk evil men. 

But he refused to become a mere Propa- 
gandist. A deft stylization lifts even bis most 
"populär" works — such as the posters he 
designed for the U.S. Office of War Inform- 
ation, and subsequently for the bead-organiza- 
tion of the labour unions — high above the 
crude Cartoons of 'eft or right. Hence, bis 
work, subtle in line and colour, and complex 
in Vision, bas survived all the thousands of 
strictly political works of bis period, which 
have become terribly dated, aesthetically speak- 
ing, and do little in the 'seventies, to shed 
light on the events that prompted them. 

Transcending the circumscribed limits of 
"Social Realism," Shahn gradually shifted more 
and more to poetic abstraction, that is to say, 



''«•* #2. '^ 



*^NJSi*f5*. 



concern for the proper expression became more 
s vital than the choice of proper content. Reality, 
as the Camera might reoroduce it, began to 
count less and less, as Shahn recognized, more 
and more, that symbolism was the artist's only 
legitimate language, one of signs conveying 
messages of eternal validity. Hpnrp^ Hp took 
all possible liberties with the subject matter. 
To emphasize deeper significance he often limi- 
ted his design to the barest essentials, to a 
boldly sweeping line that only hints and points, 
and that, nonetheless, reveals all that ought to 
be Seen. Yet his art remained representational! 
Shahn was unique among Americans also 
insofar as his art reflected an almost cease- 
less preoccupation with Judaism, with the Pro- 
blems of Jewish identity. Here I might men- 
tion his illustrations for a Haggadah, for a 
de luxe edition of Ecclesiastes, and for The 
Alphabet of Creation (a legend taken from the 
medieval book of Zohar). He designed Win- 
dows for a temple in Buffalo, and also made 
decor for synagogues in Dallas, New Ilaven, 
and Nashville. 

At the same time, he had nothing in com- 
mon with those of his colleagues in the U.S.A., 
who are exploiting the current boom in "Jewish 
consciousness," by manufacturing "Jewish art" 
through crowding their designs with stereo- 
typed Symbols. When I once asked him whe- 
ther, in his opinion, there existed "Jewish art," 
he asserted that there was no such thing: 

"There are Jewish artists, and there are even 
Jewish themes, but there is no Jewish art. 
If you would like to have Jewish art, Israel 
would have to be ^solated from the rest of 
the World for years." 

Shahn has been dead now for three years. 
The question must be asked: How much of his 
work will survive? Time is a merciless elimin- 
ator. Of the thousands of artists who, with 
great hopes and expectations, had emerged with 
Shahn around 1930, barely a hundred have made 
any lasting impression here, and it can be 
assumed that by the year 2000 only a fraction 
of these will be alive in the memories of 
people, except for historians and other special- 
ists. As for Ben Shahn, not all of his works 
are successful, aesthetically speaking. But 
many are. They are also a sincere Statement of 
iiis feelings, those of a man who candidly ad- 
mitted that he was, first ol all, interested m 
life, and in art only insofar as it enabled him 
to express what he feit about life. 



Alfred Werner is the art editor of the Encyclonaedia 
Judaica. He lives in the U.S.A. and is the author 
of many books. 




Two further examples of Shahn's work : 

above: The Passion of Sacco and Vanzctti, 1931- 

1932, tempera on canvas. An illustration from "The 

Definition of Art" by Harold Rosenberg. (Secker 

and Warburg, London, 1972. £4.00). 

opfosite: Ecclesiastes: Chapter U, Verse 9. Seri- 
graph 1966. (Photo: Courtesy Alfred Werner). 



CORRECTION : In our November issue, in the 
article by Rabbi D. Rayner "Love is no Sub- 
stitute", the third and fourth sentences p.l3 
col. 2 should have read: "To do any of these 
things is to be unjust, for it is to treat others 
as less deserving than yourself, when in fact 
they are equally deserving. But the Golden 
Rule also has positive implications. It means 
to go out of your way to help those who, for 
one reason or another, are less fortunately 
placed than, as human beings, they deserve to 
be." 



13 



1> 



:.-^Äl 





NF WS 



Published 
by 

Leo Baeck 
Institute 
New York 



NO loiv(;er alone 

hy Max Gruenewald 

Whcri thc Leo Baeck Institute came 
into being, it stood Virtual ly alone. To 
many Jcws, including Jews trom Ger- 
many, the Nazi years had become a 
nierc episodc, thc 150 years of Jewish 
history on German soll a preludc to an 
episode. Nor did we receive a great 
nieasure of encouragement from thc 
Community at Jarge. It is truc that the 
Conference on Material Glaims against 
Ciermany helped in the founding of the 
Institute. Although very warm relations 
to individual scholars and writers devel- 
oped, both in this country and abroad, 
therc was no widespread recognition of 
a new force having entered into the post- 
war history of our people. 

This has changed, radically changed. 
In Order to apprcciatc and cvaluate the 
change one has to State in all fairness 
that as a rulc few institutions of learning 
in this country included modern history 
of Hurope. Jewish modern history as an 
indcpendent subject of teaching and rc- 
search hardly existed. I know personal ly 
at least one venerable Jewish housc of 
learning where therc was no chair for 
modern Jewish history. 

Again, all this has changed. It is not 
presumptuous to say that thc Leo Baeck 
Institute with its publications, with its 
scholariy resources has helped consider- 
abiy to bring about that change. Now, 
our library, archives and exhibits are 
furthered by cognate institutions of 
learning. and these contacts are not of 
a passing nature. They are livcly and 
enduring. They exist with Jewish and 
non-Jewish institutes alike. 

Wc communicatc with scholars and 
departments of many universitics hcrc 
and overseas. We cnjoy the Cooperation 
of thc Library of Congress and of his- 
torical societies. To name all of them, 
to enumerate the fields of communica- 
tion and Joint cndeavor would require 
niore space than is at my disposal. One 
example may sulTice: Although we pos- 



sess one of the largest collection of 
Jewish pcriodicals in German dating 
from the Emancipation, therc are some 
which are incomplete and others which 
are in danger of deterioration. In order to 
nieet this particular need microfilming 
on a large scalc is necessary. It is in 
this field wherc we hope to enjoy also 
in the future the generous assistance on 
the part of the National Endowment for 
the Humanities in Washington and of the 
Associated Jewish Charities and Weifare 
Fund in Baltimore. 



Vol. XIII /Fdll 1972 

Therc is hardly a dissertalion written 
on the period with which we deal — 
and thc number of books and disserta- 
tions is legion — which does not origi- 
nate in or is not helped along by the 
Leo Baeck Institute. 

All this means: We are no longer 
alone. The Leo Baeck Institute is today 
a prominent seat of exchange in the cul- 
tural life of young and old who have 
come to regard the recent past of 
European Jewry as a key to the undcr- 
standin^ of our own time. 



THE PAINTER LESSER URY (1861-1931) 



hy Alfred Werner 



A remarkably sensitive and creative 
Personality has been long obscured by 
history from the attention he 
deserves: the painter and print- 
maker Lesser Ury (1861-1931). 
He was dead less than two years 
when the Nazi blight spread 
over his native land and many 
of his works were destroyed or 
disappearcd in the Hitlerites' at- 
tempt to eradicatc all things 
that were Jewish or were not 
to their liking. Despite efforts in 
post-war Germany to make 
amends, a scholariy monograph 
or a valaloi>ue raisonnc of sur- 
viving works is still overdue. 

The Leo Baeck Institute, in 
assembiing a selection oi Ury 's 
works in American collections, 
as well as some owned by a 
German connoisseur, hopes to 



focus attention on him so that a larger 
exhibition may one day be staged here 






Lessrr Vry 
Srif-porirnit 1R9H 

From thr Art (.ttUevtioti of 
thr Lvo lidvrk' Insliliite, V. > . 



Pa^c 2 



LB I NEWS 



Visit the besser Ury Exhibition 

The New York LBl will, in Cooperation witli the American Bank & Trust 
Company, arran^e an exhibition of paintin^s and ürawin^s of Lesser Ury at the 
Bank's Art Gallery at 562 Fijth Avenue, corner 46th Street, New York City. 
The Exhibition will be open froni Februar y 1 -2H, 1973 durin^ the Bank's o/Jice 
hours Monday throuj^h Friday jroni 8:30 A.M. to 5:30 P.M. 

We are i^rateful to the owners of Lesser Ury's art work who ^racionsly loaned 
their possessions to us jor this Exhibition. We likewise express our thanks to 
Dr. Alfred Werner and Mr. Kurt W. Ury who helped iis with their ad vice and 
counsel. 



to acqiiaint the American public more 
liilly with the oeuvre of this pionecr ot 
modern art. 

Indeed, Ury was an untortunate 
geniiis. His importance was not recog- 
nized in his nativc Ciermany until he 
had reached sixty and had only one 
more decade to live. In the Nazi period 
his creations were, of course, taboo, be- 
cause their maker had been Jewish; but 
even if he had been an "Aryan," they 
woiild ha VC been condemned, becaiise in- 
stead of adhering to the finicky Natiiral- 
ism that was favored under the Third 
Reich, they displayed proto-Expressionist 
qualities and are characterized by a subt- 
lety of imagination diametrically opposcd 
to the crude matter-of-factness of state- 
approved "art." In the terrible years 
between 1933 and 1945, a great deal of 
what Ury had drawn, ctched or painted 
was destroyed, or disappeared from sight. 
After the defeat of Nazism, however, a 
Urv revival arose in both the Fcderal 
Republic of Ciermany and the Cierman 
Democratic Republic. To celebrate the 
centennial of the artist's birth, West Ber- 
iin's National-Cialerie dedicated a special 
room to his work. 

To this day, Ury has remained virtu- 
ally unknown outside his native land. He 
is not represented in any of the major 
public collections in the Western hemi- 
sphere, and he is often completely ovcr- 
looked in Standard English language 
works of art history. Yet he was an emi- 
nent artist, whose acomplishments were 
great, and would have been even greater, 
had not a combination of unfortunate 
circumstances and crippling character 
traits hampered the füll growth and 
deveiopment of his unusual skill, of his 
remarkable sensitivity. 

Ury was born at Birnbaum, a small 
town east of Berlin in the province of 
Posen, and, when still a boy, was brought 
to the Imperial capital by his widowed 
mother. Eittle is known about his flrst 
eighteen years. He went to Duesseldorf 
to study painting, and then spent close to 
a decade traveling from place to place, 
with lengthy stops at Brüssels, Paris, 
Berlin and Munich, in cach city furiously 
cngaged in the task of learning, and, 
with the technique so acquired, putting 
down on canvas what he had seen and, 



especially feit. His wanderjahre ended 
when he took up residence in Berlin in 
1887, to stay there until his death, forty- 
odd years later. Among those who were 
quick to rccognize his talcnt were Adolf 
von Menzel and Max Eiebermann, four- 
teen years Ury's senior (regrettably, for 
reasons not entircly known, the friend- 
ship between Eiebermann and Ury was 
abruptly replaced by a senseless hostility). 

Ury's life was "uneventfuT", imless 
one considcrs the creation of cach of the 
niany pictures that came out of his large 
studio an event of greater significance 
than the dramatic behavior of such 
fellow-Bohcmians as Van Gogh, Tou- 
louse-Eautrec and Modigliani, all of 
whoni went to early graves. Ury's nian- 
ners antagonized those who could have 
beconie close friends: luckily, his exist- 
ence was blessed by a woman who self- 
iessly tried to smoothen life for her 
most difficult, most restless, most irasci- 
ble friend. He was often hungry, often 
sick. When success finally came, he was 
unablc to enjoy it, and he continucd to 
live likc a paupcr even when his pictures 
were in great dcmand and brought high 
prices, 

Ury's work serves as a link between 
Impressionism and the ensuing Ex- 
pressionist school oi painting. His early 
work was in the realistic vcin yet his 
application o\' bright color had a variety, 
a richness, an "outlandish" quality that 
niade it objectionable to the more con- 
servative Cierman collcctors. He lovcd to 
paint peasants, landscapes, cityscapes, 
Howers. Among his relatively few early 
admirers was the critic Oskar Bie, who 
called his landscapes Gebete einer far- 
hentrunkenen Seele, prayers of a color- 
intoxicated soul, and added, *To be sur- 
rounded by these things is to be sur- 
rounded by peace and beauty." 

On the basis of what he created in 
his middle and old age, he has often 
been called an Impressionist, yet, in a 
technical sense, he had little in common 
with Monet and other plein-air painters 
save for the same panthcistic worship of 
nature. Unlike the French masters. he 
did not confine hiniself to the hues found 
in the spectrum of sunlight, but used 
nuich black and white and their inter- 
niediates. His temperament did not allow 



him to confine himself to minute brush- 
strokes; he criss-crossed the canvas with 
broad bold strokes that anticipated the 
vigor and fervor of the members of the 
Bruecke. 

Ury was extremely versatile. Though 
we now have only a fraction of his total 
Output, his surviving oils, aquarelles, 
gouaches, eichings, lithographs and draw- 
ings are sufficient to prove his artistry 
and virtuosity. His gliFiipses of the 
charms of Italy, of the Berlin drune- 
wald forest, of North Cierman lakes and 
birch trees, and of sites in Eondon 
covered with mist and fog reveal an un- 
excelled poetry. But he became known 
for his night scenes, and at one time 
his vistas of nocturnal Berlin were in 
dcmand for the living-room of every cul- 
tured Jewish bourgeois in Berlin. 

Indeed, he was celebrated as the 
painter of rain-swept slippery pavement, 
under the tückering lamps, often with a 
loneiy figure braving the weather. Some 
of these pictures were painted from the 
window of his combined home and 
atelier on Nollendorf platz. They are the 
love songs of a solitary soul, addressed 
to a city he would never leave except 
for Short excursions. Eike Eiebermann, 
he was a combination of a proud Ber- 
liner and a proud Jew. But while Eie- 
bermann rarely dealt with Jewish themes, 
they are frequent in the oeuvre of Ury, 
an ardent reader of the Bible which, in 
his words, was "the most beautiful book 
ever created." 

Now given his füll due in Germany, 
Ury is likely to gain an international 
reputation. His work expresses the long 
ränge of human emotion from deep 
melancholy to gay exuberance. The best 
among his pictures will become immortal 
as testimonies of a rare, sensitive and 
easily hurt man, and as a panorama of 
a time and a city that are no more. 



HEINK EXHIBIT AT 
LEO BAECK INSTITUTE 

A score o\ autographs of Hein- 
rich Heine — letters and manu- 
scripts — are on exhibit in the 
showcases of the Eeo Baeck Insti- 
tute, partially from the Instilute's 
own holdings and partially on loan 
from the collection of Mr. Fred 
W. Eessing, Chairman oi the Board 
of the EBF Rare first and collec- 
tor's editions of Heine's work 
and paintings of the period, are 
likewise on display. The exhibition 
can be viewed during the normal 
working hours o'i the Library. 
Mondavs through Fridays from 
l():()() A.M. to 4:30 P.M. 



li'.t-,**!»1^K*-*- 



Offprint from 

YEAR BOOK XIX 
OF THE LEO BAECK INSTITUTE 

London 1974 
Secker & Warburg 






The Strange Tale of Lesser Ury 

BY ALFRED WERNER 

In Memoriam Judith Werner 

In Central Europe, and to some extent in Israel, Lesser Ury (1861-1931) is 
known not only as an eccentric and misanthropic Bohemian and pitiable lone 
wolf, but also as one of the most gifted Interpreters, among modern artists, of 
man's loneliness in the big city. Because none of his major works are in public 
collections outside the two Germanies and Israel, and because there are few 
references to him in scholarly books apart from those written in German or 
Hebrew, he is litde known elsewhere. Yet of the many artists of Jewish origin 
who emerged in German-speaking communities in the period between 1833 - 
when Oppenheim's^ Homecoming of a Jewish Volunteer from the Wars of Liberation 
caused a mild stir - and the moment, a Century later, when the German-Jewish 
symbiosis came to an abrupt end, he was probably the most important, and cer- 
tainly the most interesting, second only to Liebermann. 

The current Ury "renaissance" in the Federal RepubHc of Germany - where 
his works are sought after by dealers, and where a catalogue raisonni of his works is 
still overdue - is more than symptomatic of the art market's search for neglected 
or unrecognised native artists of merit, more than a gesture of restitution towards 
a painter and printmaker whose works were destroyed in the Nazi era. It is 
based rather on a growing awareness that Ury played a significant part in the 
development of what, for lack of a more appropriate term, might be called 
"Northern Impressionism", and that, through his vigorous and sensuous use of 
colour, he also served as a link between Impressionism and the subsequent 
Expressionist school of painting. A modest Ury revival started in West Germany 
on the hundredth anniversary of the artist's birth, when West Berlin's National- 
Galerie dedicated a special room to works of his, either owned by the gallery or 
on loan from private collectors. At that time a great many articles about him - 
some written by elderly contributors who had known or at least met this 
Strange and difficult man - appeared in German periodicals. 

Inevitably, these pieces called attention to his touching life-story, often alas 
concentrating on the peintre maudit aspect rather than on his achievements as an 
artist. The peculiarities of this "step-child of fate" and "eternal outsider" who, 
for most of his lifc and certainly during his last years, was tortured by fear and 
mistrust, frequcntly obscure for us the fact that his pictures - some dnged with 
melancholy, others displaying joy and exuberance - rank among the most 
spontaneous poetic expressions of their time. If the Ury legend, with its unavoid- 
able melodramatic exaggerations, has impeded his appreciation as an artist, 
confusion as to his Status has also been created by the large number of mediocre, 
albeit genuine works in his Output. 

Moreover, some of Ury's shortcomings as an individual are explained and can 
»Moritz Daniel Oppenheim (1799-1882) who painted many scenes from Jewish family life. 



1, 



'98 Alfred Werner 

be understood in the light of the biographical data provided by Adolph Donath, 
Max Osborn, Karl Schwarz and others who knew him fairly well However 
_—.-„.. ...„.,, .,,.j.w.ian. octaus tnat are still missing, especially re^ardin? his 
first e.ghteen years, while some of the Statements appearing in the slender books 
about h,m .ssued m the 1920s appear to be contradictory. It is obvious that Ury 
did not care to talk about his family, his boyhood, his adolescence. When Wer 

1 09«''^ V '"J" '^"""'"""''''"^ ^'^ apparently did not bother to fill it in, since the 

1928 edmon devotes only a couple of lines to him, in which his name is misspelt 

Un , the year of his birth given as 1862 instead of 1861, and his parents are not 

ZZTa 7t' L^^ ''f " '"'"°'" *'^ '^"'^y '^ "'^ "«'««^^ °f'he eitles where he 
studied, and his address, Nollendorfplatz 1 , Berlin W 30 

laVh n^l'^To,',' ?:r"^^""' °n 7'h November 1861, and died in Berlin on 
8th Oetober 1931. The town of Birnbaum, with only a few thousand inhabi- 

Pn,«- ^^\T *tP'"°^i"'^'= °f P°^'=" that had been wrested from Poland by 
Prussia in the eighteenth Century.^ But for Lesser (a populär form of the Heb- 
rew name El.ezer) Birnbaum never meant what Vitebsk was to mean to Chagall. 
Ihe sma 1 Jewish minority, speaking German rather than Yiddish or Polish, did 

ckt Ihn T T l^ '■''' "^' "J""'^*^ "^^" ^"^^S^" experienced in his nitive 
City, though it can be assumed that the traditional ritual laws were observed by 
these Landjuden and that Ury's pictures based on Jewish and biblical motifs ean 

naremnlh" '""r !° l ""'""" "^"'^ intensely Jewish in eharaeter than was the 
parental home of Liebermann. 

About his parents we know little beyond the fact that they were poor. When 
Lesser was twelve his father died, whereupon the widow moved to Berlin with 
her two young sons. The mother is Said to have eked out a living as a seamstress. 
ihe and Lesser s appointed guardian found a place in commerce for the boy. 
Whether he worked for a tailor, a clothing merchant or - this is another Version 
ot the Story - a department störe, Lesser, who had started early to draw, did not 
hke his oceupation. He left his Job and seems to have given part of the money he 
had earned to his mother, using the balance for his journey to Düsseldorf (with a 
Rembra'ndts^'''' '" ""^ ^^ G.mäW<.^«/,rr> which has more than a dozen 

He arrived in the Rhineland city in 1878 to study at the famous Academy of 
Pain ng founded in 1 767. (For a time it was headed by a Jewish convert to 
Chrstianuy, Eduard Bendemann.) Ury was cordially weleomed and generously 

eatedbyhis first teacher, Hermann Wislicenus, director of the Academy, and 
thereafterby Jan Frans Portaels in Brüssels, Leon-Frederic Bonnat and Jules- 
Fr eHVh'H u • ^t?' ^"'°" ^°" ^'""'^' '" ^'='-""' and Johann Caspar 
Friednch Herterich in Munich, all celebrated teachers in their time, and famous 
tor their portraits, historical and genre-paintings. These mcn were untainted with 
antisemitism (which was on the increase in Europe after 1870) and sufficiently 
open-mmded to acccpt a pupil whose temperament and inclinations did not 
seem to be of the stuff true academicians are made of However, when von 
Werner rebuked the young man for his emphasis on strong colour, Ury left 
'At the time of Ury's bir.h, of Birnbaum's 3,000 inhabitants, 700 were Jcws. The Jewish Com- 
munity dwindled, so that by 1 900 it comprised only about 1 30 souls. 



Lesser Ury 199 

Berlin for Munich, though the teacher, the official painter of the Hohenzollerns, 
had provided his pupii with a big atelier in which to iinish a iarge-scaie bibiicai 
composition. 

Ury's Wanderjahre came to a halt when he took up residence in Berlin in 1887, 
to stay there until his death, some forty years later. He even had introductions to 
two outstanding masters there. One of them was the elderly Adolph von Menzel, 
who praised the newcomer's efforts, but also advised him to work harder, and to 
rely less on accidental effects ; there was a gap of nearly half a Century between 
the meticulous, fussy old master and the vivacious, impatient and tempestuous 
proto-impressionist. The other master was Max Liebermann, only fourteen years 
older, but already well established and set in his manner of a realist ä la Jozef 
Israels, with a predominantly dark and sombre palette. 

These two men, Liebermann and Ury, apart from their great talent and their 
Jewish origin, had surprisingly little in common. It is impossible to say which of 
them Started the undignified feud in which they were to be embroiled for the 
better part of their lives, or to which of the two should go the bigger share of the 
blame. For the sake of fairness, however, it must be recalled that Liebermann 
recommended his impecunious colleague to a collector (who gave Ury the sum 
of two hundred marks for one of his works but refused to take the picture, Ury's 
manner being too "radical" for him). But the differences between Liebermann 
and the younger man were too great to allow any cordial relationship to develop. 
Liebermann was well-to-do and married to the daughter of a rieh jeweller. 
Remarkable though he was as an artist, he was also a clever, perhaps too 
clever, businessman who charged high prices for the portraits he painted. 
He himself cheerfuUy confessed that in his habits he was "the most perfect 
bourgeois", and that there was little that was unusual or out of the ordinary 
about him. 

The cool, detached, ironical, reserved, even-tempered Liebermann, who 
might have been taken for a cultured banker, was incapable of tolerating the 
idiosyncrasies of a restless man like Ury, who often went hungry, and who was 
füll of suspicion and disdain for conventional values. Liebermann was horrified 
when, after climbing up to the fifth floor of Ury's combined living-quarters and 
studio at Nollendorfplatz and after ringing the bell for some time, he was greeted 
by Ury wearing only a nightshirt. He explained that he had no money to buy 
coal for the stove - it was an icy winter day - and that, unable to work in the 
large cold studio, he had chosen to sleep through the unpleasant day. This was 
beyond the comprehension of a man who had never known poverty or ever 
missed a day's work. 

Ury, for his part, may have hurt Liebermann's sensibility and pride by some 
indiscretion. For Ury bragged that he had improved his colleague's picture 
"Spinners in the Town of Laren" by adding sparks of violet highlight to the 
interior of the low-ceilinged flax mill. If this was true, there was nothing particu- 
larly shocking about this sort of collaboration; artists have, from time immemo- 
rial, helped each other with ideas and advice. But Ury, knowing Liebermann's 
vanity, should have kept silent. When the story leaked out, Liebermann re- 
taliated with the sarcastic comment: "Ury says he helped me paint my pictures; 



■'-A' 



th 



i 



200 Alfred Werner 

I don't mind his saying so. But if he goes and says that I have painted his pictures, 
I shall go to court." Thereafter, the two men stopped seeing each other. On the 
rare occasions they met by chance they were even capable of childishly raising 
clenched fists in a threatening manner. 

This conflict had bad consequences for Ury. The vengeful Liebermann saw to 
it that Ury was not invited to become a member of the Berliner Secession, founded 
and headed by Liebermann in 1899, and was thus unable to participate in their 
important group exhibitions (it was only after Liebermann's resignation in 1911 
that, with Corinth as president, the road was open for Ury to join this asso- 
ciation). In all probability, though, it was more than just personal animosity that 
prompted Liebermann to take this extraordinary attitude; he must have sensed 
that Ury was gradually moving further and further away from naturalism, in the 
direction of what became known as expressionism, an aesthetic movement for 
which Liebermann had nothing but contempt and scorn. 

At first, however, Ury had no cause for complaint, as far as his career was 
concerned. In 1889 he took part in a group exhibition at Fritz CurHtt's gallery in 
Behrensstrasse which included several older artists, such as Leibl, Uhde, Lieber- 
mann and the now forgotten Franz Skarbina. In the foUowing year he received 
the much coveted Michael Beer prize, named after its founder, the poet brother 
of the German-Jewish composer Giacomo Meyerbeer, and this enabled him to 
work in Italy (he travelled as far south as Capri). 

But there were clear signs that a catastrophe was imminent. Pre-1900 Ger- 
many, reluctant to accept Liebermann (who, on account of his choice of subject- 
matter, especially "piain" people working in the fields, was dubbed an "apostle 
of ugliness"), was not receptive to someone like Ury either, largely because his 
bright chromatics were as repugnant to conservative Berliners as the impression- 
ists' rainbow palette had been to Parisians many years earlier. 

Ury walked Liebermann's path, but much faster, and eventually left him far 
behind. A self-portrait of 1881 reveals that the twenty-year old Student still 
adhered, on the whole, to the darkish manner practised at most academies; yet 
the application of colour has a variety, a richness, a "French" quality indicating 
that the young man must have seen works by Gustave Courbet and Edouard 
Manet during his first stay in Paris (this painting is interesting also for what it 
reveals of the artist's personality: the narrow, ascetic face, framed by bushy and 
unruly brown hair and a short pointed beard, betrays the impulsiveness and 
distrust that were to grow into an almost pathological fear of his fellow men). The 
broad, vigorous brush-strokes of the French masters are already noticeable in this 
early work. 

Soon Ury shed all brownish hues in favour of fresh, bright colours. Some 
paintings of the late 1880s were even revolutionary, for Germany at least, in that 
the impact of the fervent yellows, reds, greens and blues overrides all interest in 
the subject-matter: peasants, landscapes and flower pieces. This is, of course, the 
viewpoint of 1974. Light decades ago his paintings at the Gurlitt Gallery, with 
their soft transitions and stränge mixtures of colours, often rubbed on to the 
canvas with the fmger or with the palm of the hand and creating the illusion of 
pastels, irritated many a viewer. "What is to become of German art," an enraged 



Lesser Ury 201 

critic wrote, "if such smearing is permitted to dwell within its holy sphere?"^ 
Another wrote: "Compieteiy madi A number of biack spots daubcd on to a 
surface that looks like the bits of paint left on the artist's palette . . . Two 
pictures, entitled 'Unter den Linden' and 'Leipziger Strasse', . . . demand with 
rüde arrogance that they be studied for five minutes before they can be under- 
stood."* He was accused of being an imitator of the Belgians and French, of 
failing to display any German national sentiments and even lacking any depth of 
feeling, any soul. 

Other critics supported him, among them Franz Servaes, Oskar Bie and Fritz 
Stahl, the last two being German Jews, like Ury. Bie called Ury's landscapes 
"Gebete einer farbentrunkenen Seele" (prayers of a colour-drunk soul) and 
added: "To be surrounded by these things is to be surrounded by peace and 
beauty."^ The battle for and against Ury continued, as his vvork was frequently 
shown in galleries, but it was not until 1916, when he was fifty-five, and suffering 
as much from his persecution mania as from heart trouble (to which he even- 
tually succumbed) that his work finally achieved long overdue national recogni- 
tion. Writing about the eighty pictures in the retrospective show presented by 
Paul Cassirer, Fritz Stahl called them "the testimony of an artistic production 
which is unmatched in seriousness, purity and power". 

Henceforth, Ury was hailed as one of the major German impresslonists, along 
with Liebermann, Corinth and Slevogt. Actually, the Impressionist label did not 
fit any of them. What Ury had in common with the French impresslonists was, 
predominantly, the fascination exerted on him by nature. As a Student, on an 
excursion to the Eifel mountains, he witnessed a thunderstorm that, in a flash, 
revealed to this city-bred boy nature in all its grandeur. Soon after, in the Flem- 
ish village of Volluvet, he painted rural scenes imbued with an intensity and 
mystery rare in nineteenth-century art (the pictures refute, if such refutation 
were necessary, Bismarck's assertion that there had never been Jewish landscape 
painters because Jews lacked a feeling for nature).^ 

While there are many works by Ury that abound with hot colour, he did not - 
like the impresslonists of France - confine himself to the hues found in the spec- 
trum of sunlight, but vigorously used black and white, and their intermediates, 
whenever he liked. He criss-crossed the canvas with broad bold strokes; the 
minute touches applied by the impresslonists would have bored him. He did not 
feel that every picture had to be finished sur le motif, that is to say, on the spot; 
instead he brought his quick first sketches to the studio where he might continue 
working at the dictates of the heart rather than the eye. Among Germans he was 
closer in spirit to the dynamic and colour-intoxicated Corinth than to a cool and 
sober observer such as Liebermann. 

From 1916 to his death fifteen ycars later he lived quietly, no longer arousing 
any passionate outbursts, either in his favour or against him, in the art world. 
While he became a membcr of the Secession, he joined none of the other groups 

^Adolph Donat, Lesser Ury, seine Stellung in der deutschen Malerei, Berlin 1921. 

'Ibid. 

'Ibid. 

'Franz Landsberger, A History of Jewish Art, Cincinnati 1946, p. 289. 



202 Alfred Werner 

that had formed : unaffiliated with any of the progressive circles - the November- 

prubbe. the Bauhaus, nr the Np.ut>. Snr.hlir.hkpit. — to the best nf nnr IcnnwleHore he 
showed no interest in any new school. In fact little official notice was taken of 
him. One exception was in 1921, on his sixtieth birthday, when he was made an 
honorary member {Ehrenmitglied) of the Secession. The scroll of honour, presented 
to him by Lovis Corinth, hailed him as one "who had always gone his own way, 
untouched and unconfused by fashionable artistic trends, and who had set a high 
example of integrity to artists everywhere". 

He lived alone in his two high-ceilinged rooms at Nollendorfplatz. Not quite 
alone, though. For while he had no close personal friends, there was a woman in 
his life. Answering an advertisement for a blonde model, Meta Streicher climbed 
the five flights to the studio. She is said to have come from a solid middle-class 
family. But Karl Schwarz described her as a "poor uneducated seamstress".'^ He 
was possibly being unfair when he wrote that "she attached herseif to him (Ury) 
with all her might and made thirty years of his life a veritable hell". It seems 
more appropriate to say that Meta, or "Katinka", as he called her, was a heroine 
for managing to stay with this extremely morose individual who, his heart condi- 
tion notwithstanding, could be quite temperamental and who, moreover, was a 
pathological miser. The two never married. After her companion's death, Meta 
told an interviewer that "in reality, Lesser Ury has had only one mistress - his 
art. As though in a trance, he painted one picture after another".^ 

Time and again, Meta's very presence averted a catastrophe. Once, en- 
countering a critic who may or may not have made an unflattering remark about 
his work, Ury was ready to rush forward and attack the unfortunate man, 
when Meta, with all her strength, restrained him from making a fool of 
himself. 

Osborn also reports a rather tragic event. One winter's day a collector came to 
see Ury's work. Examining a pile of etchings, lithographs and drawings, he made 
a ridiculously low offer. Angrily, Ury threatened: "I'd rather throw the whole 
lot into the stove than seil as cheap as that." Bclieving this to be an empty 
threat, the man calmly repeated his impudent offer. Thereupon the sexagena- 
rian, in a sudden burst of fury, seized the whole pile, tore the large heavy iron lid 
from the stove that, unfortunately, for once happened to be working, and let the 
flames consume a priceless segment of work before anyone could do anything to 
stop him. 

With his seventieth birthday approaching, the artist, plagued by a series of 
heart attacks, became extremely nervous when he knew that he was to be 
honoured with a large exhibition. "Katinka", he stammered, his heart pounding 
and sweat pouring down his face, "I must be able to go through all this. If I were 
to fall ill, there would be no exhibition." Fate dcnied him success to the very end. 
Three weeks before his seventieth birthday he suddenly collapsed, on 18th Octo- 
ber 1931. An acquaintance who happened to be present could do no more than 
close the dead man's eyes. The exhibition at the National-Galerie in Berlin took 



'Karl Schwarz, Jewish Artists of the 19th and 20th Century, New York 1949, p. 83. 
^Eberhard von Wiese, 'Arm im Reichtum, Ein Tragisches Schicksal', Hamburger Abendblatt, 
30th September 1961, p. 9. 



Lesser Ury 203 

place, none the less, but its title was changcd from a retrospective to a memorial 

Friendless though Ury was, hundreds came to the funeral of the man who had 
become a legend. Remembering the starved look on his face and the cheap 
clothes he always wore - garments that looked like handouts from a charitable 
Organisation - Berlin's Jewish kehillah decided to bury him in the Ehrenreihe of its 
own Weissensee cemetery with all the honour due to a great artist, lest he be 
interred in a pauper's grave by the municipality. The rabbi, in his funeral ora- 
tion, stressed the deceased's loyalty to Judaism.^^ Engraved on his tombstone 
was the characterisation, from the book of Exodus, of Bezalel as a noble creative 
man: "He hath filled him with the spirit of God, in wisdom, in knowlcdge, and 
in all the manner of workmanship." 

Subsequently, at the memorial exhibition, there was much talk about post- 
humous revelations. To their surprise, the executors who had come to clear up 
Ury's large, cluttcred studio and to register his estate, found, quite apart from 
the expected substantial quantity of work, finished and unfinished, bundles of 
paper money, some of it from the Inflation period which had by then become 
completely worthless. These executors were the attorney and notary public, Dr. 
Moritz Galliner, a brother of the art critic Dr. Arthur Galliner, and Dr. Karl 
Schwarz, director af Berlin's Jewish Museum. The critic, who accompanied 
these two to Ury's deserted studio, in an article written twenty-six years after the 
Visit, recalled the "state of almost inconceivable neglect".^^ There were securities 
and cheque books. In addition, there were some pieces of jewellery, a für coat 
and expensive silk underwear, none of which had ever been worn by the man 
who walked around dressed like a beggar. There were also Stocks of wine and 
Champagne, and other delicacies. 

The Story behind the story was piain enough. Immediately after the successful 
Cassirer Gallery show, Ury's work had begun to seil briskly. But the inflation of 
1923 left him, like so many others, completely penniless. In the boom years that 
followed there was another round of sales. But by then Ury had become so 
obsessed by the constant fear of starving to death that he became a pathological 
miser. Of course the faithful Meta Streicher knew of all the hidden treasures, but 
apparently did not dare touch them, for fear of offcnding her irascible compan- 
ion. It is not known whether the law awarded at least part of the assets to this 
woman who had remained with him so loyally through so many stormy years, or 

"»At this exhibition Adolph Donath, cditor o[ Der Kunstwanderer and Ury's biographer, dclivcrcd 
the commemorative address (without, by the way, making any rcference to Ury's Jewish origin). 
The text of this speech was reprinted in the illustrated catalogue, Der künstlerische Nachlass von 
Lesser Ury, published in connection with this exhibition and the salc of the pictures in the estate, 
at the Galerie Paul Cassirer (Berlin, October 1932). Altogether, 129 oils and 123 pastels were 
ofTered for sale. 

^°The officiating rabbi was Dr. Joseph Lehmann. Among the mourncrs who included many other 
representatives of the literary and artistic circles of the Gcrman capital and, of course, the 
kehillah, were Heinrich Stahl, director of the Berlin Jewish Community, Dr. Ludwig Justi and 
Dr. Ludwig Thormaehlen, director and curator of the National-Galerie, and the painter Eugen 
Spiro, a member of the Secession board of directors (see E. G. Lowenthal, in Allgemeine Wochen- 
zeitung der Juden in Deutschland, VI, 30-2, 1951). 
"'Schöpfer einer jüdischen Kunst: Erinnerungen an Lesser Ury', Allgemeine Wochenzeitung der 
Juden in Deutschland, XII/29 (18.10.1957). 



204 



Alfred Werner 






whether she was allowed to profit from the sale of hi. p.tat^ ,t , n 
auction in 1932. 

A number of obituaries appeared: a long article by Karl Schwarz in Berliii's 

äendeH r kT T '^ 1"'°''"' ^""^ " P^'^''^'^^^ "°'^ -^^P'--"? '^at he had 
mtended to publish it on the occasion of Ury's seventieth birthday. London's 

Central Europe especially m his native city." German obituarists, it must be 
said m all fa.rness did not allow all the lurid tales of eccentricity to overshadow 
the importance of the artist's work. His death was noted even in the United 
States, where Art Mws, in its issue of 21st NoveiTiber observed: "It was the 

Z Vu """'"'' "'"' ""^^ ^^ ^""^ "°' '■°""d the Wide recognition that he 
deserved. His way was the solitary track of the true genius " 

H.S nval Liebermann survived him by several years, to witness the fury of 

AU i u*""^ '^'^ '""'" "'^"''°" anywhere in the German press of this painter's 
death ,n February 1935. Of his many "Aryan" fellow artistLnly three'^ad he 

Ss^:JS M^tm?- '''' °"'^ "''"''''-' ^''^'^'''°" -- ^ -^" °- - 

relvriuT"' ^^.'""^'"f '1",^ 5'^«=" C"ti^^ *e opportunity for an unbiased 
SUÄ f !' "°*- Unquestionably there is much excellence in his 

oe^cn inlc h ; ^T'r^' ^°""''^'^' "^'""«^' 'i'hographs, pastels and 

pencil, nk, charcoal and chalk drawings. In all these media, Ury gave us un- 
forget able ghmpses of the charms of Capri and Lago Maggi;re, of'the Grune- 
wS ?M '"'^ -'S'de Berlin, of lakes in Northern Germany, birch trees and 

dön ,o' ?'r T '"^<^' M '»°°"''g'''- I" '926 he had paid his first visit to Lon- 
don^ to See the Täte Gallery with its Turner treasures - whom his work recalls, 

extremely fra.l, Ury did what the ageing Pissarro had done in his vues plan- 

foved'so much" '''' ^^ ^^^'^t'^^^Hy Painted the pulsating life of the city he 

But in talking about his paintings one ought not to forget his accomplishment 

nlMr'.T u P'""'''' ^'1""'="^^' *=tchings, lithographs and drawings. As a 

pa telhst he was the only German to make respectable a medium that, in neigh- 

th "1 ff /^T' °^S^!f'"d R^don had rescued from oblivion. Ury liked to use 
the oft, fragile sticks He also employed watercolour and gouache, making the 

methods'' '° "^'""^ '"°°'*' '^^' ^°"''' ""^'^^ ^"^ '^^'''^^'^ by ^'°^«' 

tion J^f^R ''''°'"^ ^'^'' '"^" '° ^ ''"°^" ^°' «"'^ ^""^J^-^t a'°"<=- J"St as the men- 
tion Ol Renoir conjures up in the mind of the public pictures of lush nudes, or 
that of Degas images of dancers, so Ury is now celebrated as the painter of 
rain-svvept shppery pavements, flickering lamps under a dark evening sky and a 
lonely figure braving the weather. It is, perhaps, not quite precise to call him the 
discoverer of nocturnal city scenes. He was, however, the most successful 

S'^'a^k ^ '^r' *^^' '""""' "P •" ^'"«"' ^a" Gogh's "Outdoor Cafe at 
1^ Frl ' c, K-^r*!""' ^ "^''^ P°"' Neuf at Night" or, to mention a German, 
in tranz Skarbma s 'View from the Eiffel Tower", (which renders superbly the 






• v 




'fii \ t. . ^ •-.. \/K»^«.*'4. 






LESSER URY 
Etching by Hermann Struck 



■l!t 




Lesscr Ury: Sclf-portrait (191 1) 

liy cüurtesy of Mr. William Arlmann, RanbranJt GalleTy, New York 

Photo Ena 



"*, *i"v' 



.,;^5^*-::i^;ff 



%$:'- 







Lesser Ury: Portrait of Bronislav Hubermanii 

By courlesy of Sirs. Ernst Pinkus, New York 

Photo Eric Pollitzer 











Lesscr Ury: City Lights (1889) 



By courlesy of Mrs. Margot Kayser, Brorixiille, N.T. 

Pholo Eric Pollitzer 




Lesser Ury: Man rcadiiig NrvvspaiKr in Cafe 



Ifv courlt'sy o) Axel S/ninger. Berlin 
Pholu Eric Putlitzer 






Lesser Ury 



205 



mysterious effccts of countless city lights). There is something original and even 
unique in Ury 's particular interpretation of this theme which occupied him even 
when he was still a Student in Paris. In Berlin he would often walk the streets 
after nightfall when they were almost deserted, a weird figure straight out of 
E. T. A. Hoffmann. Then he would return to his studio and put on to canvas 
what he had seen: the struggle between the lights and the rainy darkness. An 
occasional horse-drawn vehicle or motor car or a solitary passer-by were barely 
visible among the surrounding mists which rise from the gleaming wet pave- 
ments. Often the figures shed a discomfiting aura of evil purpose, suggestions of 
dark undertones while the sombre housing blocks are transformed into unreal 
sinister shapes. Old Berliners may nostalgically recall some of the topographical 
aspects of NoUendorfplatz, Potsdamer Platz, or Unter den Linden, as they were 
prior to the Second World War, but the "documentary" character of these 
pictures is less important than their aesthetic value and emotional impact. 

Another aspect of Berlin was shown in his pictures of well-known cafes or 
Konditoreien (pastry shops), with a top-hatted gcntleman or an attractive woman 
seated at a table, sipping coffee or reading a newspaper. Significantly, these 
people are never seen in groups, or even as couples talking to each other; like 
Ury himself they are always isolated figures. 

Next in importance are the flower pieces. Undoubtedly the withdrawn artist 
preferred flowers to people. They did not disturb him by endless talk, they could 
be taken up, arranged and re-arranged and discarded at will. He was one of 
the last great representatives of flower-painting. Karl Schwarz wrote in the cata- 
logue of the 1961 Tel Aviv Ury exhibition: "Painting flowers he magically wafted 
them onto the canvas with all their dewy freshness. He experienced the colours 
and vibrations of light, the flashing radiation of brightness and the fusion of 
mysterious tonal sounds, with a rapturous and consuming passion." 

Finally there is Ury the portraitist though his portraits are not very numerous. 
There is one of the violinist Bronislaw Hubermann, another of Paul Schienther, 
director of Vienna's Burgtheater. His portrait of the critic and director Otto 
Brahm was bought by Max Reinhardt, and until 1933 hung in the lobby of 
Berlin's Deutsches Theater. Brahm is seen sitting in the director's box, his face 
turned towards the stage; the intelligent profile with its critical absorbed expres- 
sion is thrown into sharp relief 

There are many seif portraits. The one once owned by the late Otto Strauss, 
Jerusalem, was painted a few months or perhaps only a few weeks before the 
artist's death. Here he Stares at us with melancholy eyes under bushy brows. 'T 
know the world," the agonised eyes, sunk deep in their sockets, seem to say, 
*T have experienced much pain, but this pain has never stopped me from 
pursuing my goals." 

Karl Schwarz has written: 



"His self-portraits show his suflering and are really in a calegory by themselves. Those of the 
last two years - usually after coronary attacks had brought him to the brink of death - are 
harrowing documents of human agony. They are cries of helplessness, spiritual revelations 
and ruthless self-confessions of a quality not seen since Rembrandt. They are doubly signifi- 
cant because he was not a painter of the human face, he had no relationship with others and 



206 



Alfred Werner 



viewed them as a source of color rather than as psychological entities. He did observe hiin- 



self. however. and nainfpd him<iplf nnf fr\r rf^nenr,^: /->r «rr,-.f,Vrv, ^^ :*.. u..* __ _ 

against his fate. In these portraits he appears, as in all his works, as an emotional man not 
movcd by reason but by the mood of the momcnt."^^ 

Perhaps the least important of Ury's works are his monumental compositions 
on Jewish biblical or philosophical subjects. With the exception of "Jerusalem" 
(1896), now in the Tel Aviv Museum, they seem to have vanished, possibly 
destroyed in the Nazi era. But they are known to us from photographs and, in 
some cases, from surviving small preliminary sketches. In these drawings the 
faults are less noticeable than in the resulting major works that often seem 
painfully laboured. 

The young Martin Buber, in his understandable enthusiasm for "Jewish" 
Clements in contemporary art, overrated Ury's ambitious compositions on bib- 
Hcal and Jewish scenes. In the first place Ury, driven by a "Michelangelesque 
aspiration" (Franz Servaes), did not have the compositional power demanded 
by the monumental proportions. He also lacked the calm perseverance and strict 
discipline required for the orderly and careful execution of these large works 
which he approached with his quasi-impressionist technique. Undoubtedly, 
however, he spoke sincerely when he said that to him the Bible constituted "the 
most beautiful book ever created". 

When the critic Arthur Galliner visited the artist and suggested a book about 
him and his work, Ury discouragcd him: "Enough has been written about me, 
nobody reads it, nobody buys it." Looking around in the large, high ceilinged 
studio Galliner spotted the vast triptych, "Man", that Ury had finished thirty 
years earlier, as well as the "Jeremiah". Pacing the wall was another large 
canvas; reluctantly Ury turned it round. It was an unfinished work, "Jacob 
blessing Benjamin". "It is madness to paint such a subject today, in this in- 
human, irreligious period," the artist said. 

Ury believed that a Jewish art was possible. In a letter to Galliner dated 
12th September 1931 he remarked: "If Jews want a Jewish art, it will come - it 
may even be here already," but he added, on a bitter note, "alas, the Jews - or 
those who call themselves Jews - do not want a Jewish art." 

Today it is generally agreed that his large fresco-Hke pictures, from "Jeru- 
salem" to "The Dying Moses" are admirable failures; there is something stilted 
and theatrical about them that, luckily, is totally absent from his smaller, less 
ambitious works. Yet he stubbornly persisted in painting them (to be able to 
execute works of this size, he had moved into his huge studio at a time when he 
could hardly affbrd the rent). 

Many older BeHiners may remember the two large canvases, "Rebeccah at 
the Well" and "David and Jonathan" which he painted for a wall of the 
B'nai B'rith (the pictures perished, along with the building). The paintings most 
widely reproduced in Jewish magazines and referencc works were "Jerusalem" 
and "Jeremiah". The first shows refugees, young and old, such as those who fled 
from the pogroms of Tsarist Russia after 1880. In an austere barren landscape 
several wretched figures are seen sitting on the ground or on a rough wooden 

»'^'Lesser Ury (1861-1931)', Jewish Qtiarterly, vol. VIII, No. 4, Autumn 1961, p. 25. 



iß.^^t^f^' 



Lesser Ury 207 

bench, hands pressed together, eyes staring into nothingness. The second, now 
iost, which hung in lierlin's Jewish Museum, showed the prophet's brooding 
figure under a vast dark blue sky, studded with bright stars. 

While Buber, in an essay included in his volume Jüdische Künstler, certainly 
overrated the Jewish aspect of Ury's art, he was wholly justified in praising the 
same artist's visionary pantheistic landscapes which do not provide a straight- 
forward rendering of the scenery but rather a mirror of the painter's own 
ecstatic, Dionysiac soul: 

"He belongs to those Promethean natures who always seek a ncw language, capable of 
expressing evcrything . . . Hc found this language in his use of colour. Form expresses 
nonc of the ambiguous relationships between things, their effecls upon each other . . . A 
thing does not exist in itself, but everything exists in everything. Form divides, but colour 
unites."^^ 

Buber was only one of many Jewish writers to pay homage to this artist. 
Among post-Second World War essays about him that deserve mention is 
'Genie und Groteske', contained in a selection of essays by Max Osborn, Der 
Bunte Spiegel^^ and the long chapter in Jewish Artists of the 19th and 20th Century.^^ 
References to Ury can also be found in the chapter Jewish Impressionists' by 
Ernest M. Namenyii^ and in the essay 'On Jews and German Art' by Heinrich 
Strauss.17 In the more recent German literature on art, the entry in Kindlers 
Maler ei- Lexikon'^^ must be singled out. 

The hope expressed by Strauss for a comprehensive memorial exhibition was 
realised in 1961 . But his expectation of an adequate monograph with really good 
reproductions is still unfulfillcd. Such a book could be produced only in Ger- 
many or in Israel, where most of Ury's surviving oeuvre is located and where 
archives may still yield new information about this rare and unusual artist and 
tragic man. 

i^Berlin 1903. 

i«New York 1945. 

^^Schwarz, op. cit. 

^•Cecil Roth (ed.), Jewish Art, New York 1961. 

"Z,B/ Year Book II (1957), pp. 267-268. 

"Zürich 1968. 



hs 



(Regenshurg, Museum der Stadt) ist er als 
sachlich präziser Schilderer von großzügiger 
Knappheit ausgewiesen. 

Beim nainengebenden \\ erk des Meisters von 
Großgmain überrascht die räumliche Gestal- 
tung. Die im Vergleich zu den Menschen über- 
dimensionierten Räume sind von großartiger 
Kahlheit. Die 1 rennungsünien zwischen die- 
sem Meister und den beiden Frueaufs sind 
bisher nicht eindeutig gezogen. IJesonders 
zwischen ihm und Rueland Frueauf d. J. 
schwanken einige Zuschreibungen, so bei der 
Mündsichelmaria aus Klosterneuburg und der 
Marienkrönung aus Prag (Nationalgalerie). 
Gegen Fnde des Jahrhunderts wirkten in 
Salzburgs Malerei fremde Kräfte: Michael 
Fächer, in seiner Gefolgschaft Marx Reich- 
lich. 1484 erhielt Fächer den Auftrag für den 
Hochaltar der Pfarrkirche (jetzt rVanziska- 
nerkirche). kurz vor dessen Fertigstellung er 
1498 starb. Das einzig erhaltene Fragment 
von den Schreinflügelpaaren, die I9.")l ent- 
deckte Tafel mit Joseph, den seine Rrüder in 



den Brunnen werfen, gemahnte in der Aus- 
stellung an das große Werk, das anscheinend 
in der Salzburger Kunst nur wenig Nachwir- 
kung hatte. Georg Stäber (aus ]{osenheim) 
erstellte 1494 1500 für St. Peter ein Altar- 
werk, dessen Fragmente in der Ausstellung 
als starres, dreiteiliges Retabel rekonstruiert 
waren. Die im Kaiaiog mitgeieiite Konso- 
nanz mit der Kunst Fachers konnten wir 
nicht wahrnehmen. 

Maler vom I{ang Frueaufs d. Ä. erwuchsen 
der salzburgischen Malerei der Spätgotik im 
16. Jahrhundert nicht mehr. Die Berufung 
auswärtiger Maler für wichtige Aufträge läßt 
vernuiten. daß die eirdieimischen Kräfte 
nicht bedeutend waren. Mittelmäßigkeit und 
häufige Kompositionsanleihen bei der Druck- 
graphik Dürers und Altdorfers erschweren 
die l nterscheidung von Individualitäten. An 
den Altären der vielbeschäftigten \\ erkstatt 
des Gordian (jluckh in Laufen wurden ver- 
suchsweise fünf Meister unterschieden. I^nge 
Korrespondenz mit der Malerei der Donau- 



schule ist an den Tafeln aus Wonneberg (vor 
löl.'J) abzulesen, wenn auch in ihren Land- 
schafts- und Raumschilderungen statt des 
atmosphärischen Himmels immer noch der 
Goldgrund steht. An ihnen fasziniert der 
»Hlick hinter die Kulissen« auf die Vorzeich- 
nungen zu vier Szenen des Marienlebens. 
Sollten diese detaiüiert ausgeführten Zeich- 
nungen wirklich nicht Vorzeichnungen für 
F'lügelbilder, sondern Entwürfe für Reliefs 
an ihrer Stelle sein, so wäre dies ein Verstoß 
gegen die sonst geübte Arbeitsökonomie, 
lediglich den linriß eines Reliefs im Hinler- 
grund auszus|)aren und eventuell - wie bei 
Reichlichs Marienaltar aus Neustifl ( I ö 1 I . 
Alte Pinakothek) - das Thema des dort zu 
montierenden Reliefs in das freie Feld zu 
schreiben. Mit größerer (Gewißheit scheint der 
»Meister der Crispinuslegende« in der hun- 
dertjährigen Salzburger Tradition verankert 
zu sein. Deren Kemizeichen war der \V unscli. 
der menschlichen Gestalt in der hildkomposi- 
tion den V orrang zu geben. (iisela Schvjj'lir 



USA 



MINNEAI'OMS. MI^^KS()TA 

The Miniu'dpolis Inslitule of Arls 
Collect ion oft he ./. I*(iul (ietty Museum 
The mansion which J. Paul (ietty built al 
Malibu near Los Angeles, higli u|) on a hill 
overlooking ihe Pacific Ocean. and which he 
filledwilh art and artifacts, was opened to the 
public in l9r)L (^urrently. this museum is 
closed, as the Ireasures will, in the near 
future. be displayed in a new and mucli 
larger building. In the meanlime, some of the 
finest pieces were exhibitcd at the Minneapo- 
lis Institute of Arts. Chronologically- the 
selections ranged from (/reco-Roman sculp- 
ture to eighleenth Century painlings, s<ulp- 
tures and furniture, and a suite of tapestries 
designed by Boucher. At Miniieapolis. painl- 
ings donnnated, since many of (ietty's more 
bulky Ireasures coukl not be transported to 
the Institute of Arts. The show was somelhing 
like an anthology of works by the niost 
famous painters of Western Europe prior to 
the French Revolution, from Bernardo Daddi 
to Thomas Gainsborougli. One of the greal 
altractions was Rembrandl's porlrail of 



Greek (Atlic) ca. .510 B, C, The Cottenhani Hclicl. 

Marble. Minncapolis. Minii.. 
The Minnvapolis Instilutc nf Arls, C.ollerlion oflhc 

./. Paul (Jelly Museum. 




512 



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l'.xhihitions 



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nuK-li in ihc shou dcnionsl ralcd ihc skilU (»I 
such cclcliril ic^ a> Bonchcr. (Üiardin. I- rajio- 
nard. (»rcn/c and W allcan. (|nil(' a \r\\ ol I lic 
niastrrs itniudcd arc krntwn inaiidv h» cx- 



Tuu Simlic- i»l a ScrNant 
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noi all'ord (•\p<MJsi\c ori<rinal drauinfTs ucrc 
(•ol(»r prinls thal su|)«mI(I\ iniitalcd chalk 
drawinfis and a(jiiar(dl<'s, Ihc show Iraccd ihc 
.sliift in intcrost IVotn ihc s|)lcndid poinp dur- 



nfi tlic Sini 
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fions and tlassical hcrocs. to niorc hourgrois 
dclifrhls, 

The sccond «■\lnl»it ion. cnlithMl I Kina s 
liooli (>/ Kitius. ((Misistcd ol' ca. 70 niiniainrc 
painlin<rs Ironi Shah Tahniasp's Shah-nanich 
(d' l.')28. rhc\ illnsiratc l'irdousi's cchdnatcd 
cpic pocm ihat rccounts ihc histors (d ihc 



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Hook oC Kiiijjs: Miiiiatnrc 
Irotn Sliah Tahniasp's 
Shah-naiiudi "iNasliir\ an 
■^,- l'ronudfialo Ins Kcfornis* 

iSvn ) inh\ 
riw \t<'lr()f)t>llltin 
XJusviini nf tri. 



to ils c()n(picsl l)\ \ralt arnnc 
Shah nani(dis ihal ha\c snr\i\cd. ihc onc 
dis|da\cd l»\ ihc Met ro|tolil an MnxMiin it 
had hccn conunissioncd l»\ ihc loundcr ol ihc 
I \ . Shah Isina'il. lo l»c «riN cn lo 



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i:i 



iinpeccahle. thc colors fjlow in iine(|iiallo(l 
hrilliaiicc. and tlic sconcs liaxc a (iraniatic 
flair and vilality. 

The liuge loan exliibition. '^Soviel Ihiion: 
Arts and Crafls in Ancienl Times and TodaY^\ 
wound up its tour tlirougli llio l niled States. 
The largest collection of applied arts and 
crafts ever sent lü the W eslern heniisphere by 
the Soviet L'nion, the sliow included nearly 
two thousand objects froni the fifteen Soviet 
RepubHcs. Chronüh)gioally, it began vvith a 
clay figure froni the fourth niilh'niuni li. C. 
The Synthian culture. vvhieh flourislied al- 
niost three thousand years ago in the HIack 
Sea area, was represented by niany objects, 
ainong theni a gold plaque of a grilfin liead, 
holding up a stag's liead. 

Most remarkable was a large group of icons, 
froni the IStli to the 18th Century, loaned !)y 
Moscow's Tretiakov (^allery, with strong egg 
leinpera colors on wood panels displaying 
chroniatic fireworks seemingly not faded by 
the irnpact of tinie. There were also niany 
stone icons froni niedieval Novgorod. devoted 
to the thenie of The Lord's Sepulcher. with 
sturdy, stocky figures standing before the 
tomb. Froni the tinie of the early Kotnanov 
rulers came spectacular robes, as well as 
elaborate gold and silver objects niade for the 
eniperors and for |)atriarchs of the Russian 
Orthodox churcli. \\ liile all of this was an 
aristocratic art. folk artisans produced 
brilliantly colored and riclily ornaniented 
tiles to decorate the facades of houses or thc 



exteriors of large stoves; niade carefully 
wrought woodcn chests and coffers to hold 
valuables; and created the engravings tliat 
were to excite Kandinsky and otlier nioderns 
(woodcuts of hold, contrasting colors, wliicli 
ofteii illustrated niaxinis and local tales, or 
satirized fashioiis and nianners). 
A great niany objects of recent origin v\ere 
displayed. They included majolica and paint- 
ed porcelain vessels, cut glass. jewelry, rugs, 
tapestries, dolls and, especially, ceraniics 
niade by conteniporary niaster craftsnien. in 
cooperative worksho])s. or creating inde- 
])cndently in tlieir own ateliers. 

Pierpont Morgan Library 
Exhibition : DiUch Genre ürauings 
American museunis usually plan tlieir best 
and iiiost intcresting sliows for the two or 
tliree weeks before Christ nias, iNevertheless, 
sonie very fine exhibitions were available to 
the public duriiig thc sunimer. oropened early 
in the fall. The niost fascinating aniong these, 
"'Dutcli (ienrc Drawings". will later bc on 
\iew at die Art Institute of Chicago, and the 
Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. Sponsored by 
the Ambassador of the Netherlands, the ex- 
hibition was organized by Mrs. John A. Pope, 
President of the International Fxhibitions 
Foundation at W ashington. D. C, togethcr 
with ofhcials of Vmsterdam's l{ijksmuseum, 
lender of niany of thc 110 drawings on dis- 
[ilay (olliers came froni Rotterdam. Haar- 
lem, Leiden, Groningen, and from the Fonda- 



^r(\ niill«Miiinn B. C. Bull. Silver. Mikupc iiarntu \(.rtli Caucasus. Leningrad, Ermitage. 




tion Custodia. Paris). Thc introduction to the 
calaloguc was w ritten b\ Dr. K. G. Roon, 
director of the Rijksprintenkabinet, while the 
bulk of the text was autliored by the Rijks- 
museuni scholar, Peter Schatborn. 
As might have been expected, the cenler of 
the stage was occupied by Rembrandt and 
liis pupils, such as Gerbrand van den F^eck- 
hout. (;ovaert Flinck. Samuel van Hoog- 
straten, ^icolaes Maes and Gerard Dou. 
Aniong the otlier artists were Frans Hals, 
Hendrick Avercamp, Jacob Adriaansz 
Racker, Cornelius Ketel. Dirk Hals and Ge- 
rard de Lairesse. The pictures are generali y 
sniall and deal mostly with daily activities, 
such as marketing, working. cleaning, hunt- 
ing, and the rousing parties at local inns. 

WASHINGTON 

The National Gallery of Art 
Exhibition: H ilhelm Lehmbruck 
The season's higiilight was the J.ehmbruck 
exhibition. the first major exhibition in 
America of the work of the German sculptor. 
A remarkable feature was the large number 
of oil paintings, drawings, pastels, elchings 
and lithographs by the sculptor, revealing a 
versatility tliat is not commonly known. 
American critics now saw Lehmbruck as a 
lyricist wlio liad abandoncd himself to grief 
and doubt. Tliev readilv acknowlcdiied that 
he presented, not eclioes of the past, but thc 
niusic of the Zeitgeist, the restless dissatis- 
faction of an intense modern yearning for 
an equilibrium that cannot be achieved. 
vainly seeking escajie from the harshness and 
violence of a world he had not niade. The 
sliow was arranged by ]{cinhol(l Heller, pro- 
fessor of Fine Arts at the Lniversity of Pitts- 
burgli, who also wrote the text for the coni- 
prehensive catalogue. The majority of ihc 
loans came from llic W ilhelm Lehmbruck 
Museum at Duisburg. 

The National (fallery of irt 
Exhibition : Old Master Drawings from ('hrisl 
i.bunh (Library ) 

This exhibition will travcl to four othcr 
museunis. The American tour was organized 
by Wasliington's International l^xhibitions 
Foundation, with the consent of the (Govern- 
ing Rody of Christ Church College, Oxford, 
owner of the renowned collection of drawings, 
established there as far back as ITOö. The 
works on view represent some of ihc linest 
drawing done, from the 1 3t h through l he 1 Tth 
centuries, in Italy.tlie iNetherlands, (iermany, 
France and Spaiii. Ihe fulU illustrated cata- 
logue was prepared by Byam Shaw. 



514 



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Die begleitenden Texte von Sarane Alexandrian zu Ernst und liellnier 
sind knapp gehalten. Zumal der Hand über Max Ernst scheint unter 
dem Druck, ihn zum 80. Geburtstag des Künstlers auszuliefern, zu 
hastig geraten zu sein. Man erinnert sich der Kommentierungen des 
vortrefflichen Katalogs der Stuttgarter Ausstellung. 1970. Der liellrner- 
Band besticht durch die sichere Auswahl der Abbildungen, durch 
deren erotische Faszination und zeichnerische Vollkoininenheit. Die 
knappen Texte geben zum Verständnis hilfreiche Hinweise. 
Ais Einführung in das Werk überzeugt Passerons Magrille-liand. ¥^r 
bietet keine Analvse des Vt erkes. sondern versucht, tuiltels literari- 
scher Bildbe- und -Umschreibungen die Elemente der Bildersprache 
Magrittes zu eruieren. 

In der Publikation über Max Ernst wurde leider versäumt, im Anhang 
neben den biograj)hischen Daten eine Bibliographie wichtiger Litera- 
tur von und über den Künstler beizugeben, wie es in den Bänden 
Magritte und Bellmer geschah. Barbara Seitz 



John Maxon: The Art Institute of (Chicago. 288 pages, 279 iUustrations, 
incliiding 33 plates in rolor. Harry A. Abrams, New York 1971. 
Frederick J. Cummings and Charles H. Elam: The Detroit Institute of 
Arts, Illustrated Handbook. 216 pages. iUustrated. Wayne State Uni- 
vers ity Press 1971. 

American museums are now demonstrating a realistic public service 
orienlation, as they increasingly produce handbooks that focus on 
essential information and contain texts that. tliough faclually 
faultless, avoid controversy and (juibbling. soft-cover books that are 
attractive yel within the means of the average art lover. and even 
the Student. The Art Institute of Chicago was compiled by John 
Maxon. now the Tnstitute's associate director. and a noted specialist 
in the history of I6th Century Venetian painting. Having grown out 
of Chicago''s Academy of Eine Arts. incorporated in 1879, the Art 
Institute is only slightly younger than the great museums in New York 
and Boston. It is still housed in an Italian Renaissance style building 
left over from Chicago's Vt orld (lolumbian Exposition of 1893. bul 
with several substantial additions throughout the years. 
Undeniably, Chicago's finest treasures are its Impressionist and l'ost- 
Impressionist pictures - probably the best collection of late I9th 
Century French school paintings apart from those in the Jeu de 
Paume. This is largely due to the friendship between the American 
painter. Mary Cassalt. and Mrs. Pairner Potter. wife of a Chicago 
millionaire. Yet while Miss Cassatt advised her what to buv. Mrs. 



Jetzt erschienen : 
Jürgen Morschel 

Deutsche Kunst der 60er Jahre 

Teil 11: Plastik, Objekte^ Aktionen 

97 Künstlerbiographien. 294 Seiten, 171 Abbildungen, 18 farbig. 
Format 23x24 cm. Lsn. DM 49,50. 
Ab 1.3.1973 DM 58,-. 

Zusanmien mit dem Band I von Juliane Roh, »Deutsche Kunst 
der 60er Jahre« über Malerei. Collage, Op-art. Graphik DM 58,-, 
ein Standardwerk über die Kunst der Gegenwart. 

Brurkmann München 



Palmer was "her own wonian in matters of taste." When it was 
fashionablc to concentrate on Corot's misty landscapes, she bought 
bis excellent figure-piece, "Interrupted Reading." But Mrs. Palmer 
favored Impressionists and accpiired works by Pissarro, Degas, Monet 
and Renoir. To other avant-garde patrons Chicago owes masterworks 
like Van (;ogirs '"Bedroom at Arles," (;auguin's "Day of the Gods," 
Toulouse-Lautrec's "At the Moulin-Uouge." and, above all. Seurat's 
'•Afternoon on the island of La Grande Jatte" revolutionary for its 
pointillist lechniipie. 

This lartfc painting's current popularity is chailenged onlv bv El 
Greco's even bigger "'Assumption" (its measurements are 158 by 
90 inches), More important than the enormous size is. of course. the 
picture's magnificence of concept and execution. Miss Cassatt had 
Seen it while traveling in Spain. In 1906 the trustees voted S 40.000 
for its acquisition. though most reluctantly and not unaniniouslv (it 
is doubtfui that. if this unicpie masterpiece were on the tnarket today, 
the museum could get it for two luindred times the sum). And there 
are many other remarkable pictures in this huge collection. of which 
Rembrandt's "'Young Girl at an open Half-Door" is. |)erha|)s. the 
most celebrated. In bis commcnt. Mr. Maxon notes the impacl of the 
monumental half-length female ügures of Titian which Rembrandt 
knew through engravings: '■Tbe residling influence lends a Venetian 
greatness of form and impersonality of concept which intensifv the 
nobility of Rembrandt's vision and bis image."" Other paintings of 
importance are by Correggio, Velascjuez. Rubens, Poussin und 
liepolo. riie Institute's print and drawing collection is one of the 
greatest in the world, and its Oriental and Primitive art is not to be 
overlooked. 

The Detroit Institute of Arts Illustrated liandbook compiled b\ the 
assistant director and the regist rar. is much smaller in size in fact. 
it can easily accommodated in a jucket pocket. The historical intro- 
duction is given on a |)age. A niodest museum of art had been estab- 
lished in 1888; four decudes lutcr the Institute of Arts opened its 
gutes to the public also in an Italian Renaissance style building (to 
which large w ings have been added). One has to turn to the illustration 
of |)art of u fresco by Diego Riveru to learn the name of \\ illiani R. 
\alentiner. tli<* (icriuan-born scliolar und disciplc of Rode w ho 
contributed more than anyone eise to the Institute's fame and great- 
ness (the commentary observes that Dr. Valentiner had brought the 
Mexican arlist to Detroit to paint a series of frescoes for the Institute's 
walls). 

The littlc book illustrates about two hundred masterworks. among 
which Jan van Eyck's tiny "St. Jeromc in bis Study" and Pieter 
BruegePs large ""W edding Dance*" (with 125 figuresi) are probably 
the most glorious. Itnportant, too.are Ruisdaers-'Cemetery"(a smaller 
variant is in Dresden). Rembrandt's "Visitation." Ferborcirs "Lady 
at her Toilet," Orazio Gcntileschi's "\ oung \\ oman with Violin," 
and Joos van Cleve's "Adoration of the Magi." Whistler's Nocturne 
in Gold and Black: "The Ealling Rocket." that led to Ruskin's tirade 
and to the libel suit in London, is now in Detroit. 

While the book on Chicago hardly touches on the Institute's rieh 
holdings of conteiriporary art, the Detroit liandbook illustrates and 
discusses works by such living Americans as Robert Rauschenberg, 
John (^hamberlain and Andy Warhol. 

In The Art Institute of Chicago a great muny objects are discussed in 
com|)act, solid commentaries of roughly twenty lines, while additional 
works are illustrated in an appendix sans explanation. In the other 
book, the pictures are all accompunied by texts. Both volumes are 
also available in hard-cover editions. Alfred W erner 



530 



49 



THE ANGRY ART 

OF 
CHAM SOUTINE 

ALFRED WERNER 



Of all the struggling artists in the "School of Paris," 
the most wretched was Chaim Soutine (1893-1943). 
Among those stepchildren of fortune who lived and 
workcd in the French capital during the first half of 
this Century, Soutine was perhaps the most alienated 
frorn society — deracine, as the French would say, up- 
rootcd. Even though his abject poverty ended about the 
time he reached thirty and even though he became 
sought after by great collectors, the catastrophe of 
World War II drove hini to pull up roots and turn 
into a harassed wandcrer again. 

Soutine nevcr possessed what his friend and drink- 
ing-conipanion, Amedeo Modigliani had: the warmth 
of a pleasant niiddle-class childhood and the support 
of a sophisticated and doting niother, nor the unswerv- 
ing love of a woman who stood by him to the end. 
Maurice Utrillo was a worse drunk than Modigliani 
and Soutine, but his energetic mother, the artist Su- 
zanne Valadon, prevented him from wrecking himself 
completely and made him work strenuously, and after 
her death her role was taken over by an equally strict 
wife. 

We know virtually all we need to know about 
Modigliani and Utrillo from many comprehensive and 
well-illustrated monographs. By contrast, little has been 
written about Soutine, whose known story is a terrible 
mishmash of fact and legend, truth and rumor, and, 
unless some irrefutable documents should turn up un- 
expectedly, certain basic details will be shrouded in 
mystery forever. 

Efforts to weed out the forgeries of Modigliani and 

Alfred Werner is the distinguished art critic and 
histurian. Among his books are "Modigliani the Sculptor" 
and "Degas Pasteis." 



Utrillo have been quite satisfactory. Soutine's reputa- 
tion, however, suffers from the proliferation of faked 
oils that imitate the less admirable features of his 
least successful works: the chaotic formlessness and 
unbridled ferocity that led his admirer, Modigliani, to 
say that when he had a headache, he feit that every- 
thing was dancing around him, "just as in a landscape 
by Soutine." Yet there are many first-rate Soutines 
around, and they can be seen in the Metropolitan 
Museum and the Museum of Modern Art, in New 
York, in Chicago's Art Institute, and in other museums 
in the United States. 

It has been established that Chaim Soutine was born 
in 1893 in the Jewish quarter of Smilovitchi, a White 
Russian town near Minsk. He was the tenth of eleven 
children of a clothes-mender, but we know nothing 
more about his family except that it was extremely 
poor, and, for religious and cultural reasons, vchement- 
ly opposed to the boy's early attempts at drawing. The 
little we do know about Soutine's first twenty ycars — 
that is, prior to his arrival in Paris — is based on what 
he later told the few friends and even fewer critics to 
whoni he opcned his hcart. 

Chaim began to draw at the age of four. The clder 
Sutin — Soutine, with the stress on the second syllable, 
is the artist's Ciallicized version of his Russo-Jewish 
name — was not necessarily the wicked tyrant tlie artist 
made him out to have been. He wanted Chaim to have 
a solid occupation — that of a cobbler — and, as an 
orthodox Jew, he considercd his son's pursuit of art not 
only meshuggah (crazy), but also blasphemous (a vi- 
olation of the Second Commandment) . 

The entire \illage seenis to have been against this 
weird boy, who was thrown out of school as a dunce, 
who defaced the walls with pcculiar, incomprchensible 
drawings, and who cappcd these sins by asking a ven- 
erable Jew to pose for him. l'he patriarcirs sons so 
severely beat up the "cvil doer" that he was left for 
dead. The attackers were requircd to pay twenty-five 
rubles in damages. As soon as Chaim had recovcred, 
he took the money and, accompanied by another ad- 
venturous boy who also wanted to be an artist, trudged 
to the nearest big city, Minsk, in search of an art 
education. 

Little is known about Soutine's year in Minsk and 
three years in Vilna, but they must have been years 
of wretched poverty and lonelincss. Eventually, in 1913, 
a benevolent physician gave him money to go to Paris. 

For a while Soutine studied at the Ecole des Beaux- 
Arts; the art instruction he received in Minsk and Vil- 
na had been old-fashioned. Then he set out on his own 
to paint. Nobody wanted his pictures, unattractive in 
subject matter and unappealing to buyers whose taste 
had, as a rule, not maturcd beyond Impressionism. He 
was forced to toil as a porter at a railroad Station, and 
even as a ditch-digger. At one point he was so desperate 
that he tried to kill liimself, but was rescued by a 
colleague. 

The turn for the better came in 1923, when the 



THE PROGRESSIVE 



starving artist, who lived and lookcd like a tramp, was 
discovered by Dr. Albert C. Barnes of Merion, Penn- 
sylvania. Barnes — who had made a fortune manufac- 
turing Argyrol — started one of the most darlng collec- 
tions of Twcnticth Century art. After chancing to see a 
Soutinc oll, Barnes demandcd to be taken to the artist's 
studio, and he bought all of its contents. This story — 
like everything eise related to Soutine — has been told 
in many variants. But it is a fact that Soutine's finan- 
cial worries were over. Other collectors followed 
Barnes's example, and soon the immigrant from 
Smilovitchi found himself celebrated and even rieh. 

But Soutine never calmed down and never lost the 
gloominess and taciturnity that many years of suffer- 
ing had carved into his character. A wealthy interior 
decorator, Madame Madelaine Castaing, who, with 
her husband, became Soutine's most ardent French 
supporter and patron, and often harbored him in her 
country home ncar Chartres for long Stretches of time, 
described her irascible and inconsiderate guest as "a 
character out of Dostoievski." 

Like the Russian novelist, Soutine was unstable. In 
Montparnasse, he met a young musician he had known 
in Minsk. Ile even married her in accordance with 
Jewish rites. But he did not bother about the all- 
important civil ceremony, and he left her upon learn- 
ing that she was pregnant and refused to acknowledge 
her daughter as his child. There were two subsequent 
affairs. One woman, a German-Jewish refugce, re- 
marked, retrospectivcly: "I had the luck . . . of finding 
him when he was ill and when he needed me." The 
other, a French woman, met him when he was in grave 
danger of being deported as a Jew, and for three 
years — until his death on an opcrating-table in Nazi- 
occupied France — helped him to elude his enemies. 

He was less a clumsy bore than a social misfit or, 
perhaps, a peintre maudit (painter under a curse). 
Aristotlc claimed that extraordinary men are usually 
melancholy; in Soutine's case the bürden of thirty bit- 
ter years carried him to the verge of insanity. There 
was clearly something abnormal about him, the Expres- 
sionist par excelleiice, whose paintings are essentially 
self-portraits, symbolic representations of his own souI 
regardless of what subject he chose. Ile was, perhaps, 
even a madman — but certainly one who, through his 
artistic activity, managed to strcngthen his life force 
and to overcome the warring sides of his nature by 
projection and objectivism on canvas. 

Of his pictures, a thousand, or one-tenth of his total 
Output, have survived, since Soutine ruthlessly de- 
stroyed what, on later inspcction, failcd to satisfy his 
Standards. In his lavishly pigmented, turbulent paint- 
ings, this vengeful, frustrated, yet almost megalo- 
maniacal pariah created his outlets. It is significant 
that a large proportion of his works depict edible things 
— beef, fish, chicken, turkey, pheasants, rabbits, eggs, 
tomatoes, lemons, often in combination — or cooks and 
waiters involved in the preparation or serving of food. 
Conceivably his preoccupation as an artist with food 



50 

as a subject, and the pcptic ulcers that causcd his 
death, had their roots in traumatic childhood depriva- 
tions. 

When Soutine finally became successful and could 
afford anything he wanted, he was already under doc- 
tor's Orders to follow a strict diet. The food he painted 
is often unappetizing or spoiled. The early canvases 
reveal the bitterness of a poverty-stricken artist who 
hated food he could not obtain: the later onps reveal 
revulsion of an ulcer patient who was forbidden to eat 
the food he could now afford. 

This "hater"— who, paradoxically, on occasion, could 
be kind and helpful to a younger, needy colleague 
— nearly always "disfigured" his sitters, male or fe- 
male, and he did not flatter himself when painting 
his own features. Ilis self-portrait of 1917 shows an un- 
couth, sulky young man, with an anguished, unattrac- 
tive face, at the easel. In another self-portrait done 
about five years later, he painted in an enormous 
deep-red hanging lower lip. In all his portraits, the sit- 
ters mirror his own diffidence and defiance. He went 
so far as to deprive his female sitters of whatever 
beauty they must have possessed, 

Soutine's landscapes, too, are deformed in a man- 
ner the art world had never seen before; in his early 
ones, especially, the houses are whirled around as if 
uplifted by an earthquake. Gradually, it is true, his vi- 
olence gave way to a more temperate expression, as if, 
as the gloom receded soniewhat, the artist had almost 
come to grips with reality, about to make peace with 
it. But not quite. Even in the relatively "calm" land- 
scapes of the late 1930s, the wind is tossing and tcaring 
the branches and foliagc of mighty old trees. 

His technique of smearing colors in thick, heavy 
impasto on the canvas as if he were "wallowing in 
dirt" infuriated the more conservative French critics 
who referred to him as a sale peintre (dirty painter). 
They were repelled by the unmitigated fervor of his 
color; one critic called him ''tipsy with blood." Indeed, 
a certain strong red is noticeable almost everywhere. 
This red, however, often givcs way to, or is juxtaposed 
with, brown, gray, black — colors suggestive of gloom, 
hopelessness, melancholy, and deprcssion. 

Three decades have passed since Soutine's death. 
Time is a stern eliminator of all that is weak or false. 
Soutine's work has gloriously survived, and pictures 
that once could find no buyer are now fetching be- 
tween $100,000 and $150,000. Critics no longer sneer 
at his "exaggerations," and artists respect his work. In 
this country, Darrel Austin, Hyman Bloom, Jack 
Levine, and Abraham Rattner feil under his spell, and 
some of the Action Painters, also known as Abstract 
Expressionists, have carried his fascination with color 
to extremes. Jacques Lipchitz praised Soutine as a 
painter who "could make his pigments breathe light," 
who had "the strength one finds in Rembrandt, the life 
one finds in Rubens," the "power to translate life into 
paint — paint into life." There are few today who will 
disagree with this praise. 



FEBRUARY 1973 



>..»»"• ao»»»».».;. 



5/Wc^ 



Book Reviews 



r.A4^A^X%^ 






67 



saucers, salt and pepper shakers, sauce boats, tureens, casseroles, baking 



jdiiS 









hrnyipr«; an inpenious three- 
fegged skillet, churns, a variety of storage jars, jugs and bottles (many 
in animal forms), inkwells and sanders, toy animals, dolls, marbles, 
handsome tile stoves (completely installed by the potter), elegant kaolin 
Smoking pipes, and lowly conduit pipes. 

The book is handsome in design. Rieh cream paper and manganese 
brown type reflect the warmth of the earthenware. Illustrations are 
generously large; there is a leisurely feel of space. Bivins has organized 
bis material beautifully, has presented its enormous detail clearly. He 
admits the book "has been an easy one to write." It is a joy to read, 
unfolding (rather than relating) to the reader (be he historian, an- 
tiquarian, potter, or simply one interested in a very interesting way of 
life) the flavor— almost the experience— of the way it was. 

DURHAM, N. C. MARION MENAPACE 

The New Deal Art Projects: An Anthology of Memoirs. Edited 
by Francis V. O'Connor. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 
1972. Pp. 339, 65 black-and-white illustrations. $12.50. 

One welcomes this new volume on a major cultural achievement of 
the Franklin D. Roosevelt era, namely, the U.S. government's help to 
thousands of needy artists who otherwise might have gone under in the 
difficult ycars between 1933 and 1943, or at any rate been suflficiently 
discouraged to abandon the arts for more immediately profitable en- 
deavors. The cditor, currently Senior Visiting Research Associate at the 
Smithsonian Institution's National Collection of Fine Arts, is too young 
to remember the New Deal days. But he has combcd the archives for 
Information on this heroic and dramatic decade and in this particular 
volume has called upon some of the individuals— now middle-aged 
artists or educators — who were activc either as officials of or advisors 
to the New Deal's Treasury Art Programs and to some of its beneficiaries. 

Listening to the recollections included in the book, one gathers that 
there was much less public intercst in the visual arts thirty or forty years 
ago than there is today and that, in particular, the Art Establishment was 
far more conservative and, in some matters, even provincial. Sig- 
nificantly, a vigorous new American Art was born in the years otherwise 
characterized by bread lines and picket lines. In any event, the Art 
Projects did more than just assure the physical survival of many talented 
people: they broadened and decpened art consciousness in this country, 
reaching into its interior, and challenging, in particular, our museums, 
gallaries, and intellectual spokesmen of art. 

NEW YORK CITY ALFRED WERNER 




tV 



168 The South Atlantic Quarterly 

The Poetry of Randall Jarrell. By Suzanne Ferguson. Baton 
Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1971. Pp ix 247 
$8.95. ^" ' 

Writing the first full-length study of a major poet, one is taking his 
own life— and his immortality also— in his hands. Must be a joyful and 
frightening job. Suzanne Ferguson handles the task very weil. Here are 
some of the problems she faces: (i) Jarrell's reputation is now at the 
lowest ebb it probably ever will be, yet there is no chance of "discover- 
ing" him; (ii) a great deal of necessary biographical material is un- 
available or unpublishable; (iii) the body of Jarrell's work is so extensive 
that thoroughgoing analysis must be eschewed in the interests of the 
length of the book; (iv) there is a lamentable paucity of previous critical 
work to draw upon. When Ms. Ferguson sat down to write she must 
have Said, "Well, I can't be definitive; I've got to pioneer^ 

And SO she does, fulfilling almost all the reasonable expcctations we 
have for the first book about a poet. She enumerates the major themes 
(necessity, war physical and psychical, childhood, dcath, quotidian ex- 
istence), she outlines typical strategies (litcrary and musical allusion, 
puns, coolness of languagc, repetition of phrases, personae), she deals 
to some degree with the formal excellences. Often she offers genuine 
and even startling insights into poems. Especially she is good on "The 
Subway from New Britain to the Bronx," "90 North," "Lady Bates," 
"The Skaters," "Jamestown." Sometimes she is too sketchy, as with "Ho- 
hensalzburg," "Jerome," "The Knight, Death, and the Devil," "The Lost 
World." Once in a while she is dead wrong, as with her estimations 
of "La Belle au Bois Dormant," "The Player Piano," and "Three Bills." 
But the shortcomings of a pioneer critical work can also be ad- 
vantages. They give the reviewers somcthing to carp about— which 
has got to raise interest in the poet. And the flaws leavc the door open 
for subsequent studics; they offer the critics who come later something 
to refute. If pcople bcgin talking about a poet they will begin reading 
him too. 

Now and thcn Ms. Ferguson's book suffers from a kind of left- 
handed hero worship. She tries to dcfcnd some of JarrcU's work from 
the Charge of sentimentality and the man himsclf from the Charge of 
being sometimes a difficult public pcrsonality. But some of Jarrell's 
poems are sentimental, and he was a difficult public pcrsonality. Better 
to admit it. On the other hand, her defense against James Dickey's 
idiotic Charge, that Jarrell lacked "verbal energy," is süperb: she simply 
quotes poems. 

A valuable work. From now on whoever writes about Randall 
Jarrell must first look at Suzanne Ferguson's book. 

THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA FRED CHAPPELL 

AT GREENSBORO 



>,, 



WHAT IS EXPRESSIONISM? 



In your RUNDSCHAU, and its 
predecessor, the "Annerican Gernnan 
Review" you nnust have conne across, 
occasionally, the ternns "Ex- 
pressionist" and "Expressionism." It 
is a ternn used nnainly to categorize 
certain works by 20th Century painters 
and sculptors (though the terms are 
also applied to literature, nnusic, the 
dance, the theater and the filnn, and 
even to architecture). What, precise- 
ly does Expressionism— from which is 
derived "Expressionist" as a noun for 
the maker of a particular work of art, 
and as an adjective for the inherent 
quality of this work— mean? 

Definition 

One may, or course, look it up in a dic- 
tionary, and there find it explained as: 

"a theory of art originating in Europe 
about the time of World War I, which 
aimed at the free expression of the ar- 
tist's emotional reactions rather than 
the representation of the natural 
appearance of objects." 

Since Expressionism is my special 
field of interest, I do feel calied upon to 
describe, in greater detail, what Ex- 
pressionism in the Visual arts is all 
about. The evocative term first 
appeared in print in 1911, in a review of 
a Berlin show of French paintings. To 
distinguish them from Impressionist 
works, the Ger man critic explained the 
aesthetic aims of this French avant- 
garde as follows; 

"They (the French artists) no longer 
want to reproduce an Impression, 
which they gain from nature, that is to 
say, paint naturalistically, but they 
want to express the Impression which 
their Observation exercises, on their 
artistic imagination." 

The review referred largely to a group 
of artists that had been dubbed 
"Fauves" (Wild Beasts), the most 
celebrated of whom was Henri 
AAatisse. But these "Fauves" were 



highly domesticated animals com- 
pared to the real Expressionists, the 
real beasts who, simultaneously, 
began to roar in Central Europe. For 
though the "fathers" of Expressionism 
were such non-Germans as Paul 
Gauguin, Vincent van Gogh, James 
Ensor and Eduard AAunch, Ex- 
pressionism was basically a German 
phenomenon. It was an art of spiritual 
disturbance, created in a turbulent age 
by men deeply concerned with their 
own woes and with those of 
humanity — modern art in the broadest 
sense of the term. Those of you who 
have had occasions to visit museums, 
must have been confronted with Ex- 
pressionist paintings and sculptures 
that are so many actsof seif- li berat ion, 
outlets for souls and minds stirred by 
events and conditions that eventually 
led to the near-global conflagration 
known as World War I. 

Surprisingly, the most apt definition of 
Expressionism comes, not from a 
professional art critic, but from a 
pastor turned psychiatrist; 

"The Expressionist wants to reproduce 
the intrinsic meaning of things, their 
soul-substance. But this grasping of the 
intrinsic, i.e. the only genuine reality . . 
.is not done through an intellectual 
study of the external world. . .Im- 
pressionism appears as a mere surface 
art, and therefore a superficial art. . 
.The Expressionist on the other hand 
creates out of the depth of things, 
because he knows himself to be in those 
depths. To paint out of himself and to 
paint himself means to reproduce the 
intrinsic nature of things, the Absolute. 
The artist creates as God creates, out 
of his inner Seif, and his own likeness. . 
.is always the self-representation of the 
artist's psychial State. . .all his pic- 
tures contain the fulfillment of secret 
desires, which are wholly hidden from 
him. . .Whoever is conscious of a wave 
of emotion when looking at Ex- 
pressionistic work proves thereby that 
he experiences the same distress." 





Christian Rohlfs — Songbird, 1912 



Additional Meanings 

Dr. Oskar Pfister, the Swiss author of 
"Expressionism in Art," from which 
these sentences have been excerpted, 
was deeply concerned with depicting a 
State of mind. Expressionism had ad- 
ditional meaning: it meant the asser- 
tion of individualism is general, and 
complete freedom of execution in par- 
ticular. It also implied anti- 
Establishment feelings, a critical ex- 
amination of all Conventions, and an 
exposure of social evils such as the ex- 
ploitation of workers and the horrorsof 
war. Nevertheless, Pfister's descrip- 
tion of Expressionism as "a cry of dis- 
tress, like a stream of lava propelied 
by the soul's misery, and a ravenous 
hunger for life" applies correctiy to the 
passionate men and women involved. 

German origins 

I have Said betöre that Expressionism 
was basically a German phenomenon. 
It is true that someof the "German Ex- 
pressionists" were not Germans at all. 
Vasily Kandinsky, Alexey Yaviensky 
and AAarianna Verefkina were 
Russians, yet they all lived in Ger- 
many and were so identified with Ger- 
man art that their Russian birth 
became an unimportant fact. New 
York-born Lyonel Feininger spent 50 
years in Germany until Nazism com- 
pelled him to return to the USA. 
Another American, Albert Bloch, lived 
in Germany for 12 years and was af- 
filiated with the important Ex- 
pressionist group, "The Blue Rider" 
(in 1921, he returned to the USA, where 
he taught at the Chicago Art Institute 
and then at the University of Kansas, 
retiring a few years before his death in 
1961). The Swiss, Paul Klee, an impor- 
tant member of "The Blue Rider" was 
a Professor at the Academy of Fine 
Arts, Duesseldorf, but the Hitlerites' 
objection to all independent and 



Emil Noide — Young Couple 

progressive art made him return to his 
native land. The Austrian, Oskar 
Kokoschka, who is still alive, taught at 
the Academy of Dresden. 

This Expressionism was a fruit of the 
apocalyptic feeling which, despite the 
glittering facade of prosperity and ap- 
parent security in the decade prior to 
World War I, captured the more sen- 
sitive souls in Central Europe. 
Although it flourished as early as the 
final years of the Hohenzollern Empire 
and, with the advent of Hitlerism was 
forced to go Underground, it is even 
now not quite dead, living on today in 
the veterans of the movement 
(Kokoschka in Switzerland; Karl 
Schmidt-Rottloff in Germany; Albert 
Paris Guetersloh in Austria; and Gert 
Wollheim in New York). Even among 
the young artists of Central Europe 
there are, astonishingly, a few con- 
tinuators of Expressionism Cthe most 
widely known of these is Horst Antes). 



// 



Die Bruecke" 



The first of the Expressionist groups, 
"Die Bruecke" (The Bridge) was 
founded in Dresden in 1905, by Ernst 
Ludwig Kirchner, Erich Hekcel and 
Karl Schmidt-Rottluff. Fervent, ex- 
citable young men, these artists of the 
"Bruecke" were fascinated by the 
aesthetic meritsof African and Polyne- 
sian carvings, and some members 
tried their hands at sculpture. In- 
troducing into German art such un- 
usual themes as the circus, the "cafe 
dansant," and the "demi-monde," they 
painted, with passionate intensity, 
large areas of flat color in broad 
brushstrokes, arbitrarily transforming 
what they saw to achieve a high pitch 
of emotional drama. As Kirchner put 
it, "I follow the picture in my mind 
when I try to express my experiences 
on canvas." 



8 



// 



Der Blaue Reiter 



// 



Another important group appeared a 
couple of years later. "Der Blaue 
Reiter" (the Blue Rider) had its head- 
quarters in AAunich. Its leaders were 
Vasily Kandinsky and Franz Marc. 
Kandinsky thus explained the name 
chosen for the new Organization: "Both 
of US liked blue, Marc for horses, I for 
riders." The celebrated "Blaue 
Reiter" almanac, issued by these 
revolutionaries, contained Marc's 
pivotal Statement; 

"We are today seeking behind the veil 
of nature's outward appearance hidden 
things which seem to us more impor- 
tant than the discoveries of the Im- 
pressionists. . .Nature is everywhere, 
in US and around us; there is only one 
thing that is not altogether nature, but 
rather the overcoming and inter- 
preting of narure: Art. Art always has 
been and is in its very essence the 
boldest departure from nature and 
'naturalness.' It is the bridge into the 
Spiritual world." 

Among the members of "Der Blaue 
Reiter" the search for spiritual mean- 
ing played a greater role than protest 
against social injustice— which had 
characterized some of the artists of 
"Die Bruecke." It fostered interest in 
folk art, primitive art, the drawings of 



children, and even thedoodles made by 
the insane, and it gave shelter to Kan- 
dinsky's first ventures into pure 
abstraction, and to Marc's lyrical 
renderings of the mystical animal 
World. 



// 



Der Sturm" 



Herwarth Waiden was the pen-name of 
a writer and musician who, in 1910, 
founded in Berlin "Der Sturm" (the 
Storm), a combination of periodical, 
art gallery, book shop, club, and last 
hiit nnt ipast cf^ni^r fnr 59sth6tic In- 
novation. Waiden showed the works of 
such young men as Lionel Feininger, 
Ludwig Meidner, and Jakob Steinhardt 
(who was to achieve fame on account 
of his unforgettably strong woodcuts). 
"Der Sturm" made a particular con- 
tribution to art by giving encourage- 
ment and support to young Oskar 
Kokoschka, who had fied from the 
highly conservative atmosphere of 
Vienna to the more liberal, more open- 
minded German capital. 



// 



Die Novembergruppe" 



Finally, Die Novembergruppe" (the 
November Group) which comprised 
writers and architects as well as ar- 
tists (among members who, after 1933, 
found refuge in the United States was 
the great architect and founder of the 




fffe^fe/n 




Dilta H BirKkoli B>rli»V<^ 



Above — Max Pechstein 



Poster for an exhibition 
Below — Emil Noide 



Fritz Gurlilf 

Q+.J C4 »» 

- I uiouuiut?r vjir.iu 

Windmill on the Shore 




Ludwig Meidner — The City and I 



Bauhaus Academy, Walter Gropius 
who became associated with Harvard 
University, and the art historian, Paul 
Zucker, who taught at New York's New 
School for Social Research). This 
association was founded in Berlin just 
after the armistice of November, 1918. 
The group believed that in the new Ger- 
man Republic, headed by a Social 
Democrät, ärlists would be ailowed lo 
play a more important role that they 
had under the Hohenzollerns. It tried to 
dose the gap between creative men 
and the State. Similar groups, in which 
Expressionists, with their dreams of a 
f usion of utopian Socialism and the Ex- 
pressionist credo, were vociferous 
spokesmen, started in several other 
German cities as well. 

But as politics in Germany swung to 
the right, the idealists who had been 
the Organizers of these groups became 
disillusioned and their lofty endeavor 
to give art its deserved place in society 
came to nought. 



Reading list 

Recommended literature on the sub- 
ject: 

"Expressionism," by Waldemar 
George (Thames and Hudson: Lon- 
don). 

"Expressionism," by Frank Whitford 
(Hamlyn: London and New York). 
"Expressionism," by John Willett 
(Weidenfeld and Nicholson: London). 
"Voices of German Expressionism," 
ed. by Victor H. Miesel ( Prentice Hall : 
Englewood Cliffs, NJ). 
The German Expressionists, by Ber- 
nard S. Myers (Praeger: New York). 

Expressionist Painting, by Peter Selz 
(University of California Press: 
Berkeley, California 



Alfred Werner 

Ed: Alfred Werndi^Js the noted New 
York art crltic who wTTTürTST "^ 

"Pantheon." 






Acting Editor 
Managing Editor 



NFSG Edltor 



Academic Advisor 



Hans Deeken 



Hans Henzel 



John Uhrin 



Gerhard Weiss 
University of Minnesota 



European Rcpresentative Wellington Long 

Chief, UPI Bureau, Bonn 

Circula^ion this issue: 82 J92 



Published monthly September Through 
May by the National Carl Schurz Asso- 
ciation, Inc., 339 Walnut Street, Phila- 
delphia, Pennsylvania 19106. Samuel 
Fessenden, President. NCSA isa non- 
profit association whose goals are to 
promote beneficial cultural relations 
between the United States and German 
speaking countries. It is the purpose 
of RUNDSCHAU to provide for the 
Student of the German language in the 
United States, a report of activities 
in German-speaking areas as seen 
from an American point of view. 
RUNDSCHAU is distributed to all 
NCSA and NFSG members. Price 25 
Cents per copy for students. regulär 
subscription $4.50 per year. 



Credits for lllustrations and 
Photographs 

Compix 10, 11, 12, 13 

Victor Della Barbar 5 

Focus 3 

German Information Center 15, 18, 19 

Inter Nationes 10, 12, 13 

Glenda Kachelmeier 17 

Mercedes Benz of North America 13 

NCSA Service Center Library 1, 2, 20 

Paul Swiridoff 7, 20 

Verkehrsamt der Stadt Koeln 4, 5, 20 

Hans Koester Verlag 2, 3 

Alfred Werner Collection 8, 9 



^ 




Above — 

Out of wintry skies this eerie Castle in 
the clouds is neither a fata morgana 
nor Frankenstein's cozy little home. 
It's the Hohenzollern Castle on top of 
the 855-meter high Zollern mountain 
near Hechingen. The Castle is the fami- 
ly seat of the Royal House of Hohen- 
zollern, longtinne rulers of Prussia and 
the Second Gernnan Riech. Frederick 
the Great and his father, Friedrich 
Wilhelm I are entonnbed there. 



Right - 

High altitude geography lesson. This 
filigree pattern, looking like sonne 
delicate root System, represents some 
of the highest mountain ranges of the 
German, Austrian and Italian Alps. 
The picture was taken by the ERTS-1 
satellite from an altitude of 800 km. 
The Earth Resources Technology 
Satellite was launched earlier this year 
and this is one of the first pictures 
taken by it of a section of central 
Europe and which NASA supplied to 
the German Institute of Earth 
Research in Manöver. The two dark 
blotches in top cenier are the south 
German lakes Ammersee (leftj and 
Starnberg (right). The "thick vein" 
stretching diagonally from bottom left 
to top right is the Inn River Valley of 
Austria (city of Kufstein is located 
near top right where river makes 
northward bend.) Dark mountain for- 
mations north of Inn River Valley are 
the North Tyrol Limestone Alps. The 
large vein leading to bottom right is the 
Alto Adige (the northern Italian Alps). 
White spot in center is the cloud- 
covered massif of the Oetztal Alps in 
Austria. 




in the 19th Century by Alexis de Tocque- 
ville in the social studies field, seeing 
your own countiy through the eyes of a 
foreigner is not only refreshing, but re- 
vealing. This is an important book. 
printed ihroughout in two colors, by the 
British reportorial artist who today is 
foremost in this field; it is heavily anno- 
tated and documented with biographical 

noics, >uuiccs ui i'cicrciiCc, afiu ü üSCiüi 

index. 
The Cowboy in American Prints. 

edited and with an introduction by John 
Meigs (The Swallow Press, 1 139 S. Wa- 
bash Ave., Chicago 60605, $15), ranges 
over the subject for the lull length of its 
history and includes a thorough repre- 
sentation of living artists whose work is 
devoted to the American cowboy. In ad- 
dition to the illustrated end papers, the 
book's 26-page introduction is accom- 
panied by 39 illustrations, in addition to 
uhich are 75 annotated plates spread 
across the oblong 9x12 pages. 

Another oblong picture book, but one 
that deals with 96 paintings (half of them 
in füll color) of a living Western artist, is 
The Schiwetz Legacy, an Artist's Tribute 
to Texas, 1910-1971. pictures by E. M. 
"Bück" Schiwetz, selected under the di- 
rection of John H. Lindsey, introduction 
by R. Henderson Shuftler, notes by the 
artist with John Edward Weems, pub- 
lished by University of Texas Press (Aus- 
tin, Texas 78712) at $20. If you are going 
out West to realistically render land- 
.scapes, townscapes, and seascapes, the 
pictures painstakingly reproduced in this 
9'/2 x 12 144-page Texas roundup are 
what you are after. A brief biography of 
the artist and copious comments on the 
plates are included. 

If. on the other hand. you are among 
ihose established Westerners who feel 
they must get away from the sah and 
desolate iand, I heartily recommend to 
you a rejuvenating reconnoiter of bus- 



TUE 





^,,^^^^^"^^^^ 



Dust jacket of The Great Bridge, hy David 
McCullough, puhlished by Simon & Schuster. 



tling Brooklyn. If it were officially a city 
(as it once was) instead of a borough of 
New York, it would be America's fourth 
largest. And besides the bountiful 
Brooklyn (art) Museum, the beautiful 
Brooklyn Botanic Garden, and the be- 
nign Brooklyn melting pot of many eth- 
nic mixtures, there is The Great Bridge, 
which is also the title of a new book by 

mon & Schuster, $10.95). It is subtilled 
"The Epic Story of the Building of the 
Brooklyn Bridge" and contains a wealth 
of wonderful information and illustra- 
tions that capture the flavor of the 19th 
Century urban East as well as what was 
then The Eighth Wonder of the World. 
Visiting artists mustn't miss Walking 
across this soaring Neo-Gothic structure, 
a yet aesthetically unsurpassed piece of 
overwhelming architecture, nor should 
they mi.ss this book. But, of course, as a 
Brooklynite, I'm prejudiced. d.p. 

Modern Landscape Painting, by Pier 

Carlo Santini, 350 pp., ll': x 10, 245 
plates, including 52 in color, Phaidon, 
dist. by Praeger, $35 

Ours is clearly not a time in which land- 
scape painting is dominant, as it was in 
the last Century when, in Kenneth 
Clark's words, "Faith in nature became a 
form of religion." (This is quoted in Pier 
Carlo Santini's earnest, philo.sophical in- 
troduction to the volume.) For one thing, 
very little of the lush meadows. silent 
woods, and romantic streams that were 
so beloved by the painters of the Barbi- 
zon School. the Hud.son River School, 
and more recently the Impressionists, 
has survived; for another, much of the 
painting done in the past few decades 
has been abstract and even strictly non- 
representational. 

Yet the two pioneer masters of non- 
objective art, Kandinsky and Mondrian, 
are included in this book. The tirst is rep- 
resented by an oil of 1908, depicting a 
Bavarian village street in bold, large 
brushstrokes-but according to the tradi- 
lional perspective and with every object 
easily recognizable-and by another 
painting, of 1913, in which "the analogy 
between real and pictorial forms appears 
faint and inconsistent." (Kandinsky was 
then about to abandon figurative Cle- 
ments for good.) Mondrian has three 
early representational landscapes in the 
book, plus one done a little later which, 
though entitled Landscape with Trees, 
consists of "an intricate network pattern 
too irregulär to be called a grille." 

Readers who look for more realistic 
renderings of nature will find works by 
Post-Impressionists, Fauves, and Ex- 
pressionists. While these pictures still 
cling to the Renaissance concepts of per- 
spective, their color, "liberated" from a 
merely descriptive function, gives them 
strong emotional values of their own. 
Significantly, of the 144 artists repre- 
sented, only 30 are still alive, and among 



SUMMER TRAVEL. Continued 



CITY & GUILDS OF 
LONDON ART SCHOOL 

An Independent School for Finc Art m Central London. 
Füll & Part-time Courscs in Pamtinu. Sculpturc. Wood- 
carvmg& Ftching.Julv Summer School Pamting- Draw- 
mg (from liCe). Parliculars Crom Registrar. 

124, Kennington Park Road, London S.E. 11. England 



COLORADO 



llth ANNUAL 

SUMMER 
WORKSHOP 

June 4 through August 24 

• Animal Anatomy 

• Metal Design 

• Portrait Painting 

• Water Color 

• Sculpture 

• Silk Screen 

ROCKY MOUNTAIN 
SCHOOL OF ART 

1441 OGDEN ST. 
DENVER, COLO. 80218 




CALIFORNIA 



This 
Summer 

Study 



The 

Professional 

Art 

School 

Registration: 

June 14-15-16 

Classes Begin: 

June 18 to July 28 




Academy of 
Art College 

625 Sutter Street. San Francisco 
Ca. 94102/tel. (415) 673-4200 

Free Catalog 



Degree & Diploma Courses in: 

Advertising / Design / Fashion 

Fllmmaking / Illustration / Painting 

Photography / Printmaking / Sculpture 

Counseling / Job placement/ Veteran approved 

Financial assistance programs 



February 1973 



61 



Rudolph Interior Design 
tili and Color 

bcnooiof 1973 term Starts Sept. 24 

^^^'8" Summer Session 11 June - 20 July 

Since 1926 Wntc for free hnnhurcs 

2255 Mariposa St., San Francisco, Calif. 94110 

MAINE 



'okrcol 



)r 



24th year two week Station wagon tours 
pamting the Maine Coast area richest in 
subject matter, staying at Maines tinest 
motel No transportation Charge Demon- 
stration, personal Instruction and class criti- 
cism every day by E A Whitney. A NA - 
A WS., Instructor, watercolor paintmg at 
Pratt Institute 14 years Tour objective; paint 
the Maine Coast with a group bound by com- 
mon interest; arrive back in New York with 
increased knowledge ot watercolor paintmg, 
new friends. and some fine paintings Wnte 
tor brochure Edgar A Whitney, ANA, 1970 
81 Street, Jackson Heights, New York 11370 



MASSACHUSETTS 



WALLACE BASSFORD 

NORTH TRURO SCHOOL OF ART on CAPE COO 

Drawing. JULY-AUGUST. Painting. 

BOX 63 • NORTH TRURO, MASS. 02652 

Winter Class: 136 Worth Ave. 
Palm Beach, Florida 33480 

"Painting the Female Figure," by Wallace Bassford 
Published by Reinhold, New York 



Bostm, 

anarfcenteP 

• faculty of professional artists 

• bachelor's and master's degrees 

• painting • sculpture • art education 

• advertising design • summer programs 
at Tanglewood 

Boston University 

School of Fine and Applied Arts 
855 Commonwealth Avenue, 
Boston, Mass. 02215 



CARL SCHMALZ 
WATERCOLOR WORKSHOPS 

July 1973 Kennebunkport- 
•^ Cape Porpoise, Me. 

Concentrated two week sessions for selected students 
in limited groups. Emphasis on developing personal style 
and expression, primarily in landscape pamting-with 
Prof. Carl Schmalz of Amherst College. 
Write: RD 2 Arnold Road, Amherst, Mass. 01002 



ihese are "Cid Master" masters like 
Chagall, Ernst, Kokoschka, Picasso, and 
Segonzac. 

American works illustrated here are 
by Davis, Francis, Hopper, Pickett, De 
Kooning, Sheeler, Spencer, Stella, and 
Grandma Moses, whose "subtly poetic 
approach isof Biblical, patriarchal inspi- 
ration, with a conscious leisureness that 
is typicaily American." (Obviously, the 
Italian author is unfamiliar with the 
tempo of 20th Century American life.) 

There is an anthology of excerpts from 
writings by Gorky, Gide, Proust, Eliot, 
and others who got their inspiration 
from looking at nature. The short biog- 
raphiesof artists, at the end of the book, 
are very useful. The plates, whether in 
color or in black and white, are quite 

gOOd. A.W, 

The Unknown Craftsman, a Japanese In- 
sight into Beauty, by Soetsu Yanagi, 
trans. by Bernard Leach, 232 pp., 9% x 
7'/4, 76 illus., 12 in color, Kodansha Inter- 
national/USA, 599 College Ave., Palo 
Alto, Calif. 94306, $17.50 

No satisfactory definition of beauty has 
ever been devised. What one person con- 
siders beautiful may leave others cold. 
Still, we do know when a child, a dog, a 
sunset. a dancer, a view from a hilliop is 
beautiful. The real question is this: what 
makes us, any one of us, exclaim at the 
sight of a painting, a lacquer box. a 
flower vase, a hand-woven textile, a 
temple. a sheet of calligraphy, a folding 
screen . . . that it is beautiful? 

It took Bernard Leach, a close friend 
of the late Soetsu Yanagi, ten years to 
adapt this Japanese book for English- 
speaking people in such a fashion that it 
shouldn't be merely bis own inter- 
pretation of Yanagi, but an under- 
slandable Iranslationof him. Yanagi was 
called the father of the Japanese craft 
movement, and the translating required 
the Cooperation of able and dedicated 
Japanese assistants, so that Western 
readers might penetrate what Buddhism 
a^ntains "for the seeker looking for the 
meaningof beauty in the faceof truth." 

As Buddhism has become intriguing 
and inspirational in the West during the 
last 50 years, the aesthetic concepts of 
Far Eastern art have also come closer to 
US. This volume includes chapters on a 
Standard of beauty, seeing and knowing, 
patterns, the beauty of irregularity, the 
Buddhist idea of beauty, crafts o^ Oki- 
nawa, Hakeme (rough brushwork), the 
finest tea bowl in the world, the way of 
craftsmanship, and the responsibility of 
the craftsman. 

This is a truly Oriental book, philo- 
sophical and mysterious, if not mystify- 
ing, but with much that's equally com- 
prehensible to all peoples. For example, 
weil all agree that commercialism isn't 
good for arts and crafts and that machin- 
ery has been of great benefit to man, but 
that it has also brought poverty. It's in- 



62 



teresting to find comparisons between 
Greek and Oriental art, between the 
smile of the Mona Lisa and the eyes of 
the Buddha. It's surprising to read that 
Cezanne "is a doorway between East 
and West," and that "Rembrandt is one 
of our artists," according to Yanagi. His 
reaction to William Blake was also spon- 
taneously favorable. 

It's up to the individual reader to de- 
cide on what points he can agree with the 
Buddhist approach to beauty. r.f. 

Anatomy and Perspective, the Funda- 
mentals of Figure Drawing, by Charles 
Oliver, 95 pp., 9^/4 x 7'/2, 95 b/w illus., A 
Studio Book, Viking Press, $7.95 

Anatomy and perspective are of no 
apparent significance in completely ab- 
stract kinds of art, but it is a well-known 
fact that our major "modern" artists 
went through rigorous traditional train- 
ing before they abandoned the old rules 
of realistic art and began to express 
themselves in some novel idiom. It's safe 
to State that the fundamental training 
has left indelible marks on the masters of 
contemporary art. 

The author doesn't believe that his 
book can teach you to draw the nude fig- 
ure. Only constant practice can do that. 
The human figure is an intricate ma- 
chine, and a beautiful one, as the ancient 
Greeks and artists of the Renaissance 
fuUy realized. Every serious artist devel- 
ops his own ideas about drawing. but ba- 
sic proportions and forms remain valid, 
and careful Observation of the model is 
necessary. 

Oliver is an artist, not an anatomist. 
He does list the names of the most im- 
portant muscles, but pays more attention 
to the changing oflinesasa figure bends, 
sits or turns. Eyes, nose, mouth, ears are 
shown from diverse angles because be- 
ginners seldom notice that these, like all 
parts of the head and body, look difi'er- 
ent from every viewpoint. Proportions 
are shown in simple diagrams. Arms, 
legs, hands. feet, shoes, gloves, hats, col- 
lars, drapery are briefly explained in 
geometric as well as illustrative forms. 
One of the author's best advices is not to 
erase every little mistake at once— a bad 
habit of most art students; mistakes 
should be erased only after they've been 
corrected. 

A small chapter is devoted to basic 
perspective, useful in figure drawing. 
The pictures include works by Ingres, 
Rubens, Holbein, Seurat, among others. 
The small book is a good starting point, 
as it's perhaps easier to understand and 
to follow than a big volume. r.f. 

Art Treasures of Eastern Europe, by An- 
thony Rhodes, 40 color plates, 220 illus. 
in monochrome. 279 pp., 12 x 8'/:, G. P. 
Putnam's Sons, $25. 

This book fills a long unmet need, for it 
deals with countries- Yugoslavia, 
Czechoslovakia, Poland, Hungary, Ro- 

American Artist 



i«y 4.JH 



SUMMER TRAVEL, Continued 



CAPE COD 

Painting Vacation on scenic and historic Cape Cod 
Seascape and Landscape painting in all media in 
studio and on location. Nine day course starting on 
the third week ot the month Room; Board; Course— 
$230 & up 

Write for course description and brochures 
PETER JOHNS CAPE COD STUDIO OF ART 

P O Box ■'£■■, Buzzards Bay, Mass 02532 
Tel. (617) 759 7335 



kicr\A/ LJ A aanc'LJinF 



FIGURES AND PORTRAITS IN WATERCOLOR 

PHOEBE FLORY 

(Author, in collaboration with Dorothy Short and 
Eliot O'Hara, of Portraits in The Making and Water- 
color Portraiture ) 

IUI V 1 Q7Q Intensive two-week courses for ex- 
üULl l«l/ O perienced painters and beginners. 

Write: The Phoebe Flory Watercolor School 
Main St., Mont Vemon. NH 03057 



NEW MEXICO 




</> 
</) 

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S o b 

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Devoted exciusively to the 

art and techniques 

of creating leaded stained glass. 

Comprehensive two week seminar Workshop 
trainmg you from initial design to actual 
finished art panel. 

Instructions, lectures, all materials, 
room, meals, recreation at fabulous ghost 
ranch in northern New Mexico. 

Under $500.00 all inclusive 
September and October. 

For illustrated brochure, write 

^ylrtjiorxzons 

P.O. Box 4605 Sanfa Fe, New Mexico 87501 




HANDWEAVING 



Complete 6 week courses May-Oct 
in spinning, dyeing, Navaho and floor 
loom weaving. Accoms meld 

Arroyo Seco (Taos) 
New Mexico 87514 
Tel 5057762353 




ART SCHOOL DIRECTORY 

Send 500 to 
AMERICAN ARTIST 

165 West 46th St., New York, N.Y. 10036 



mania. and Bulgaria thal arc rarciy 
mcntit)ncd inonc-volumc historiesofart 
and arc virtually igiiDrcd in College 
courses. Nor arc thcrc chaplcrs on thcsc 
arcas in jX)pular Huropcan tourisi 
iiuidcs. such as Iraveler^ (iuiJc lo l'.u- 
rope^s Art, lllusiriitcd Ciuiclc to Grcai Art 
in Eiiropc. and sinnlar volumcs. In ihc 
caseofthe Soviel Union, wc have al leasl 
Art Treasurcs in Russin, a McGraw-Hil! 
publication. The stream of American 






\\/.._ 



Budapest. Bucharest. and even Sofia is 
increasing rapidly. To such vacationers 
this book can be warnily recommcnded. 
although ildoes not contain complete in- 
forniation on the nuiseums and uaileries, 
listed at the end ofthe book. Such details 
as their exact locations. opening hours. 
and admission tees must be obtained 
t'roni the various national tourist inl'or- 
mation ccnters. 

One more deticiency must be men- 
tioned. C'hronologically. Art Treasurcs 
stops in the middle of the 19th Century. 
Yet in the past hundred-odd years. 
C zechoslovakia gave us the painters 
Mucha and Kupka; Hungary. the mys- 
terious Csontvary; and all six countries 
made contributions t(^ modern archi- 
tecture. 

Most oi the art treasurcs illustrated in 
the book are ecclesiastical. Amomi the 
highlights are the St. Vitus Cathedral in 
Prague and the cathedral at F:s/.tergom. 
northvvest of Budapest. Many süperb 
monasteries. (illed with Bv/antine 
frescoes or Ciothic panels. arc to be 
found in remote arcas. far from the well- 
paved highways. Mr. Rhodes is a süperb 
guide through two thousand years ofart 
history; his survey includes triumphal 
arches. amphitheatres. and pagan tem- 
ples built in Dalmatia in the (inal cen- 
turies ofthe Roman timpire. Aking with 
paintings. sculptures. and buildings. wc 
are shown elaborate and precious ob- 
jects made by skilltul artisans. A valu- 
able appendix is "Biographical Notes on 
Artists"; except for a few of Cierman. 
Jrench. or Italian origin. none can be 
fbund elscwhere in any but the most en- 
cyclopedic relerence works. a.w. 

Italian Drawinjjs in the Albertina, ed. by 

Walter Koschat/ky. Konrad Oberhuber. 
and lickhart Knab, 56 black/whitc illus., 
l()Oincolor.322pp.. 12': x 10. New York 
Graphic Society. Cireenwich. C'onn., 

$32.50 

This volunie can serve as an excellent in- 
troduction to the world's iireatest collec- 
tion of graphic art. Located in the his- 
toric center o^ Vienna. near the Opera, 
the Albertina is named for its founder. 
Duke Albert ( asimir August von Sach- 
sen-Teschen (1738-1822). a connoisseur 
who was passionately interested in mas- 
ter drawings at a time when only paint- 
ings and .sculptures were generally re- 
garded as worth acquiring. He and his 
wifecollected drawings by Dürer. Raph- 



RUIDOSO, NEW MEXICO 

CARRIZO 

ART AND GRAFT 

WORKSHOPS 

at Carrizo Lodge 
among cool, tall pines 
JUNE-JULY-AUGUST 
and OCT. . . . Our 18th year 

Dorothy Archer, Acrylic 
Margaret Campbell, Acrylic 
Carl R. Cogar, 

Oil, Watercolor, Acrylic 
Robert A Gartland, 

Watercolor, Drawing 
Freda Grissom, Jewelry, 

Steam Casting, Lost Wax Method 
Harry B. Hollander, Plastics 
Tom Knapp, Draw, Paint, Sculpture 
Ben Konis, Oil, Rastel, Portraits 
Virginia Peirce Lehman, 

Portraiture, Oil 
K. Laidlaw Palmer, Oil, Watercolor 
Ted Robertson, Charcoal, 

Oil, Portrait 
Darold Dean Smith, Jewelry, 

Casting, Fabrication 
Frederic Taubes, Oil 
Jerri Warren, Drawing, Sketching 

WRITE OR CALL: 

P. H. Greggerson 
Drawer A 

Ruidoso, N.M. 88345 
(305) 257-2375 



GOETZ ART SCHOOL 

Of Santa Fe 

Box 2446, Santa Fe, New Mexico 87501 




Ranchos de Taos Church-oil 

SUMMER- 1973 

Flgure - Portralf - Landscape - Still Life 
Oil - Watercolor - Drawing - Pastel 



R.V. Goetz Workshops 

For local art groups in your area, write: 

800 N.E. 21st, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 13105 



NEW YORK 



CHAUTAUQUA ART SCHOOL 

REVINGTON ARTHUR 

Painting Classes in all Media 

June 25-August 25 

Summer Resort-Gallenes-Exhibitions 

For Information Write 

ART SCHOOL 

Chautauqua, N. Y. 14722 



64 



American Artist 



mßm 



acl. Rubens. Rcnibrandt. and othcr fa- 
nK)us mastcrs. Haifa ccnlury aftcr Duke 
Albert's death. pari of ihe family's pal- 
ace was iransformed inli) a museum and 
named (\)lleelion Alberlina. In Mareh 
1945 llie buildinu was heavily damaued 
by aerial bombardment; luekily. llic 
treasures by then far morc numerous 
tlian the leuaev of the Duke had been 
slored elsewhere for safekeeping. It look 

moderni/.e ihe interior of the Albertina 
to allow for the newest melhods oi' li^lil- 
ing and inslallalicHi. 

Alongvviih more than a million prints. 
the museum owns more than 40 thou- 
sand drawings and watercolors. Inevita- 
blv, only a fraetion of these masterworks 
ean be displayed at one time. Not all o\' 
the 156 works reprodueed in the present 
volume are likelv to be hani:inii durinii 
the course of any visit to Vienna. Henee. 
every well-traveled art lover will be de- 
liuhted to see this seleetion. (New York 
Graphie Soeiety has also published Dü- 
rer Dniwin^s In the A Ihcrilna and Master 
Drawini^s in the A/hertina.) AnicMig spe- 
eial works ineluded in this volume are 
F'ra Angelico's Christ on the Cross (pen 
and watercolor). Leonardo da Vinei's 
Apostle (silverpoint and pen). three 
drawiniis bv Michelaniielo. and ei^ht by 
Raphael. But the works by the less 
widely known artists are alst) feasls for 
the eyes. 

The history o{^ the Albertina and its 
siiinitieance are well eovered in a sub- 
stantial introduetion that is interspersed 
with small blaek /white reproduetions. 
Ihe pictorial seetion is made up of full- 
page plates provided with a seholarlv 
eommentarv. Ihe richness and variety v>\' 
the book make elear why so many art 
lovers have spent many hours in the 
spaeious galleries of the Albertina. I his 
plaee akme is worth the four-thousand 
mile trip to Viennal a.w. 

Paintin^ Seascapes, A Creative Ap- 
proach, by John Raynes. 120 pp.. 8' 4 x 
II. over 65 b/w illus.. 16 ct)lor plates. 
bibliog.. index. Watson-Guptill. $10.95 

This handsomely produeed horizontally 
oblong volume is unusual in its verv con- 
temporary illustrations of the sea and all 
its aspeets: roeks. waves. sky. clouds. 
shore. sand. trees. boats. figures. pebbles. 
seashells. crabs. wharves. lishinji aear. 

Cr ^^ 

and so on. The simplihcation o\' Ibrms 
and the dramatization of colors and val- 
ues are extremely helpful. as the sea is 
never static the way a landseape may ap- 
pear to be. The water is in constant mo- 
tion. but this motion is never hapha/.ard 
and arbitrary. but rhythmie and inevit- 
able. Beginners lind it ditficuit to under- 
sland and to depicl this eonstant ehange; 
they are likely to paint the waves as 
something made of eonerete. 

The book shows how waves. ripples. 
surf, and rt)eking boats form patterns 
thatcan be drawn and painted in a more 



or less realistic style, according to one's 
feelings. At any rate, the seaseape is an 
artistic challemie well worth faeina. 

Besides the truly wonderful pietures. 
John Raynes gives ample deseription of 
tools and m.aterials in oil. watereolor. 
and acrylie teehniques. He reeommends 
easels and other equipment. teils you 
about pigments. the laying out of your 
palette. eolor mixing. sketching. the use 

tion. He explains how you can study the 
waves. how to hnd the right view. and 
whateverel.se you might wish to know on 
this subjeet. Works by Hokusai. Turner, 
and Whistler Supplement the author's 
own impressive ereations. r.f. 

Early Netherlandish Paintinu, by Susan 
Urbaeh. trans. by Mari Kultna. 26 pp. 
text. 9 X 8, 48 plates. Taplinger. $7.95 

If Budapest is out of the wav for the art- 
eonscious tourist. w hat about lis/terüom. 
a small Danube River town north o{ 
Hunuarv's eapital? Yet I:s/.teriiom. in its 
Christian Museum, displays some ex- 
traordinary panels of early Netherland- 
ish origin. Its Man of Sorrows by a fol- 
lower o{' Memling. a l'iri^in and ChilJ 
group by a master of Bruges. and several 
other pietures reprodueed m this an- 
tholotiv make one wonder whether one's 
(irand Tour should not inelude the 
eountries behind the no longer .so very 
opaque Iron Gurtain. 

The majoritv o\' the pietures in this 
book come from Budapest's renowned 
Museum of Fine Arts. One must not ex- 
peet many familiär names. though. The 
book's 15th and early 16th eentury mas- 
ters are known to experts onlv. with the 
possible exeeptions oi' Petrus Christus 
and Cierard David. Besides. in most 
eases deeades oi' researeh have faiied to 
establish the painter's name. Before the 
High Renaissanee. few pietures were 
signed. let alone dated. so the best the 
seholars eould do was to conneet a group 
of stylistieallv similar pietures to, say. a 
"Master oi' the Magdalen Legend" ae- 
tive in Brüssels around 1500. to a "fol- 
lower of Memling or Bo.sch." or simply 
to a "North Netherlandish Master." 

Yet the faet that we know next to noth- 
ing about the maker oi' a partieular pie- 
ture does not mean that he was neees- 
sarily insignifieant. Lor. as the 
introductory text teils us. what is now 
Duteh. Belgian. or northern Lrench ter- 
ritory was divided in the late Middle 
Ages into many prineipalities blessed 
with wealth and a very hiuh deuree of 
eulture. and bishops as well as laymen 
spent Ibrtunes to eommission great altar- 
pieees by lirst-rate praetitioners oi' art. 
Ölten, remarkable pietures went into 
private resitlenees: " Ihe well-tt)-do eiti- 
/ensenriehed their homes with small de- 
votional paintings {)i' splendid quality: 
iheir features were imnu)rt»ili/ed. as it 
were. m ihr Company oi' the Virgin 
Mary" Among ihe patrt>ns were also vis- 



SUMMER TRAVEL. Continued 



)0H^i 



N A. 
A. W.S 



WATERCOLOR SCHOOL 

• TECHNIQUES 

• VALUES 

• CONTROL 

WOODSTOCK, N.Y. 12498 
1973 • JULY 2 -AUG. 4 



VERMONT 



GEORGE CHEREPOV 

Noted artisl. leachcr and auUu)r. 
invites vou to paint with him- 
VERMONT. her mountains. forests. 
mcadtms and lakcs; her villagcs 
and her people. 

.lULY AUGUST OCTOBF.R 

You paint on localion but live 
at eomtbrtable. üracioiis North 
Branch Ulub with its uiiique 
studio, high in the Green Miiun- 
lains. A part o\' the Mt. Smiw 
arts and crafl eomplex. including 
weaving. theatre. musie. as well 
as all vaeation sporls. 

\'or reservalions and inquiries. address: 

north 
branch club 

Mt Snow, Vermont 05356 

802-464-3319 

212-972-5362 (N.Y.) 




VIRGINIA 



VIRGINIA 

ART 

INSTITUTE 

Three-Year Career Courses in Commer- 
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with Diploma 

Part time Day, Evening & 
Summer Courses 

Photography-Graphics Design-Drawing 
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Morton P. Traylor 

Founder-Director 

2007 Earhart Street 
Charlottesville. Va. 22903 



February 1973 



65 



SUMMER TRAVEL. Continued 

CANADA 



THE BANFF CENTRE 
School of Fine Arts 

in the heart of the Canadian Rockies. 

Visual Arts, all levels, April thru Sept. 

Drawing & Painting, Ceramics, Weaving, 

Photography, Film/TV. 

Also Dance, Theatre Arts, Music. 

For calendar and further particulars write: 
School of Fine Arts, Banff, Alberta, Canada. 



MEXICO 



THE 



TAUBES 



Art 
Courses 



Charlotte Art League 

CHARLOTTE, NORTH CAROLINA 

February 12-16, 1973 

For Information wnte: Mrs Em Burbridge 
137 Hidalgo Sur, Saltillo, Coah, Mexico 



MISCELLANEOUS 



1973 PAINTING WORKSHOPS 

of T.H. Hewitt (Since 1956) 

GEORGE POST 

MEXICO • JULY 

BUD SHACKELFORD 

BRITISH COLUMBIA • AUGUST 

REX BRANDT 

CORNWALL • SEPTEMBER 

write: T.H. Hewitt. P.O. Box 2292 
San Francisco, Cal. 94126 



CARIBBEAN 

PAINTING WORKSHOP 

April 29 to May 9 

Puerto Rico-St Thomas-St John 

Write to: Robert F. Calrow 

P.O. Box 2118 Grand Central Station. N.Y. N.Y. 10017 

Reservatloni cloee March 29 




the 

good 

neighbor. 



The American Red Gross 




advertising contributed for the public good ' 









iting merchants, bankers, and diplomats 
from abroad, who spread the fame of 
Nethcrlandish painting, especially 
throughout Italy. 

Though each of the artists represented 
in this book has a clear-cut individuality, 
there was, to a degree. a common de- 
nominator: ". . . the chief yardstick of 
artisticexcellence was verisimilitude, the 
eamest reflection of reaUty ... the Neth- 
crlandish masters could portray the liv- 

;.^^ r.w,-. *U ,^ . ._ *',, 1 j : a »1, - 1 • I. • 

lii^ law. iiiv uiiioiuiu^ iiuvvci, llic II^IU 

radiating through a window, the dark- 
ness of a wood, or the fine shadings of 
the skin. Perhaps Nethcrlandish paint- 
ing is the most faithful mirror which any 
artist ever produced to reflect reality." 

The general introduction of this topic 
is a bit Short, being an essay of iess than 
4,000 words. But those eager to learn 
more about the "First Golden Age of 
Nethcrlandish Painting," and also about 
certain major figures not presented in the 
two Hungarian museums (such as the 
Van Eyck brothers and Roger van der 
Weyden). can turn to the most author- 
itative work on the subject, Erwin 
Panofsky's Earlv Nethcrlandish Painiin^, 
published by Harvard University Press 
two decades ago, and duly mentioned 
here in the bibliography. 

Susan Urbach's brief commentaries 
facing the reproductions contain all the 
historic and iconographic information 
the layman requires. The pictures are 
well reproduced in their glowing colors; 
often, important details are also shown. 

A.W. 

Culture and Society in Venice, 1470- 
1790, by Oliver Logan, 344 pp., illus- 
trated, 9x6, Charles Scribnefs Sons, 
$12.50 

Daily Life in Venice at the Time of Casa- 
nova, by Maurice Andrieux, 232 pp., il- 
lustrated, 8'/: x 6, Praeger, $9 

Since Venice, the Queen of the Lagoon, 
is on the itinerary of most Americans 
vacationing in Europe, these two schol- 
arly yet lucidly written and thoroughly 
readable books should find a wide au- 
dience. Oliver Logan's narrative begins 
at the highpoint of the Republic when it 
ruled the eastern shore of the Adriatic as 
well as many islands in the Mediter- 
ranean. At the end of the 15th Century, 
however, Venice began to decline, and 
by 1790 she had lost all of her colonial 
empire, nearly all of hercommercial im- 
portance, and was reduced to the Status 
of a pleasure city for rieh Europeans who 
were eager to see her splendid palaces 
and churches, or merely out to have un- 
limitcd fun. (The end of the Republic 
came when the last Doge, unable to offer 
resistance to the troops of Napoleon, re- 
signed in 1797.) 

Both authors are more interested in 
the intellectual and artistic life of the Ve- 
netians than in the foreign affairs or do- 
mestic strife of their city-state. Readers 
of^ American Artist will find of particular 



66 



interest the chapters "Artistic Theory 
and Propaganda for the Artist," Patron- 
age and Collecting of Art," and "The 
Visual Arts" in Dr. Logan's book, and 
the chapter on painting in Maurice An- 
drieux' volume (the title of which refers, 
of course, to the celebrated Venetian 
gambler, spy, man about town, and 
writer Giacomo Casanova, whose dates 
were 1725 to 1798). 

In the first book we encounter Gior- 
giOuc, Tiliaii, Tiniureiiü, Veronese. and 
their tbllowers, while the second book is 
dominated by Tiepolo, "who brought 
some of the old glory of Veronese back 
in the autumn of Venice, a master of 
miraculous fertility and speed." Among 
the lesser painters the pastelist Rosalba 
Carriera must here be mentioned, one of 
the very few women active in the arts 
prior to 1800: "The whole feminine as- 
pect of the Century is apparent in her 
work." 

Both books are adequately illustrated 
and have ample scholarly notes. a.w. 

Acrylic for Sculpture & Design, by Clar- 
ence Bunch, 144 pp., 1 1 x 8^/4, fully illus- 
trated in b/w. Van Nostrand Reinhold, 
$11.95 

Acrylic has become a sort of magic 
household word. Thanks to tv commer- 
cials, every housewife knows by now that 
table tops and tableware made of acrylic 
look like glass but won't break when hit 
with a hammer, and acrylic floor polish 
is harder and more beautiful than any 
wax. Artists have been using acrylic col- 
ors for years, and fabulous transparent 
or translucent sculptures, realistic as well 
as abstract or nonobjective, have been 
created from acrylic, mysteriously and 
poetically illuminated from the bases or 
by other lights. Such sculptures, when 
flawlessly made, are often breathtaking. 

New materials have always been used, 
at first, like older ones, before artists or 
craftsmen discover new methods and 
shapes for them. This is true for acrylic 
too. Many artists and designers employ 
the new synthetic material merely to re- 
place the heavier, costlier, and more 
fragile glass and the hard-to-work met- 
als. But acrylic has tremendous poten 
tialities of its own. These ought to be ex- 
plored in creative, original manner by 
many. 

Clarence Bunch illustrates and dis- 
cusses many of the most admirable 
acrylic sculptures and objects in this 
book so that the reader might be inspired 
by the wealth of aesthetic creations pos- 
sible in the new substance. Besides list- 
ing the materials, the book deals with 
20th-century sculpture, furniture, and 
jewelry in acrylic. It shows how acrylic 
can be sawed, cut, routed, drilled, and 
bent with simple hand tools, just like 
wood or metal. It can also be bonded, 
embossed, annealed, thermo-formed— 
and many of the thermo-forming proc- 

Continued overleaf 
American Artist 



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A Century of Modern Painting, by Jo- 
seph-Emile Muller and Frank Elgar, 324 
illus., 290 in color, 192 pp., 12'/^ x 9'a 
Tudor, $15 

There can never be enough books on this 
subject, for laymen have different needs, 
different levels of education, different 
roads to art. Hence, the present volume 
will bejust right for some, while to oth- 
ers it will be either too "highbrow" or too 
"lowbrow." Yet to this reviewer, the ap- 
proach taken by the authors is quite rea- 
sonable. They neatly slice the period 
from the early 1860's to the late 1960's 
into twelve chunks, allowing the reader 
to assimilate, one by one, all the impor- 
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pressionism to Op Art. Astonishingly, 
the haste to develop new, revolutionary 
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have watched the proliferation of fash- 
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Indeed, the authors are aware that in 
the past hundred years the various 
"schools" and "movements" have suc- 
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erage gallery-goer cannot be blamed for 
being uneasy when facing works by, say, 
the Cubists, even if, to the more sophis- 
ticated, Cubism by now is "old hat." 

In the final chapter. dealing with artis- 
tic creations of the last 25 years, Mr. El- 
gar points out the many difficulties that 
exist both for the makers and the con- 
sumers of art in the era of atomic fission: 
"We are now living in an age in which 
the validity of the old humanist prin- 
ciples is being challenged and the effi- 
ciency of our tools has increased enor- 
mously . . . How can man reconcile 
himself to a world which overwhelms 
him? How can the artist who is tempted 
to adopt an attitude of refusal, isolation, 
ordespair, manage to fulfill himself both 
in the world and against the world?" 

As this sample shows, the text is writ- 
ten in a restrained philosophical spirit. 
The numerous reproductions, while 
small,are adequateand clear. a.w. 



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m 



The Bookshel f 

In the Paris of Gertrude Stein 



"> 

^ 




^^ 




By ALFRED WERNER 

Jewish News Art Critic 

The Paris Tribüne was 
issued from 1917, when it 
began as the Army Edi- 
tion of the Chicago Tri- 
büne, to 1934, when the 
Depression forced it to cease 
publication. Although everybody 
called it simply the Paris Tri- 
büne, this daily newspaper 
became the European edition of 
the Chicago Tribüne. 

Whatever its name, it made 
use of some of the ablest among 
the expatriates, who served as 
editors, reporters, feature writ- 
ers or copy editors. Among these 
staff members or contributors, 
who made indelible impacts on 
American journalism and eveh 
literature, were Maxwell Boden- 
heim, Kay Boyle, Ford Madox 
Ford, Ehot Paul, Vincent 
Sheean, William L. Shirer, 
James Thurber and, of course, 
Henry Miller. 

The present book is an anthol- 
ogy of pieces that appeared in 
the Tribüne. To most readers, 
the lives, loves and hatreds of 
the Americans who congregated 
on the Left Bank between the 
two World Wars have become 
romantic myths, studded with 
cliches like "golden era," 
"moveable feast" and, of 
course, "The Lost Generation." 
What the period and the locality 
were like can be gathered from 
the more than 200 pieces cuUed 
from the yellowed crumbling 
files of the Tribüne. 

I should have said "guessed" 
rather than gathered. One writer 
(represented in the book) aptly 
insisted that the Cafe du Dome, 
which had been virtually trans- 
formed into an American bar, 
was "an atmosphere" rather 



THE LEFT BANK REVISITED. 
Selections from the Paris Tri- 
büne 1917 - 1934. Edited 
by Hugh Ford. Foreword by 
Matthew Josephson. The 
Pennsylvania State Univer- 
sity Press, $12.50. 

IllllUIIIUIIIIIIIIliillllllllilllllll 

than a place, and, as such, could 
be feit, but not described. This 
may very well be true of the 
entire Left Bank or, at least, of 
its heart, the celebrated Mont- 
parnasse. 

Spirit of Paris 

Nonetheless, the aroma, the 
spirit of Paris in the final years 
of the Third Republic is evoked 
by the selections. Being newspa- 
per items, they are short, rang- 
ing from one paragraph to little 
essays of no more than 15 para- 
graphs. They are informal, light, 
anecdotal; some are quite super- 
ficial (and occasionally not fac- 
tually accurate). 

Ephemeral as they are, they 
exude an immediacy, authentic- 
ity and freshness for which one 
will look in vain in scholarly 
tomes dealing with that long 
gone era. There are differences 
in quality, in the manner of 
approach. Yet all writers, from 
those who, in the meantime, 
have achieved immortality, 
down to those whose names have 
fallen into oblivion, had one sen- 
timent in common: an unending 
love for "The Quarter," to which 
they had exiled themselves tem- 
porarily, especially for its pleas- 
ant ambiance and its unpuri- 
tanical freedom. With Gertrude 
Stein, they would have agreed, 
America is my country but 
Paris is my home." 

The more sophisticated would 
have quoted another Stein 



aphorism: "Paris was where 
the 20th Century was." 

Conceivably. a very large per- 
centage of these refugees from 
Greenwich Village, and its 
equivalents in Chicago, Boston 
and other American cities. were 
far less creative than they clai- 
med. Possibly, the vast majority 
were what Freud once termed 
"half-artists." 

The Tribüne writers are very 
candid about these would-be- 
geniusses, most of whom had 
come to the Left Bank to escape 
the restrictions of Prohibition: 
"For hours at a time, they sit on 
the terraces (of the Montpar- 
nasse cafes), talking of Heaven 
knows what or staring into 
Space." 

They did not seize the marvel- 
ous opportunity of imbuing the 
country 's culture: "Few Ameri- 
cans in Montparnasse could read 
French with ease, and still fewer 
could speak more than enough to 
Order their drinks." 

Many Odd Characters 

Too many of them were just 
odd characters. But even if only 
one out of 10 Latin Quarter 
"aesthetes" eventually devel- 
oped into a genuine artist, this 
was enough to justify the omni- 
presence of the mere idlers: 
"The nine who provide the 
milieu may be excused for the 
sake of the tenth." 

The lOpercent who were truly 
creative included, apart from 
those mentioned above. talents 
like Sherwood Anderson, George 
Antheil, Aaron Copland. E.E. 
Cummings, John Dos l*assos, 
Theodore Dreiser, Isadora Dun- 
can, Ernest Hemingway, Edgar 
Lee Masters, Ezra Pound, Man 
Ray and, of course, Leo and Ger- 
trude Stein. 

(See PARIS— Page 26) 



al 

with the il 

able-bodie» 

for the carl 

Vi«! 

All . e 

troopers stj 
victims frl 
umns. 

They a« 
but as a ci 
the elderll 
and those I 
in the rowj 
into the 
them in t) 

I saw dl 
and woi 
hands andl 
ing housea 
who wer( 
undernourl 
patched-ui 
ven and 



Suii( 



Hounf 
Mon. thri 



GREEI 



Tl 



:r ii'^ 



es 

0^ 



in 

OD 

z 



CO 
Od 



00 






Paris 

(Continued from Page 12) 

The Steins had money and 
bought unpopulär contemporary 
art. Yet most of the writers, 
composers and artists lived 
frugaliy on ihe smali sums they 
eamed and, far from being ine- 
briates, were often too poor to 
buy any liquor. 

They were poor, but, as one 
survivor, Matthew Josephson, 
remarks in the introduction to 
the volume, they were "never 
happier." Speaking of the Cre- 
ators rather than the destroyers 
(and self-destroyers), Wambly 
Bald, who was on the Tribüne 
Staff around 1930, defends his 
group against mahcious gener- 
alizations bordering on slander: 

"We weren't parasites; paint- 

ers painted, writers wrote ..." 
Moreover, the real intellec- 
tuals were famihar with the 
experiments and innovations 
that were born in the city which 
harbored Picasso, Joyce and 
Stravinsky - they simply did not 
always communicate their 
insights. 

The editor's interest centers 
on the social and cultural rela 
tions between the United States 
and France, on painting, music, 
the theater, the little magazines 
and little presses, and the Pleth- 
ora of books published by the 
emigres. There is less to be 
found on the Paris of the garcons 
and garcones; of the night- 
clubs where couples tangoed, 
body to body, to the syncopated 
excitement of the Saxophone; of 
the big parties, which started in 
the early evening, and continued 
into the morning in rounds of 
titillating talk, drinking and sex- 
ual promiscuity. 
The painter Pascin, whose sui- 



SEN. HENRY 

'SCOOP' 

JACKSON 

JOINS 

MOSHE 
RIVLIN 

AT UJA SPECIAL GIFTS 
MARCH 13th 



cide and funeral are reported 
here, was, outwardly, a typical 
representative of the more flam- 
boyant aspects of the Jazz Age. 
The Tribüne item describes him 
as "the most wanton and most 
zestfully voluptuous of any mod- 
ern painters." 

According lo ihis Journalist, 
Pascin "killed himself because 
at 45 he had tasted all the joys of 
üfe and wanted to go out in a 
blaze of glory" (actually, Pascin 
hanged himself in his studio in a 
fit of despair). 

Titles Teil Story 
There were other notorious 
suicides. But the pieces deal, as 
a rule, with less morbid subject 
matter. Some of the titles teil the 
Story: "Paul Morand (the 
French writer) Knocks Exiles 
Who Like Paris Better Than 
America"; "American Girl (Syl- 
via Beach) Conducts a Novel 
Bookshop Here"; "Sinclair 
Lewis Writing a Novel" (Ann 
Vickers); "American Artist 
(Alexander Calder) Wins Praise 
for His Work in Wire"; "Ger- 
shwin Picks Americans in Paris 
for Next Jazz Symphony"; "Sea- 
son's Most Brilhant Book is Ger- 
trude's Stein's Biography (The 
Autobiography of AUce B. Tok- 
las)." And many more tidbits in 
this vein. 

Most of the activities ran down 
soon after the stock market 
Crash of October, 1929, which 
indicated the end of post-war 
prosperity. Within the next three 
or four years, most of the Ameri- 
can exiles, now without funds, 
sailed back to their homeland. 

Hunger haunted the Left 
Bank. One of its victims was the 
Tribüne. A writer summed it up, 
sardonically, "Painters of still 
lifes are eating their modeis - 
pears, oranges, grapes - before 
they are copied on canvas. This 
explains why Montparnasse 
artists are going to abstract 
art." 

Hugh Ford, Professor of 
Enghsh at Trenton State Col- 
lege, divided the rieh material 
into several sections; within 
each section, the pieces are 
arranged in chronological order. 
There are photographs as well 
as drawn portraits of many of 
the dramatis personae. The fas- 
cinating book is furnished with a 
"Paris Tribüne Who's Who" and 
a very detailed index. 



* * * 



Alfred Werner has lectured 
and written books on Chagall, 
Dufy, Modigüani, Pascin, Vla- 
minck and other artists of the 
School of Paris. 




(Contiil 

ple for sirl 

there no m- 

zation in 

asked mys<i 

by a natioi 

thinkers, t] 

Why do we 

just for beii 

Those weil 

during the« 

when a teri 

going on un( 

Concord Squ. 

a daze whei 

from the me| 

out all your 

things on tl 

you!" I empt| 

and looked d( 

pictures of n\ 

Card, a comb 

few coins. 

EasI 
With all n 
sions on the 
thought now 
material ass 
ier todie. Wit 
marks only 
have lost all 
gracious sho 
denly, like a t 
the Vibration 
tary trucks 
Square, and 1 
the half-dead 

Helmeted 
coats with h 
began loadin 
each truck. T 
together so tig 
not turn aroil 
were two ar 
convoy of r^ 
behind them. 
idea where th 
They brought 
jails and loa 
transport. We 
whole city cj 
wanted to sho 
lation what th 
they resisted 
Third Reich. 

Someonlook 
seeing us goii 
destination. t 
others who n| 
Some of the 
jump from thej 
shot instantly 
saw some your| 
down in the m 
the suburbs of| 

^rhe truck I 
out. This sav 
stopped and 
truck to trän 
ceeding truck 
the Auschwit/j 
arrived late: (|- 
day was finis 
At the big g 
read a sign 




•iv^ .,2 



Ari 



^<^M 



c 




\ 



siipcrb. Thosc of Jules Dou, on thc otlicr 
liand, arc chicfly cvidcncc of a State of 
mind. The real problepi comes in tlx: 
work of artists which is so stränge as to 
offer no real coniparison with western art, 
artists like Johann Knupher, Adolf WolHi 
or Augustin Lesage who appear to have 
invented entirely new visual Systems, to 

rYnn^ss fh(Mr nrivnfo rpvdntinns 

Perhaps it's all to do with contcxt. I 
think the author could have put some 
imao-cs froni Tantra into this book and we 
would have accepted theni as Schizo- 
phrenie art and conversely the work of 
Johann Kupher could have been slipped 
into the Tantra show and nobody would 
have been noticed. We are terriblv 
dependent on being told how we are 
expected to react, and it is so difficult to 
deal with a new image direct that I suppose 
it is not surprising that Koger Cardinal 
has avoided the real confrontations and 
the really difficult questions that would 
then have to be ficed. 

ALASTAIR MACKINTOSH 



Geschichte der deutschen Makrei im 20. 

Jahrhundert {History of Gerwan Paintim^ in 

the loth Century), hy Paul Voi^t. Puhlished 

hy VerU^ M. DuMont Schauhen^, Cohyi^ne. 

528 pp., ///., DM 120. 

(ioethe, who died loniz before anv o{ the 

artists nientioned in this book was born, 

decreed that the tinie for national literature 

was over, and he even coined a new terni, 

Wehliteratur. It makcs even niore sense now 

to speak of 'World Art' than o^ World 

Literature. For while the poet is restricted 

to a specific national language, the painter's 

and sculptor's media nced no translation. 

This point of view is confirnied by the 

present, very coniprehensive and scholarly 

volume, whose author is the director of 

the progressive Folkwang Museum at 

Essen. Paintin<^ in Gertuany would have 

been a niorc appropriate title. In the first 

place, dozens of non-(iernian artists lived 

and worked in Cicrmany after 1900, among 

them Thorn-Prikker, Pascin, Feininger, 

and quite a few Russians, of wlioni 

Kandinsky and Jawlensky were the most 

fanious, and non-(iernians nlaved leadiniz 

roles ni avant-garde associations such as the 

Neue Kuenstler-Vereinigung and the 

ßlauer Reiter. 

Sccondly, all Schools covered by this 
book, froni Impressionisin to Op Art, are 
too closely linked with the trends and fads 
the World over to perinit anv strictlv 
German identihcation. It niight be argued, 
though, that li.\pressio}iismus was more 
prevalent in German y than in France or 
England. For one Rouault in France there 
are twenty genuine Expressionist painters 
in Central Europe! Matisse mav have been 
the hrst to have stressed the word 'expres- 
sion', yet a nude painted by Kirchner - 



hard, angular, nervous, restless, aggressive 
- is certainly more demonstrably 'Expres- 
sionist' than its calm, harmonious, almost 
classical counterpart by Matisse. 

As a matter of fact, the bulk of Vogt's 
book is devoted to a discussion of Expres- 
sionism, from its origin in the Dresden of 
1905, to the persecution by the Nazis of 
nll nrti<its hnlrrd to this niovcmcnt. Thcsc 
chapters are well written and informative, 
as is the entire book, yet they largely cover 
ground fully explored in the numerous 
available monographs on Beckmann, Kir- 
chner, Kokoschka, Marc, Nolde and their 
confreres. Of considerable merit, however, 
are the pages on their lesser known col- 
leagues, who did not j(^in the Hruecke or 
the ßlauer Reiter, anK)mr them Ludwiij 
Meidner, whose art was so passionate, so 
convulsive that even Nolde did not ap- 
proach bis unbridled emotionalism; Rudolf 
Bauer who eventuallv switched from his 
special brand of Expressionism to geo- 
metrical abstraction; and the near-forgotten 
Georg Tappert, more politically engaged 
than his fellow-Expressionists. 

Most useful are Vogt's sections on im- 
portant artists who have remained virtually 
unknown outside their native countrv 
(diese pages alone would make translation 
of the book into English worthwhile). For 
one Max Liebermann (i 847-1935) whose 
near-Impressionist pictures can be found 
in Londoii's Täte (iailery as well as in New 
York's Metropolitan Museum, there are a 
dozen Ciermans whose works, related in 
style, are yet to be included in non-German 
histories of art. Some of the Jugendstil 
artists of Munich have profited by the 
general revindication of Art Nouveau, but 
Adolf Hoelzel has, so far, not received the 
posthumous fime due to hini: though he 
belonged to the generation of Liebermann, 
this member of the Neu-l)achau School 
was one of the pioneers (^'i non-objective 
art. In the north, near Bremen, the artists' 
colony of Worpswede fiourished before 
the First World War; the greatest of its 
members was a woman, Paula Modersohn- 
Becker, who died prematurely in 1907; 
her powerfui, yet austere post-Impres- 
sionist pictures, inf^uenced bv Cuumin, Van 
Gogh and Cezaniie, when hardiv anvone 
eise in (iermany was familiär with tliese 
three, incline us to think that she might 
have outstripped most of the Expres- 
sionists in importance, had not death 
takeii her away, at the age of 3 i . 

Three decades later, the Flitlerites in- 
cluded her in the infamous 'Degenerate 
Art' exhibitioii. In this chapter, 'Art in a 
totalitariaii State', Dr. Vogt observes 
that not a single of the 25,000 artists 
who had declared their readiness to 
collaborate by applying for inclusion in 
the Haus der deutschen Kunst group show 
o'i 1937, ever rose above mediocrity (Vogt 
calls Adolt Ziegler, president of Mitler's 
Reichskunstkammer 'undoubtediv one of 




/ 

I^ . 

r 

the worst artists tt) have been active in the 
Third Reich'). In later chapters, Vogt 
deals witli the artists who eidier voluiitarily 
emigrated after 1933, or lived the lives of 
outcasts duriiig the 12 years of the 
Nazi regime, üiie, Karl Hofer, publicly 
attacked the notion that art must, above all, 
be Volkskunst, or populär art: 'Thegreater 
ana tnc more niipuiiaiit an is, che less can 
it be an art for the inasses.' The septua- 
genarian Christian Rohlfs told the Prussiaii 
Academy of Arts that they were at liberty 
to purge him, but that he would not com- 
promise his own Standards to please them. 

After 1945, German art and artists were 
free again, at least in what became the 
Federal Repiiblic of CJermany (Vogt 
deliberately exciuded from detaiied discus- 
sion the (Jerman Democratic Republic, 
Communist-dominated and, in the arts, 
still subject to its brand of Socialist 
Realism). Nearly all tendencics manifest 
in Paris, London, or New York, have 
found ech(u^s in the Bonn Republic. fhe 
youngest West German artist in the book 
is the neo-Surrealist Konrad Klapheck, 
born in the year Liebermaiin died. His 
subject matter is derived from modern 
technology (see the picture, Thc Typc- 
writer). 

The volume is richly illustrated. The 
bibliography is ample, listing not only 
books, but also exhibiti(^n catalogues as 
well as articles in scholarly Journals. 

ALFRLD WERNER 



Surrealisin: the Road to the Ahsolute, hy 
Anna Balakian. 256 pp. illus. Allen & 
l'nwin. £}. 

This is a work of 1iterar\- criticism applied 
to a movement which specificalK- rejects 
'literary' values. Miss Balakian sets cnit to 
elucidate the Surrealist State of mind b\- a 
survey of some of the French writers 
surrealists have found stiniulatini^ - 
Lautreamont, Saint-Pol-Roux, Reverdv, 
and others. Unfortun.iteK, the monistic 
attitude of the surrealists is not based on a 
theorv lit for K^u;ical aiiaivsis b\ com- 
mentators, but 011 a nuxle of experience 
apparently foreign to the author. When- 
ever there is obvious diveriience between 
her dieorv and Surrealist activitv, she falls 
back on the work 'mystique', which dots 
every page and explains iiothing. In fact, 
the surrealists reeard nivsterv-moimerinii 
With contempt, and mysticism (dependent 
upon the dualistic concept of union of Seif 
and Other) as thc deliberate rationale of 
Oppression. Ihis autho , on the contrary, 
believes that unitv is imaLrinarv, and its 
'pursuit' (her word) a deliberate act. If she 
cannot understand that the Surrealist 
demands to 'C^hamie Life' .uul to 'Trans- 
form the world' are syiKMiymous, since 
distinctions between inner life and the 
phenomenal world, between Relative and 



56 



. 'N..,>f 



26 



\ i -^ 



j 



-r 



Feasts For The Eye 



Art historian DR. WERNER is a well-known 

lecturer and the author of more than 20 

books. He is the art editor of the Encyclo- 
paedia Judaica. 

Of making many books there is no end, 
the author of Kohelet once complained. 
But it cannot possibly be said that too 
many books on art and artists of Is- 
rael are accessible to Anglo-American 
readers. Nor are those that are avail- 
able always of the highest aesthetic 
and intellectual level. Still, the art lover 
is happy to have recourse to quite a 
few tolerably good volumes — veri- 
table "Museums without Walls," to use 
Andre Malraux' celebrated phrase — and 
he is hoping that the number of such 
books will grow, as Israel's security and 
economic stability increase, and as 
more and more people discern that the 
enjoyment of art is at least as impor- 
tant to the human being as that of 
fine food and elegant clothes. 

This year, Israel is, of course, cele- 
brating the 25th anniversary of the 
United Nations resolution that led to 
the establishment of a Jewish State in 
the Holy Land. Another anniversary — 
a minor one, it is true — has been 
overlooked this year: seven decades 
have passed since the first Jewish ar- 
tist arrived in what is now Israel. I 
found a brief reference to him in an 
articie by Mordecai Narkiss, who was 
an assistant to Professor Boris Schatz 
and succeeded him as the director of 
Jerusalem's Bezalel Museum. In this 
essay, in the anthology, Israel: Its 
Pole In Clvilization, edited by Moshe 
Davis (Harper & Brothers, 1956) we 
can read: 

"As early as 1902, Abraham Neu- 
man, a now forgotten painter who suf- 
fered a tragic fate during the war in 
Poland, came to Palestine. He left only 
a few paintings in the country, land- 
scapes of Galilee, painted in the days 
when his brush was dripping with the 
freshness of youth and the influence of 
Impressionism." 

Neuman is not listed in the articie, 
"Art in Israel," by Eugene Kolb, late 
director of the Tel Aviv Museum of Art, 
that is included in Jewish Art, edited 



By Alfred Werner 



by Cecil Roth (McGraw-Hill, 1961; 
strangely, the new, revised edition of 
1971, edited by Bezalel Narkiss, a son 
of the Bezalel Museum director, omits 
this chapter altogether). Nor is Neu- 
man to be found in Painting and Sculp- 
ture In Israel, written by Haim Garrizu, 
the current director of the Tel Aviv 
Museum. The first edition appeared in 
1951 (Eshcol), the second, enlarged 
and revised edition seven years later 
(Dvir). Gamzu's book is, so far, the 
only major attempt to cover the Visual 
arts from the heroic early days of the 
Yishuv — with the establishment of 
the then very modest Bezalel School of 
Art in 1906 — to the initial years of 
the struggling State of Israel. 

Seven years is a very short time, yet, 
as Gamzu pointed out, the period be- 
tween the first and the second edition 
was one of enormous growth and ma- 
turation for Israeli art: "Modern art 
Is winning over both our younger and 
our older painters. A few of the veter- 
ans have taken a radical turn in their 
style towards the search after new 
ways . . . The same applies to the de- 
velopment of our younger sculptors." 

It Is instructive to compare the book 
of 1958 with the physically small and 
not very attractive, but nevertheless 
very usefui pioneer work, Art in Pal- 
estine, by Elias Newman, issued about 
two decades earlier (Siebel, 1939). 
Newman, himself a painter, introduces 
US to works by some of his colleagues, 
and to his own work, all done during 
the days when Palestine was still ad- 
ministered by Great Britain. All works 
shown — in black and white — in the 
little book, reveal the artists as meek 
followers of Post-Impressionists and 
Expressionists, as if unaware of Sur- 
realism and of the abstract trends 
headed by Kandinsky and Mondrian. 
By contrast, by 1958 Israel's artists 
had long stopped being conservative 
and provincial, and had caught up with 
the latest fashions — and fads — in 
Europe and the United States. 

Nevertheless, to the public at large, 
Israeli art was still identical with what 
Reuven Rubin and his coevals were 




jeriisaloiii la 



<lra>viii 



creating in a charming decorative 
style, with subject matter derived from 
a bucolic, rural life, harking back to 
the relatively untroubied days of the 
Impressionist aesthetics. It required an 
exhibition like "Art Israel: 26 Painters 
and Sculptors" which toured the United 
States and Canada in the mid-1960's 
to acquaint art lovers in the Western 
hemisphere with the fact that Israel 
was no longer an isolated, self-con- 
tained island of bliss, populated by 
flute-playing shepherds amidst olive- 



27 




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groves, but a country with constant 
strife, with almost insolvable problems 
that were bound to be echoed by the 
practitioners of the arts. 

In that Show, young road-breakers 
like Jaacov Agam, Avigdor Arikha, 
Naftali Bezem, Shamai Haber, Moshe 
Tamir and Yigael Tumarkin were intro- 
duced to the viewers who could ob- 
serve disturbing subject matter (like 
Tumarkin's Hiroshima, Crucifixion, and 
Crematorium) and note the use of new 



media, unknown to Elias Newman and 
his associates. While the exhibition is, 
of course, no longer to be seen, the 
excellent catalogue with text by Wil- 
liam C. Seitz — who had gone to Is- 
rael to make the selections — is still 
available (The Museum of Modern Art. 
distributed by Doubleday & Co. 1964). 
In the preface Seitz wams against ex- 
pecting, in the age of jet-planes, any 
homogeneity based on national char- 
acteristics among the artists, many of 
whom keep Studios in Paris as well as 
Israel. Professor Seitz was, neverthe- 
less, able to find at least one common 
denominator: 

"The intensity of the human com- 
passion, pride, intellect, and creativity 
that gave form to the State of Israel 
itself is still the prime source of ener- 
gy that activates Israeli art and gives 
it a distinct aura, whatever the style." 

About the time that Dr. Seitz' show 
was being dismantied, there appeared 
Art in Israel, edited by Benjamin Tam- 
muz and Max WykesJoyce (Chilton, 
1966). It dealt, not only with painting 
and sculpture. but with architecture, 
Grafts and design. The four authors — 
Yona Fischer, Mira Friedman, Aviah 
Hashimony and John Cheney — hero- 
ically labored with an enormous task: 
to select those they considered the 
best among several thousand men and 
women with talent and drive. The vol- 
ume, which has many good illustra- 
tions in füll color as well as in black 
and white, demonstrated that small 
Israel had taken a giant step forward 
in the arts since the old days when 
Boris Schatz, with a handfui of as- 
sistants, idealistically, yet myopically. 
endeavored to concoct what he hoped 
would be, one day, a "Jewish art." 

Those who believe that regionalism 
can survive in a cosmopolitan society 
are bound to be disappointed by the 
book, and by the selection of pictures. 
Whatever faults the texts may have — 
among them lapses into the incompre- 
hensible Jargon of our own art Journal, 
the frequent Omission of the first name 
of an artist, and, throughout the book, 
the absence of birth dates — the edi- 
tors scrupulously avoided the kitsch 
still sold in Israel to tourists who un- 
critically appreciate everything Israeli 
as tozereth ha-aretz, the fruits of a 
land and a nation that can do no 
wrong. 

What I liked, in particular, was the 
fourth and final section, on crafts and 
design. The originality and inventive- 



ness of Israel ceramists and potters, 
textile Printers and weavers, silver- 
smiths and makers of jewelry consti- 
tute one of the most cheerfui aspects 
of Israeli art. Long gone are the days 
when the country's pioneers repudiated 
as "boureeois" Invnripc ati rofinor>->/^r,4■ 

of taste! It is true that this section — 
like the preceding chapters — offers 
very little that is clearly identifiable as 
Jewish or Israeli (the exceptions are 
dolls in traditional garbs; a poster 
showing King David playing the harp; 
and a New Year's greeting card with 
religious Symbols and Hebrew letters). 
But it is a comfort to be able to report 
that all illustrated items are on as 
high an aesthetic level as the objects 
regularly displayed in New York's Mu- 
seum of Contemporary Crafts (which 
has, indeed, repeatedly played host to 
Israeli masters). 

The books mentioned so far are 
surveys that attempt to cover the field 
as comprehensibly as possible. Along 
with them, one might mention From 
the Beginning, by Karl Katz, P. P. Ka- 
hane, and Magen Broshi (Reynal & 
Company, 1968). Subtitied, "Archae- 
ology and Art in the Israel Museum, 
Jerusalem," it contains a chapter by 
Katz, "World Art in Jerusalem" that 
discusses the museum's art treasures 
from all nations and from all ages, in- 
cluding works by Israelis such as the 
venerable Anna Ticho, and Yigael 
Tumarkin, who is still in his 30's. Paint- 
ings by Israelis can also be found 
among the reproductions in Picture 
History of Jewish Civilization, edited 
by Bezalel Narkiss (Abrams, 1971). 

Less ambitious in scope and make- 
up and, of course, less expensive, are 
several albums and slim books com- 
piled and manufactured in Israel. Is- 
raeli Painters (Gazith, 1953) is large 
in format — ca. 19" by 12" — but 
contains only ten color reproductions 
on loose sheets ("ready for framing"). 
The Short introduction and thumbnail 
biographical Sketches of the artists 
are by Gabriel Talphir. Almost the same 
cast of artists, with only two excep- 
tions, appears in 10 Israel Painters 
(Dvir, 1955), with a foreword and 
Short biographies by Haim Gamzu. 
The indefatigable Gamzu also pre- 
sented us with Sculpture in Israel 
(Miklosh, 1957). It is a slim bound 
volume which is especially appreciated 
because sculpture for obvious reasons 
was, and to some extent, still is, treated 
with ambivalence in Israel. 



28 



Monographs 

Several outstanding Israeli artists 
have been the subjects of special mon- 
ographs. Though elegant in appearance 
and fairly exhaustive in treatment, they 
are not in the nature of the alarmingly 
expensive coffee table books that have 
become fashionable here in the past 
decade and are out of the reach of 
people of modest means as well as 
hard to handle and even harder to read 
and study at leisure through their ab- 
SLirdly exaggerated size and tremen- 
dous weight. Menachem Shemi (Haki- 
butz Hameuchad, 1958) has texts by 
Moshe Bassok and Eugene Kolb. It is 
a homage to the painter Shemi (1897- 
1951) who is insufficiently known here. 
"In his modesty," Kolb writes, "Shemi 
held that the artist must concentrate 
exciusively on his creative work, with- 
out paying any attention to Publicity 
and all the activity that goes with dis- 
play." Hence, the Expressionist Shemi 
— who was one of the finest colorists 
of his generation and deeply in love 
with his country that provided him with 
all the subject matter he needed — 
left a substantial oeuvre, but has re- 
mained unknown outside a small circle 
of admirers. Here, as in other volumes, 
the text appears in the Hebrew original 
as well as in English translation. Se- 
lected letters by the artist appear in 
the Hebrew section, but, for unknown 
reasons, no English translation is given. 

A celebrated man is Marcel Janco, 
who was born in Roumania in 1895 and 
emigrated to Palestine in 1941. By 
that time he was well known in artistic 
circles as one of the founders of the 
revolutionary Dada movement, a World 
War I phenomenon. Marcel Janco, by 
M. L. Mendelson (Massadah) teils how 
the artist, who had also made a name 
for himself as an avant-garde architect, 
had to flee abroad with his family from 
the Quislings in his native country. In 
Palestine Janco shed his tendency to- 
wards abstraction in order to render 
the realities of the Holy Land in a 
clearly recognizable, though vividly Ex- 
pressionist manner. Mendelson quotes 
the painter as saying, "I believe that 
the artist cannot escape from paying 
his tribute to life, while jealously safe- 
guarding like a treasure the artistic 
Standards and the craftsmanship he 
has acquired." 

Equally well-known is a younger 
man, the sabra Moshe Castel. A vol- 
ume, Castel, with texts by Michel Tapie 



de Celeyran, Howard Morley Sachar 
and others, was printed in Switzerland 
and distributed here by Wittenborn and 
Company (1968). Unfortunately, the 
book almost ignores the painter's early 
work — oils on canvas, inspired by 
Judaic lore, particularly the Kabbalah 
3nd ch3r3cteriz8d b^' fluid reds blues 
and greens, whose transparent and 
luminous quality is reminiscent of 
medieval stained-glass Windows. In- 
stead, the emphasis is on his recent 
works made with basalt. (Castel grinds 
the stone into a thin sand, mixes it 
with powdered colors, and with this 
"mud" Covers his canvas irregularly 
to the depth of one inch or more; after 
this mass has set, Castel, with a Sharp 
Instrument, incises designs that look 
like some archaic Script that one would 
wish to decipher but cannot.) 

Among Israel's graphic artists, the 
most celebrated are the late Jakob 
Steinhardt and Anna Ticho; the latter, 
dose to 80, keeps on working and 
getting better and better as the years 
flow by. Several books are devoted to 
Steinhardt, who was primarily a print- 
maker. The Woodcuts of Jakob Stein- 
hardt (The Jewish Publication Society 
of America, 1962) has texts by Leon 
Kolb (not related to the Israeli art 
historian) and Haim Gamzu, and re- 
produces more than 400 prints, from 
"Rocky Landscape" (1911) to a Por- 
trait of the Singer Marian Anderson 
(1959). Anna Ticho: Jerusalem Land- 
scapes (Lund Humphries, 1971) con- 
tains drawings and watercolors, from 
a pen-and-ink sketch, "Flowers" (1931) 
to a brush and ink work, "After the 
Rain" (1969). 



Jaacov Agam 

Jaacov Agam (printed in Switzer- 
land and distributed here by Witten- 
born and Company, 1962) contains 
texts by the artist himself. Agam's 
work can be described as painted pic- 
torial reliefs. Non-representational, they 
are aesthetically indebted to Mondrian. 
Yet the artist also points to another 
source, to the fact that he is the son 
of a rabbi and that, familiär with the 
Kabbalah, he has tried to "disassoci- 
ate the spirit from physical manner" 
and learned "the necessity of the quest 
for inner truth." 

A charmingly written autobiography 

must be mentioned here, Reuven 
Rubin's My Life, My Art (Sabra Books, 



1969). With humor and without a trace 
of self-pity, the septuagenarian recalls 
his early hardships in Roumania and 
his journeys to Italy, Zürich, and New 
York. The interesting narrative extends 
to the anxious week of the Six-Day 
War when, in Tel Aviv, Rubin and his 

familx/ e <-> I I rt I-» t '>r-^/^ *^ii»->^ ^^l^..._ u. . -i : _ 

covering a cheerfui prophecy in the 
Bible. 

There are many slim volumes and 
albums each devoted to one artist, but 
it cannot be said in every instance that 
the particular painter or sculptor really 
deserves a monograph to himself, 
while in other cases a good artist has 
been dealt with in a mediocre book 
that is likely to hurt rather than en- 
hance his reputation (poor reproduc- 
tions, stiff and awkward English trans- 
lations, cheap bindings in certain cases 
combine to create a negative Impres- 
sion of the work). On the other band, 
there are several first-rate artists about 
whom too little has been published. 
For instance, one who wishes to study 
the paintings of Mordecai Ardon — 
whose creations are offen difficult to 
grasp, and not infrequently require 
intelligent analyses — can only resort 
to exhibition catalogues (which are 
hard to locate, easily damaged, and, 
because of small edition, offen no 
longer available). A substantial book 
on the septuagenarian Ardon should 
be a "must" for Israel's publishers and 
art enthusiasts, and ought to be pro- 
duced with the collaboration of the 
artist, known to be an articulate and 
philosophical man. 

Handsome and reliable books on her 
artists are a necessity for Israel, not a 
luxury. To be able to survive, the coun- 
try's artists need Publicity; this is piain 
and simple. To attract collectors, to 
alert the committees of international 
group Shows, such as those of Venice, 
Sao Paulo, Tokyo, Pittsburgh and Kas- 
sel, there are not enough monographs 
about individual artists, and general 
books on the art of Israel. But there is 
also another factor — millions of art 
lovers inside and outside Israel would 
like to study these works in their own 
homes and at their own leisure. The 
viewing of reproductions may not be 
a Substitute for an encounter with the 
Originals. It is nevertheless pleasure- 
giving and hence, life-enhancing, as 
artists, through their sensitivity and 
skills, can help us grope our way 
through life. ■ 



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Views and Visions 



Chaim Soutine: 6 Themes 



By ALFRED WERNER 

Jewish News Art Critic 

Half a dozen self-por- 
traits by Soutine survive. 
Those in a private collec- 
tion in New York City and 
in the Musee d'Art 

Moderne de la Ville de Paris are 
the two most famous ones. 



M. 1»»- J 









from the traditional self-portrait 
in Western art where, as a rule, 
the artist presents himself as he 
would like to appear: handsome, 
strong. a prince of the world. As 
Max J. Friedlaender put it, the 
usual self-portraits "convey to 
US less what the painter looked 
like than what he wanted to look 
like." 

The two pictures teil us much 
about Soutine. They also make 
clear how far he deviated from 
the time-honored tradition. In 
the first of the two pictures. he 
appears to be holding one of his 
own works towards himself. The 
figure on the back of the canvas 
in the painting is puzzling: Is it 
supposed to be another self-por- 
trait? Was it meant as an ironic 
reference to the artist's poverty, 
to the fact that he was forced to 
use both sides of a canvas? 

The head is done in a rela- 
tively conservative manner, 
except that the lips of the pout- 
ing mouth are too thick. and 
painted in an unnatural deep 
cadmium red, and that the ears 
are too large, and abnormally 
protruding. Truculent and even 
savage, Soutine deliberately 
accentuates the crudeness of his 
features. 

"Take me as I am," the pic- 
ture shouts, "or, better still, 
don't take me, leave me alone." 
He tries to frighten us away - yet 
he himself is afraid of us. 

To call the second picture, 
owned by the museum in Paris, 
a self-portrait is not quite ade- 
quate - it is more like an outpour- 
ing of unmitigated self-hatred. 
The nose is enormous and defor- 
med. The protruding lower lip, 
painted in strong red, is as slack 
as in pictures portraying idiots. 

The eyes, Sharp and deter- 
mined in the earlier picture, are 
here small and piggish. The ears 
stand out from the head like 
wings. The Shoulders are hun- 
ched ; the arm is unusually long. 

What is the explanation of all 
of this? Rejected as a dunce by 
his parents because he did 
poorly at school, and resented b'y 
the dwellers of the shtetl as a 
"sinner" because, by drawing 
likenesses of people, he violated 
the Second Commandment, 
Chaim, early in life, feit himself 
to be an outsider, even an out- 
cast. Subsequently, in Paris, for 
many years, he struggled in obs- 
curity, without recognition, 
without a woman's warmth and 
love. 

Is it a wonder that Soutine 
never thought of himself as a 
person able to kindle love. let 
alone admiration, in others - and 
that he could not help painting 



ORIGINAL CIL PAINTING. 
LITHOGRAPHS MODERN PRINTS 



An 
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124 ELMORA AVE. 

ELIZABETH 

CLOSED ON VtONDAYS 



S h M « 







Soutine: The Pastry Cook 



himself as a wild, angry and, 
certainly, uncouth man? 
The Madwoman 

The undisciplined Bohemian 
Soutine never bothered to give 
titles to his pictures. Relieved if 
the artist even put his signaturc 
on his oils, his dealers conve- 
niently supplied the titles, inter- 
preting the works to the best of 
their ability. Hence, this particu- 
lar title need not be taken to 
mean that the subject was really 
insane. After all, in the Paris 
museum self-portrait Soutine 
made himself appear a cretin! 

At the same time, this image 
may, indeed, represent a men- 
tally disturbed woman, rather 
than an ordinary sitter seen 
through exceptionally misan- 
thropic eyes. If it were so, Sou- 
tine would not have been the first 
artist to be attracted by the psy- 
chotic - the examples of Mag- 
nasco, Hogarth, Goya. Gericault 
spring to mind. 

Soutine's picture (now in the 
museum of Tokyo) suggests an 
unfortunate creature, intense, 
tightly contained, withdrawn, 
contorted. But it is more impor- 
tant as a revelation of Soutine's 
own neurotic Personality, and of 
his uneasiness vis-a-vis female 
sitters, in particular. 

This is confirmed by his Por- 
trait of Madame Castaing (in the 
Metropolitan Museum of Art, 
New York). When she sought out 
the starving artist, this French 
lady was a good-looking. elegant 
woman of the world. She and her 
husband became the most 
ardent of Soutine's collectors. 
and for many summers he was 
their guest of honor at their 
country home near Chartres. 

Madame Castaing waited like 
a slave on her moody. ill- 
manered guest who. in her 
words. was "a character out of 
Dostoievsky". Yet the portrait 



called flattering - he was incapa- 
ble of the smallest gesture of 
gratitude. 

Soutine was the very opposite 
of his friend Amedeo Modigliani, 
who supplied nobility, elegance, 
gracefulness to sitters lacking in 
all of them, because his pictures 
are mirrors of his own aristo- 
cratic self-image. By contrast 
Soutine, the wretched ghetto 
Jew, not only did not spare him- 
self, but in his portraits of others 
also stressed the commonplace, 
the misshapen and the clumsy, 
and even went so far as to intro- 
duce it where it was not actually 
to be found - as if to avenge him- 
self on mankind for all the hurts 
he had suffered, real or 
imagined. 

An Early Still Life 

Every "nature morte" Soutine 
painted in Paris soon after his 
arrival fron his native Russia 
demonstrates the uncertainty of 
one who does not wish to Imitate 
the meticulous naturalism of 
yesterday's masters but who has 
yet a long way to go to become 
able to apply paint to canvas 
with füll control and yet free- 
dom. 

In "Still Life with Soup 
Tureen" (in the Colin CoUection, 
New York) the inanimate 
objects, clumsily arranged on a 
kitchen table, look dead indeed. 
The simple, severe painting is 
characterized by dark pigments, 
from which a few bright color 
areas emerge. The objects - the 
soup tureen, the plate with the 
giant fork on it, the two spoons. 
the wine bottle. the empty glass - 
"rest" in an awkard manner on 
the slanted table, viewed in an 
almost Cubistic manner. both 
from the front and from the top. 

There is an interesting detail 
the big fork which, as one writer 
put it, "quivers and trembles as 




Soutine: Still Life with Soup Tureen 



Cantica Hebraica Offers 
Charming Ecumenism 

By JERRY BEN-ASHER 

Jewish News Music Critic 

Herewith a formula for ecumenism: Select two 
estimable cantors (baritone Paul Kwartin of Union 
Temple, Brooklyn, and tenor Lawrence Avery of Beth 

El Synagogue, New — 

Rochelle), one statuesque one -cantors, alto soloist, harp- 

^ sichord, orchestra, chorus — 

joins this paean of praise "to 
celebrate the birth of a boy and 
the joy and promise of the cir- 



black soprano (Betty 

Jones of the San Francisco 
Opera) and one alert young 
music director (Dennis Michno 
of All Saints Episcopal Church in 
Manhattan). Combine them with 
church choir and Chamber 
orchestra. 

The result: The Cantica 
Hebraica in a concert spanning 
four centuries of Jewish liturgi- 
cal music, presented Tuesday 
evening of last week at beautiful 
All Saints by the American Con- 
ference of Cantors and the 
Church. 

Let it be noted that Hebrew 
music Sounds very well in neo- 
Gothic setting. That resonance 
which heightens the pleasures of 
listening to Palestrina or Bach 
or Handel does the same for 
William Sharlin's "Shalom Alei- 
chem" or Ben Steinberg's "Sha- 
lom Rav." The acoustics of mod- 
ern synagogues don't approxi- 
mate that reverberation, and it 
may be a loss. 

Cantica's program jelled some 
interesting facts about Jewish 
music during past centuries. For 
example, the contribution of Sal- 
amon Rossi (1570-1630), gifted 
musician of the Court of Mantua. 
The Choral Psalm 118:26-29 
("Blessed be he that cometh in 
the name of the Lord") resem- 
bles nothing so much as typical 
"a cappella"music of the Italian 
Renaissance, its chord 

sequences following the simulta- 
neous rhythmic flow of voices. 

Or Louis Saladin's "Canticum 
Hebraicum" (c. 1670), one of the 
delights of the evening. Every- 



cumcision ceremony." Only the 
Hebrew words associate the 
event with Judaism. From 
instrumental introduction 

through sprightly dance forms, 
the rest is all 18th Century 
French Baroque. Louis Saladin 
himself was not even a Jew. 

Or Cristiano (sie) Lidarti. ISth 
Century Italian composer. In 
"Boi B'Shalom" ("Crown of thy 
husband. come in peace") and 
"Kol Hanshama" ("Let every- 
thing that hath breath, Praise ye 
the Lord"), Miss Jones might as 
well have been searching the 
heights of a Mozart aria. Climb 
she did, with agility, negotiating 
trills and scales with firm tone 
and supple ease. Meanwhile, 
Lidarti's compositions excited 
reminders of Mozart — though 
si nce they anteceded his birth 
(See CANTICA - Page 26.) 



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OPENING MARCH 71H 

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Views and Visions 

(Continued from Page 12) 



ii alive." Soutine's crude iron 
forks have a personality of their 
own; they look like grasping 
emaciated hands, eager to stab 
at bits of food. By introducing a 
fork, or a pair of forks, Soutine 
puts in an appearance, as it 
were: "Here I am ... " 

Soutine's later still lifes of this 
genre are more dynamic, and 
are characterized by a chro- 
matic richness. Throughout his 
career, he was profoundly inter- 
ested in ?ll kinds of edibles, in 
tableware and even in food 
handlers - cooKs and waiters. 
This may have had psycholo- 
gical roots in the tormenting 
deprivations of his youth in Rus- 
sia and in his early years in 
Paris. 

It may be symbolic that the 
plate in Mr. Colin's picture is 
bare, that the bowl and winp- 
glass are empty. It must have 
been at the time he painted the 
still life in the New York collec- 
tion that he was, as one writer 
asserts, "driven by hunger to 
:ommit a theft of bottles which 
ae exchanged for bread." 
The Chicken 
Soutine painted many versions 
of dead fowl, hanging by the 
head or the legs. He would 
search the poultry shops for the 
right chicken, one with a long 
neck and a blue skin. On one 
occasion, the poulterer offered 
him a fat chicken, out of sympa- 



thy for Soutine's impoverished 
appearance, but the artist 
insisted on buying an emaciated 
füwl: "I want a very lean 
chicken ..." 

Finally, much to the shopkeep- 
er's bewilderment, he chose the 
wretched specimen he needed. 
On the Street he held up the bird 
admiringly and said: I'm going 
to hang it up by the beak with a 
nail. In a few days it should be 
perfect" (he meant: sufficiently 
decayed for the kind of picture 
he wanted to paint). 

A Partie ularly fine picture, 
"Dead Fowl,'' can be found in 
the Art Institute of Chicago. The 
bird hangs by its legs in a very 
linear way over the corner of a 
table. One almost fails to realize 
that there is a head - until one's 
eyes travel down the length of 



livery: cooks, valets and hotel 
boys. These attractive pictures - 
pleasant to look at - were eagerly 
bought by collectors, and the 
sales brought the artist his first 
real prosperity. He liked to 
present as interesting human 
beiiigs members of what used to 
be called the "lower classes." 

He seems to have been more at 
ease with people of proletarian 
backgrounds than with the intel- 
lectuals with whom his friend 
Modigliani associated. For he 
never shook off the dust of the 
dismal shteti where he spent his 
childhood. With iittle formal 
education, without good 
manners and without the world- 
liness most denizens of Montpar- 
nasse came to acquire at one 
point or another, Soutine, to his 
end, remained a "man of the 
people," a "moujik" in outlook, 
temperament and, one might 
say, even in his preferred way of 
livJng. 



Cites A 

Wo] 

JERUSALEäI 
Minister Josept 
Knesset last 
labor from the 
ritories must bt 
permanent facifi 

He said, how( 
economic conditl 



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the verv dead nppk Thprp nnp ic Tn q f^miooi r.i^fii«./% 

met by a fiery cadmium red 
(oven black), a fury of strokes to 
indicate the head. 

In contrast to neck and he?d 
that submit to the laws of gravi- 
ty, the body seems to be engaged 
in a weird dance of death, 
against the obscure and mysteri- 
ous background. Curiously, this 
plucked bird retains its wing 
feathers - cool greys, upon which 
the highlights are drawn with a 
direct white. 

The Pastry Cook 

In the mid-20s, Soutine painted 
a series of young domestics in 



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the one in the Walter Collection, 
Paris - the pastry cook is a raf- 
fish Iittle creature. His face is 
grotesquely twisted; the large 
red ears are set off the head like 
wings. Yet the cap, shaped like a 
crown, lends him a degree of dig- 
nity. The chair. on which he is 
seated comfortably, almost 
looks like a throne. 

Windy Day 
A "non-Aryan," Soutine spent 
his last four years hiding in vil- 
lages in Central France. The 
appearance of German troops 
made him change his lodgings 
several times. Luckily, he was 
never in acute danger. Thus, he 
could fully engage in the only 
occupation that mattered to him 
- painting. Enchanted by the 
landscape, he would paint it for 
10 or 11 hours, day after day, 
undeterred by cold weather or 
rainstorms. 

He liked to paint rows of tall 
trees. While they do not look 
"uprooted" like those in his pic- 
tures of the early 1920s, they are 
shaken by storms, tossed by hur- 
ricanes whose whistling one can 
almost hear, their branches 
wildly Piercing the moody dark 
sky. These agitated trees are, 
indubitably, true reflections of 
the continuing upheaval in the 
artist. 

Yet one detail must not be 
overlooked : there are, 

invariably, tiny figures in the 
foreground. they are important 
not only because their smallness 
accentuates the tremendous 
height of the trees, but also 
because they represent young 
schoolchildren, Walking band in 
band. The lonely artist, who had 
no wife, had few attachments to 
women, seems to have had a 
tender feeling for Iittle children. 
As his biographer, Monroe 
Wheeler, wrote: 

"Perhaps in that twilight of his 
life, in that eclipse in the life of 
his adopted country, children 
two by two in brotherhood or 
friendship may have seemed to 
him an Image of the condition of 
all human beings on earth, more 
acceptable than any other ideal 
furnished to his mind by patrio- 
tism, or religion, or romantic 
love." 

Wheeler may have overes- 
timated Soutine's capacity to 
conceive philosophical ideas. 
But it is true that the usual mis- 
anthropy is absent from his 
utterly warm and sympathetic 
renderings of infants. 



EACH NIGHT, before retir- 
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you. Asher B. Yehiel. 







Limited Numb 



nitiki HüRii 
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WOMHN'S AMERICAN ORI RliPüRTER • MARCH APRIL 1973 



Page 9 



Jewish Women's Conference: 



After 5,000 Years of Patriarchy— What Do We Do Now? 



By ROSLYN LAC KS 

"Have We Come a Long Way Baby?" was 
the qucstion posed by Blu Greenberg, Jew- 
ish Studies Lecturer at Mount St. Vincent 
College and wite ot an Orthodox rabbi, as 
she presented her perspective on Jewish wo- 
men throughout the ages to an audience of 
more than 450 women at the recent national 
Jewish Women's Conference — the first of its 
kind — held in New York City in February. 

Sponsored by the North American Jewish 
Students' Network, an umbrella Organization 
for Student groups, the Conference included 
panel discussions on the Status of Jewish 
women in religion. politics, Jewish law, voi- 
unteer organizations, education. family life, 
and Israel; film showings and consciousness 
raising sessions; and small Workshops on mys- 
ticism, marriage and divorce; Reconstruc- 
tionism, the Jewish mother. gay Jewish wo- 
men. and the problems of the poor and aged. 

Ranging in age from 16 to 65. representing 
all branches of Judaism — Reform. Recon- 
structionist. Conservative, and Orthodox — a 
broad spectrum of Jewish women from all the 
States of the Union and provinces of Canada 
explored issues that have been simmering for 
5000 years: iheir contemporary Status m a 
tradition that venerates the ancient patriar- 
chal norms of tht Old Testament. 

Friday, the First Day: 

They greet the Sabbath late Friday alter- 
noon with Creative Traditional Services led 
by Farbrengen women. non-traditional Serv- 
ices with guitar music and readings by stu- 
dents from Hebrew Union College, and tra- 
ditional Services led by Ezrat Nashim — a 
group of scholarly young women from Ortho- 
dox and Conservative backgrounds who have 
been pressing for changes in Halachic law. 

Later, referring to male-dominaied near- 
Eastern cultures surrounding and influencing 
Judaism, Ms. Greenberg catalogues Biblical 
proscriptions for woman's life. Extolled as a 
mother, she was prevented from owning or 
inheriting property, as well as suing for di- 
vorce, while her husband (the ancient He- 
brew Word is "ba'al" or "master") could send 
her away at will if she did not please him. 
Conditioned early in life to the role of de- 
pendent and server. even her vows — an im- 
portant matter in Biblical days — could be 
annulled by father or husband. 

"Rabbis in Talmudic times re-interpreted 
the Torah to meet changmg conditions. Some 
laws were relaxed. some amended, some re- 
tained, and some expanded m a way so as 
to freeze woman even further in her role as 
subordinate. On the whole, however, there 
was great progression for women under rab- 
binical law." 

Her rights safeguarded by a marriage con- 
tract (the ketuha), woman "no longer had to 
give in to every whim of her husband for 
fear of losing him, and she was free to act 
according to the dictates of her conscience," 
observed Ms. Greenberg. 



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In Hellenistic times, women were taught 
Bible but not Talmud, and niany received 
good secular education, considered an 
"adornmcnt." Polygamy was finally outlawed 
in Europe during the early eleventh Century 
and wife-beating was discouraged. "Halacha 
retained a very paternalistic attitude — women 
functioned to serve the important sex. They 
were informed of the law but were kept ig- 
norant of the processes of that law." 

Addressing herseif to the relationship be- 
tween the feminist movement and Jewish 
women. Ms. Greenberg endorsed the expan- 
sion of opiions and opportunities for women, 
but cautioned a^ainst runninß down the tra- 
ditional values of motherhood and Jewish 
family life. 

"Traditional values of charity and good 
works and giving of ourselves to others are 
being lost in the fight for self-expression," 
she asserted in a concluding plea for moder- 
ation — one which stirred sharply varying re- 
sponses in her audience — responses which 
they expressed at small consciousness-raising 
groups which lasted late into the night. 

"This whole concept of doing for other 
people." one woman remarked, "was basic 
to my mother's values. It's so much of what 
I learned — it's become part of me. and I 
really respect that. But then there's that whole 
other thing of living for myself and doing 
what I want to do when I want to do it. so 
what all this does . . ." 

"There are certain very positive feelings 
we all have about Judaism." suggests an at- 
tractive woman in her mid-twenties. "What 
we may be negative about — and here is my 
quamlary — is what our role is as a woman 
in this circle. That's why I really neeä a 
movement like this — to integrale all of it." 

"I resent women married and unmarried," 
observed an older woman with grown chil- 
dren who had worked for some years as Ad- 
ministrator of a large Hebrew day school, 
"talking about being a housewife and rele- 
gating it to making meals and washing dishes. 
That's not what being a mother and wife 
means. The greatness and wisdom that's 
needed is tremendous and any education you 
get is not wasted. 

"Lve had to refuse Job otTers," she con- 
tinued, "at certain times in my life because 
I couldnt give enough time to them," she con- 
cluded. suggesting that important part-time 
work be availabie for women who are mar- 
ried and have young children. 

"Exactly!" exciaimed a young woman, 
"that's what liberation is really about — re- 
shaping and restructuring all of society. ques- 
tioning the larger society's values of compe- 
titiveness and personal success at the ex- 
pense of Community welfare and help to 
others." 

Saturäay, the Second Day: 

The day begins with a woman's minyan 
and "traditional" services led by young wo- 
men from Ezrat Nashim wearing the taüit 
and li-fillen traditionally reserved for men. 
Women's voices rise in song as the services 
end and the morning's scheduled panel on 
"Women and Spiritual Judaism" begins. 

"Women," asserts panelist Rachel Adler, 
"will be assured of justice only when they 
have power in Halachic decisions." 

Halacha — Jewish law — is traditionally 
formed through the interpretation and deci- 
sions of a male rabbinate. While Reform and 
Reconstructionist Rabbinical Schools (not 
subject to Halacha) have recently begun to 
admit women. Conservative and Orthodox 
scminaries still exclude them. 

Last year. Ezrat Nashim presented a man- 
ifesto to the Rabbinical Assembly, demanding 
changes in law which would allow women 
to be counted in the minyan. called to the 
Torah, and admitted to the Rabbinate. While 
some Conservative synagogues have recent- 
ly begun counting women for the minyan and 




(Photo Credit: Roslyn Lacks) 

POSSIBILITIES FOR CHANCE in "Halacha," which will provide Jewish women with the 
dignit> they seek are discussed ut Sunday's Session, where the Coaference's only male Speakers 
appeared. Here. Rabbi I. Greenberg, Chairman of the Department of Jewish Studies at CCNY 

answers a question from the audience. 



calling them to the Torah in response to the 
manifesto, they have not yet welcomed wo- 
men into the Rabbinate. Few Orthodox rab- 
bis recognize feminist demands. 

* ♦ ♦ 

At the noon press briefiing, Conference Or- 
ganizers recount some of the difficulties they 
encountered in trying to get financial sup- 
port from established Jewish organizations. 

Despite the enthusiasm of women wanting 
to attend the Conference — many had to be 
turned away because of lack of space — the 
organizing group remains short of meeting 
expenses. 

During the afternoon panel on "Growing 
Up Jewish," Aviva Cantor Zuckotf described 
her childhood experiences; Dr. Zena Smith 
Blau, Professor of .Sociology at Northwestern, 
presented research on positive correlation 
between the educational level of mothers and 
the achievements of their children; Dr. Paul- 
ine Bart, Associate Professor of Psychiatry 
at Abraham Lincoln School of Medicine. dis- 
cus.sed the role of the Jewish mother and its 
relationship to menopausal depression in 
Jewish women; and Dr. Bertie Gideon, Case- 
work Supervisor at the Jewish Association of 
.Services for the Aged. called attention to the 
neglected problems of the aged poor woman. 

Murmurs of recognition and the laughter 
of relief spread through the audience as Ms. 
ZuckofT recounted the ambivalence which 

* 

characterized her own childhood. 

"My mother valued me not for what I 
was," she shrugged. "but for what I was to 
become. When she was doing something she 
didnt find particularly pleasant — like wash- 
ing the flioor — she would say to me: 'You 
won't have to do this. You'll have a Ph.D.' 
and in the same breath — 'Your career and 
your degrees are the dowry you'll bring to 
your husband.' " 



Sunäay, the Third Day: 

The conference's only male Speakers ap- 
pear, as Orthodox Rabbis Irving Greenberg, 
C hairman of the Department of Jewish Stud- 
ies at CCNY; Saul Berman, Chairman of the 
Department at Stern College for Women; 
and Joseph Polak, Hillel Direclor at Boston 
University, discuss possibilities for change 
within Halacha that will provide women with 
the dignity they seek. 

"What is possible Halachically cannot be 
known," asserted Rabbi Greenberg. unusual- 
ly receptive to feminist aspirations. "until 
woman's claim is fully heard." 



"As Reconstructionists," commented San- 
dra Eisenberg Sasso, a fourth year rabbinical 
Student at Philadelphia's Reconstructionist 
school. "we feel that the past has a vote, but 
not a veto." 

Speaking later the same morning on the 
role of women in Jewish organizations. Ja- 
queline Levine. Vice-President of the Council 
of Jewish Federations, praised their efTorts 
as volunteers but deplored their absence from 
policy making decisions within the Jewish 
establishment. 

"I feit that I could not afTect social change 
alone, " she averred. referring to her own 
twenty years of volunteer work. "I knew that 
I needed groupings behind me . . . a forum 
and place from which to speak" 

At the same time. Ms. Levine crisply cited 
the low percentage of women on the Fed- 
eration's Boards of Directors: In 1965, 1 1% 
in large cities, 12% in small cities. and 16% 
in smaller communities. By 1972 their per- 
centage had risen very little to 12% in large 
cities, 14% in small cities and 21 % in smaller 
communities, indicative of the failure of the 
Jewish establishment to reflect the views of 
the total Community by depriving it of the 
presence of women at important decision- 
making levels. 

That evening, Congresswomen Bella Ab- 
zug and Elizabeth Holtzman made similar 
criticisms of the secular political establish- 
ment. 

"Until I was elected to Congress for the 
first time in 1970," comments Ms. Abzug, 
"there had only been one other Jewish woman 
member in the entire history of our Congress. 

"In almost 200 years," the Congre.sswoman 
adds, "you've had a Supreme Court hand- 
ing out justice to half a population that is 
unrepresented on that Court. When the Presi- 
dent had the opportunity recently to appoint 
a qualified woman to that Court, he chose 
Carswell, claiming he couldn't find a woman 
'good enough!' " 

* * * 

Monday: The Third Day 

We meet at a final morning session for 
evaluation and announcement of on-going 
projects. 

One of these centers on important research 
and information on Tay-Sachs Disease, a 
(Continued on page II, col. I ) 

ROSLYN LACKS is a freelance writer 
who contrihutes frequently to Ms., The Vil- 
lafie Voice, and a variety of other publica- 
tions. 



Page 16 



WOMEN'S AMKRiCAN ORI RbPORTHR • MARCH AF^RII 1973 



Israeli Printmaster 



(Continued from page 10) 
drama of piety and passion, the main 
inspiration for his timeless art. 

Prophetic Aura 

Until his death, he continued to 
prefer Art for Man 's Sake to Art for 
Art's Sake. This feeUng comes 
through in his early pictures, which 
mirror an era of great tension, the 
maladustment of man, enmeshed in 
a mechanized, materialistic civihza- 
tion, as well as in his final works, 
which are more quiet, more serene. 
There was something of a Biblical 
prophet in him, something that the 
Jews of his native Zerkow, pious and 
even well-versed in religious lore as 
they were, could not possibly have 
understood, had he ever decided to 
live and work among them. 

At any rate these smug, middle- 
class people, more or less assimilated 
to German bourgeois ways, did not 
offer to him the religious or folk- 
loristic Stimuli that Vitebsk had for 
Marc Chagall. Nor did Berlin, where 
Steinhardt grew to manhood, and 
where he had his initial triumphs, 
sharpen his awareness of Jewish dis- 
tinctness, of special Jewish features 
and traits. 

Curiously, Steinhardt owed his 
deep interest in Jewish themes large- 
ly to a German officer's whim. At the 
Start of World War I, he was drafted 
to serve in the German Imperial 
Army. When Steinhardt's superior 
officer leained that the young soldier 
was an artist, he decided to use him 
as a photographer on the Eastern 

WAO Study Mission 
Tours South America 

NEW YORK — A two member 
delegation, headed by Mrs. David 
M. Goldring, WAO National Presi- 
dent, and including also Mrs. Mar- 
vin Garfinkel, Chairman of the Mid- 
west Field Expansion Committee. 
will inspect ORT installations in La- 
tin America for a two week period 
beginning April 18. 

The delegation, which will visit 
Caracas, Lima, Santiago, Rio de Ja- 
neiro and Buenos Aires will meet 
also with Jewish Community leaders 
as well as with ORT directors, teach- 
ers and voluntecr committee leaders 
in communities visited. GO 

Creative Ed. 

(Continued from page 13) 
his imagination. Kitchen toys, baby 
carriages, irons, dolls are examples 
of toys which allow the child to be 
an active participant with endless 
possibilities for improvisation: a 
monkey which turns around by 
strings, or a fried egg in its small 
frying pan, are two toys a child 
would enjoy handling. Toys should 
permit the child to create, assemble, 
disassemble, pull, put— for instance 
cubes, blocks, games of fitting to- 
gether, construction games, mech- 
anisms, are a few which stimulate 
its abilities and promote its ingenu- 
ity. 

In conclusion these are the gen- 
eral rules and the framework under 
which the Department of Creative 
Education selects the toys and 
games which it uses in its classes 
and which to date has proved emi- 
nently successful in stimulating both 
the Creative and intellectual develop- 
ment of young children. □□ 

(Translated from the Spanlsh) 



Front. Steinhardt knew nothing 
about photography, but the officer 
had a hxed idea that anyone who 
could make pictures could learn to 
take pictures. 

Soldier-Fhotographer 

Traveling as a soldier-photog- 
rapher through some of the Ger- 
man-occupied parts of Tsarist Rus- 
sia, Steinhardt encountered the 
frightened, humble and profoundly 
religious ghetto-dwellers of the East 
who, unlike the German Jews, had 
remained apart from the bulk of the 
Population. He did not view them as 
merely picturesque and exotic crea- 
tures, though, but feit at home in 
their dark houses ot worship and 
their wretched. poverty - stricken 
dwellings. Rituals and prayers that 
he had learned as a child came back 
to him. In these surroundings, leg- 
ends became reality and supersti- 
tions no longer seemed absurd. 

After the armisticeof 1918, Stein- 
hardt, erstwhile pupil of the Ger- 
man painter, Lovis Corinth. and of 
the progressive French master, Ma- 
tisse, returned to his art. But, set- 
tled again in Berlin, he never forgot 
the red, tear-filled eyes of the stetl 
denizens. These eyes are prominent 
in the illustrations he made for a 
German edition of the Yiddish stor- 
ies by I. L. Peretz, and for a cycle of 
poems by Arno Nadel (one of the 
martyrs of the Holocaust), as well 
as in such portfolios of prints as 
Lithuanian Jews and The Ten 
Plagues. As one of Steinhardt's biog- 
raphers put it, "Always the same 
face, ten times. twenty times; fright- 
ened, indignant. füll of resignation 
to the will of God." 

Revived Woodcut 

It is no coincidencc that Stein- 
hardt, concentrating on themes of 
this kind, chose the woodcut as his 
favorite medium. Like other Ger- 
man Expressionists, he feit that a 
metaphysical message should be 
presented like a piece of writing, in 
black and white, to avoid distortion 
by the impact of glaring colors. The 
woodcut, foremost art expression in 
the late Middle Ages, had been 
neglected for centuries. For Stein- 
hardt, and for others of his contem- 
poraries, the woodcut represented a 
revolt against the vague formlessness 
into which Impressionist art had de- 
generated. The medium imposed 
certain limitations upon the art, but 
it also afforded clarity and strength 
through a direct and simple State- 
ment. 

One of the treasures of Jewish art 
is a Haggadah made in Prague by 
an anonymous master in 1526. 
which had a strong influence on the 
one Steinhardt made in collabora- 
tion with Franzisca Baruch about 
1923. So the illustrations and the 
text would appear to be printed from 
one block, the text was not typeset, 
but lithographed by the calligrapher. 
Of this beautiful book, a few copies 
remain, mostly in major libraries. 
Fortunately, quite a few of these 
woodcuts were reproduced in one is- 
sue of the now defunct Menorah 
Journal. 

Until 1933, Steinhardt was a 
widely respected participant in Ger- 
many's artistic life, a member of the 
Berlin Secession (an important 
group of progressive artists), and 
the subject of several monographs. 
But the advent of Hitler caused him 
to seek a new home in the Holy 



Land, which he had visited as far 
backas 1925. 

Settled in Israel 

In 1933 he and his wife settled in 
Jerusalem where they took over a 
house originally occupied by the 
sculptor Boris Schatz, of Bezalel 
fame. The artist feil in love with 
Jerusalem, especially its pictorially 
exciting Old City. A few of his titles 
will give an idea of the ränge of his 
subject matter: Lane in the Old City; 
Ruins in the Moonlight; Resting Be- 
äuins; and Storm in Nahariah. As 
for Jewish types, he preferred, for 
inspiration. the old scholars in für 
caps. broad-rimmed hats and long 
gabardines, to the husky, sun-tanned 
sabras, and he dwelt lovingly on 
the World of the past. 

I 1 r» -» rv U!^ .— 1- ., »U»..»*« ',w^ 

111 1 yjy^ lila wv^iiv vyu.o anw*»n m 

New York at three different places: 
at the Society for the Advancement 
of Judaism: at the Palestine Pavilion 
of the World's Fair; and also at this 
Fair, in the International Business 
Machines Gallery of Science and 
Art. In a contribution to the cata- 
logue of that last show, Steinhardt 
wrote: 

Today a new art is being conceived 
in Palestine. And again artists are 



Coming from many lands. This lime 
they are Jews and are uniied by the 
Impulse to he altogether Jewish in 
ihcir creations. . . . But Palestine, 
üld and mysteriüus, cannot be hur- 
ried, and generatiuns must pass be- 
fore she will have re-fashioned all 
these offerings from her children 
into one art which bears her like- 
ness. 

These prophetic words have lost 
none of their meaning during the 
past thirty years. Subsequently, 
Steinhardt was worried about the 
"hurry" he noticed among the 
younger artists of his country. Yet 
he was not a reactionary — he offen 
praised achievements of Israeli art- 
ists whose approaches and tenden- 
cies were different from his own. At 
the same time, he did not deviate 
from his own road, and, basically, 
remained the Pathetiker, the Man of 
Pathos he had been at his Start. 
When. in the mid-fifties, his work 
toured the United States, American 
reviewers agreed that it expressed 
superbly "the spiritual and religious 
ecstasy of the people in the new State 
of Israel." 

Also Did Oils 

I have not mentioned Steinhardt's 
proficiency as a painter. His large 



oil, The Valley of Yehoshaphat, was 
acquired by a Jewish group here 
some years ago, and presented to the 
Mayor of New York, for the official 
residence, Gracie Mansion. 

But I, for one. prefer his exciting 
work in black and white. It is amaz- 
ing how little he needed to transform 
his visions into pictorial realities: a 
block of wood, a sharp graver, ink, 
paper, and the primitive handpress 
through which the paper was passed. 

We must not fail to stress an de- 
ment that is as necessary as solid 
craftsmanship, if not even more im- 
portant: A serious and unshakable 
philosophy of life. Steinhardt was 
an introspective soul, constantly ask- 
ing all the earnest questions concern- 
ing life and death. His was a person- 
ality which always searched for the 
essential beneath the surtace, 
whether in human beings or in 
everyday objects. Steinhardt's work 
evokes the words of the medieval 
niystic, Meister Eckhart: 

If you seek the kernel, then you 
must break the shell. And like- 
wise, if you would know the reality 
of Nature. you must destroy the ap- 
pearance; and the further you go 
beyond the appearance, the nearer 
you will be to the essence. [^[~] 



A Goodman 



jng Island Cily, N Y 




Since your Zayda's Zayda was a little boy, 
Goodman's has been a Rassover tradition. 



i «> O »^^»t Cv»iftl 



Goodman": 



v: 



rorn-^-y^'s' 



MäTZOS 



Goodman's bakes them all . . . thinner, 
crispier Square Matzos, traditional Round 
Matzos, Egg Matzos (made with selected eggs 
andapplecider). And nev^, this year. . . 
delicious, bite size Mini-Matzos. All strictiy 
Kosher for Passover. Baked under the 
superVision of Rabbi Mendel Chodrow and 
Rabbi Israel Leiter. 






iS 

2 

CA 



CO 

9i 



iti 






Views and Visions 



The Urge to Dream 



By ALFRED WERNER 

Jewish News Art Critic 

It is easy to underes- 
timate the works of artists 
like Lionel S. Reiss and 
Ira Moskowitz. While nei- 
ther seems able to invent, 

and both draw or paint only what 
they see, they deserve credit for 
being skillful and sensitive 
recorders. I am referring to Mr. 
Reiss' "A World at Twilight: A 
Portrait of the Jewish Communi- 
ties of Eastern Europe Before 
the Holocaust" (with texts by 
Isaac Bashevis Singer and Mil- 
ton Hindus, Macmillan, $17.95) 
and Mr Moskowitz' "The Hasi- 
dim" (with texts by Isaac 
Bashevis Singer and by the 
artist, Crown Publishers, $10). 

The first contains reproduc- 
tions of oils, watercolors, etch- 
ings and drawings Reiss made 
between the two World Wars 
while visiting the "ghettos" of 
Lithuania, Poland and Rou- 
mania as well as the Jewish sec- 
tion of Prague; the second is 
filled with works, in the same 
media, made by Moskowitz on 
sketching tours in Jerusalem 
and in New York's Williams- 
burg. 

Both artists have considerable 
power of Observation. Their 
Sketches, whether in color or in 
black and white, are light and 
informal, and splendidly cap- 
ture, in a few lively strokes, ges- 
tures and character of people 
who have remained as Islands 
surrounded by the main stream 
of Western technologicval civili- 
zation. The pictures are records 
of communities that have 
become very small, indeed, but 
stubbornly defy the majority 
cultures and live on in strictly 
separate entities. 

Chagall the Ceramist 

Whereas the pictures in these 
two books are objective docu- 
ments. Marc Chagall's render- 
ings of Jewish types, as repro- 
duced in the volume "Chagall", 
by Werner Haftman { DuMont- 
Schauberg, Cologne) are free 
and poetic dream Images, 
inspired by the artist's experi- 
ences durmg his boyhood and 
adolescence at Vitebsk. I expect 
to review Professor Haftmann's 
substantial volume more 
thoroußhly at a later date. 

Anolher piece of Chagalliana 
is "The Ceramics and Sculp- 
tures of Chagall," by Charles 
Sorlier (Crown, $139.50). It is not 
widely known that Chagall has 
created more than two hundred 
three-dimensionai works. After 
his return from his war-time 
exile in the United States the 
artist. in his early sixties and 
comfortablv settled in Southern 



France, began to explore the 
plastic possibilities of clay and 
stone. 

He carved reliefs in marble 
and other stone and also, shap- 
ing clay with his own hands, 
produced a variety of pots, oval 
plates and bulging vessels. upon 
which he lavished his chromatic 
splendors. The themes are well 
known from the master's paint- 
ing repertoire: amusing, odd 
animals; bouquets of flowers; 
fuU-breasted females; episodes 
from the fables of La Fontaine; 
Biblical tales; and endlßss pairs 
of young lovers as well as 
mothers holding little babies. 
While vistas of Paris turn up, 
lime and again, Vilcusk and its 
Jewish types are now inexplica- 
bly absent. 

But thoußh the rabbis, 
fiddlers and beggars are miss- 
ing, the Chagallesque fantasy, 
exuberant and flamboyant, has 
remained unimpaired. It is this 
startling ability to day-dream, 
and to use the raw material of 
everyday reality in the service 
of an utterly fantastic art, that 
made the Surrealists acknowl- 
edge their indebtedness to 
Chagall. He is discussed in "Sur- 



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THE JERUSALEM 



WEEKLY 0VERSEA8 EOmON 



Airmailed every Monday from Jerusalem, this newspaper 
keeps its readers abroad abreast of all the major events in 
Israel and the Middle East. It supplies the background 
facts and the analytical interprotations that help under* 
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week's issue contains the highlights of the news and fea- 
tures that have appeared during the six preceding daji 
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reabst Art", by Sarane Alex- 
andrian (Praeger, $ 7.50), and in 
"Surrealism: The Road to the 
Absolute", by Anna Balakian 
(Dutton. $7.95). Miss Balakian 
admires in Chagall's painting, 
Time is a River Without Banks 
"the fusion of such distant reali- 
ties as a fish, a violin, a band, 
and a swinging pendulm Crack- 
ing down into a countryside, and 
in its shadows, a couple making 
love undisturbed". 

Indeed a book on Surrealism - 
the movement that restored the 
imaginative faculty to a place of 
honor - is unthinkable without 
references to Chagall. Hence, he 
receives his share in the large 

vuiuiiic, iiic ouiicaiisLo, uy 

William Gaunt i G.P. Putnam's 
Sons, $30), where he is extolled 
as "the Russian master of fan- 
tasy and the dream-hke Situa- 




tion", and where 
with Flying Lovers is repro- 
duced in füll color. But he has 
also been hnked with another 
20th Century group of rebels. the 
Expressionists, notably in the 
volume, "Expressionism and 
Fauvism" by Kristian Sottrifer 
(MacGraw-Hill, $12.95). After 
all, he contributed to Berlin's 
"Sturm" exhibition in 1914 and, 
in his early years, "drifted very 
close to Expressionist influ- 



» » 



ciiwca. 



Strangely, Chagall is not even 
mentioned in "Expressionism," 
by Wolf-Dieter Dube (Praeger, 
$10. Nor will you find there the 



Bouquet names of Rouault and Soutine, 
and of such Americans as 
Weber, Rattner, Bloom and 
Levine. 

This otherwise excellent book 
should have been quaüfied as 
"German Expressionism," as it 
confines itself to Central 
Europe, though the Expres- 
sionist movement spread to 
France, Belgium, Holland, Swe- 
den and the United States. The 
author wisely does not try to 

Ae^fina fV\a tafm \itV\inV\ oorvto infn 

circulation in 1912. For it is an 
ambiguous and most elusive 
Word, though there is no doubt 
that it signifies a movement 
(See VIEW-Page 70) 




Addre>.i 



Q My fh*ck is enclosed. 



DP)«»»« WH me. J.N.-N.J. 



APPEARING IN CONCERT WITH HIS SEXTET . . . 

THEINCOMPARABLE 




SUNDAY EVENING, APRIL 29th, 1 973 AT 8 O'CLOCK 

TEMPLE B'NAI JESHURUN 
1025SOUTH ORANGE AVENUE, SHORT HILLS, NEW JERSEY 

PLEASE SEND ME TICKETS TO THE BENNY GOODMAN CONCERT. 
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< 



Views and Visions 

(Continued from Page 12) 



strongly counter-acting Impres- 
sionism that was originally fos- 
tered by such non-Germans as 
Gauguin, Van Gogh and Munch. 
It is, nevertheless, certain that 
the rebellious artists whom the 
critics called Expressionists 
have a common denominator: 
they rejected traditional con- 
cepts and skills, held true crea- 



leave no one cold, untouched. 

Russell comes as close as any 
one man can in deciphering this 
most elusive artist's complex 
imagery. Bacon's paintings, 
inspired by Old Masters, by 
movies, by contemporary 
events, are open to many inter- 
pretations. In all likelihood, not 
even the artist himself can 



tivity to be more important than fathom all the mysteries of these 



technique, emphasized the 
strength and honesty of their 
visions, and concerned them- 
selves with personal confessions 
and emotions, or with dramatic 
protests against a society they 
vainly sought to influence. 

One American is included 
among the dramatis personae - 
Lyonel Feininger. But he spent 
most of his creative life in Ger- 
many ( he left it to return to his 
native country following the 
üBzis' usun^B-tion of '^ower) Oüp 
artist of Jewish origin is inclu- 
ded: the painter, print-maker 
and poet Ludwig Meidner (1884- 
1966). The illustrations are well- 
chosen. They include several 
pre-Expressionist works to dem- 
onstrate the gap between the 
more conservative older artists 
who stressed the harmonious 
equilibrium of form and content, 
and the avant-garde who 
insisted on letting expression 
determine form. 

A Surreahst who is not suf- 
ficiently know in the United 
States is Max Ernst. Yet there is 
no dearth of books about this 
master who abandoned his 
native Germany to settle in 
France, and who was among the 



often very large and generally 
disturbing paintings, much 
sought after despite their unat- 
tractive subject matter: car- 
casses and studies of ungainly 
male nudes. While his work is 
not easy to take, Bacon, who 
lives a quiet, secluded life in 
London and has few personal 
friends (among them his col- 
league, Lucien Freud, a grand- 
son of Dr. Freud) has become 
one of the best-known and most 

hitrhlv rpQnpffpH Rrifish artists 

CJ f ' ' -AT - - - - 

of the post-war period. 

Along with the terms "Expres- 
sionism" and "Surrealism" 
which often confuse the average 
reader, "Symbolism" is another 
puzzling Clement in art-critical 
and art-historical writmg. JSym- 

bolism appears in the works of 
numerous artists, but especially 
in those of a group active around 
1900, who are the subject of 
"Symbolist Art," by Edward 
Lucie-Smith (Praeger, $10). 

These painters and sculptors, 
in Opposition to the Realists and 
Impressionists, stressed the 
value, for the plastic arts, of 
legend, myth and dream. The 
author traces Symbolist art back 
to certain Renaissance masters 



their works often convey 
abstract or spiritual ideas ( at 
times of a religious character) 
by the rendering of objects. 
Unlike Courbet, they did not 
hmit themselves to the repre- 
sentation of real and existing 
things, unlike the Impres- 
sionists, they lacked interest in 
the mere atmosphereic effects of 
sunlight. 

Most of the master mentioned 
here are also dealt with in "A 
Century of Modem Painting," 
by Joseph-Emile Muller and 
Frank Elgar (Tudor, $15). This 
book is addressed to the edu- 
cated layman. The authors 
neatly slice the period from the 
early r860's to the late 1960's into 
twelve chunks, allowing the 
reader to assimilate, one by one, 
all the important movements in 
modern art, from Impres- 
sionism to Op-Art. 

Muller and Elgar are aware 
that the various "schools" and 
"movements" of the last 



Agency Helps Poor Jews 
To Function in Society 

PHILADELPHIA (JTA)— The Association for Jew- 
ish Children has started a program to diminish loneli- 
ness among socially isolated poor and near-poor Jewish 

Philadelphia . 



V» 1 1 »-I »r^ 1* /\ /^ 






r« «^ «r r« 

««CA V \^ 



O fc«\..^ V' V'VI.V'Vt 



many great artists whose works who excelled in the production of 



were confiscated Isy the nazis 
for being "degenerate." The two 
most recent books about him are 
"Max Ernst", by Uwe M. 
Schneede (Praeger, $10) and 
"Max Ernst" by Sarane Alex- 
andrian (J. Philip O'Hara, $15). 
Painter, print-maker and sculp- 
tor, Ernst, who is only a few 
years younger than Chagall, is 
one of the rare survivors of a 
movement that boldly placed its 
confidence in the 
of the dream." 

American Art 

He makes use of the element of 
our known world, but only in 
such an' ' absurd" juxtaposition of 
unrelated things as to shake the 
spectator out of his lethargy. He 
does not rely solely on his uncon- 
scious. While his somnambulist 
visions provide him with the 
messages from a supra-sensual 
World, his intellect, operating 
through his deft hands, enables 
him to produce precisionist 
images of unmatched delicacy 
and thereby to re-experience the 
vividness of his dreams. He lib- 
erates the spectator, so that he 
can walk, as it were, free of the 
gravity of physical laws. 

Thanks to Ernst, we can leave 
our humdrum common sense at 
home, re-interpret things, and 
thus also life, through an arbi- 
trary confrontation of the phe- 
nomena of reality. The sugges- 
tive power of the props provided 
by the outside world serves to 
iUustrate the inner world. 

There are Surrealist as well as 
Expressionist traits in the work 
that is the subject of "Francis 
Bacon", by John Russell (New 
York Graphic Society, $16.50). 
Of all painters öf his generation - 
he was born in 1909, in Dublin, 
yet of English parents - Bacon is, 
perhaps, the most puzzling. His 
pictures, with their terrifying 
power to present the extraordi- 
nary, the dark side of reality, 
have challenged the critics. 
Though self-taught, he is a mar- 
velous manipulator of rieh pig- 
ment, and his distortions and 
exaggerations convey the paint- 
er's anguished vision of the 
world. Like the books of Poe, of 
Dostoievsky, Bacon's pictures 



allegories — story-telling pic- 
tures whose metaphorical mean- 
ing is implied rather than exphc- 
it. 

But Lucie-Smith concentrates 
on more recent artists-Redon 
and Gauguin are the best know - 
all of whom sought to relate the 
physical to the moral world 
through Symbols. A diehard 
Realist like Courbet had decreed 
that no ideas of any sort 
omnipotence belonged in the domain of art; 
these younger men, however, 
insisted that a work of art should 
be a generally comprehensible 
expression of an idea. Hence, 



each other so quickly that the 
average gallery-goer cannot be 
blamed for being bewildered by 
say, Cubist works even if 
Cubism by now is "old hat." The 
appreciation of modern works of 
art as well as new writings about 
it, remain difficult for both the 
makers and the consumers of 
art: 

"We are now living in an age 
in which the vahdity of the old 
humanist principles is being 
challenged and the efficiency of 
our tools has increased enor- 
mously . . . How can man recon- 
cile himself to a world which 
overwhelms him? How can the 
artist who is tempted to adopt an 
attitude of refusal, isolation or 
despair, manage to fulfil himself 
both in the world and against the 
world?" 



families in 

and to bring them back 

into normal ties with their 

communities, Seymour Kurland, 
President, announced. 

The program focuses on 
group treatment with sessions 
held Wednesday nights at the 
agency's Offices. Families 
served are those with children in 
treatment with the associa- 
tion — children in f oster homes, 
family day care homes, their 
own homes or in agency- 
operated group residences. 
Parents are persons with serious 
Problems in their marriage, in 
child-rearing, in social rela- 
tionships and in coping with the 
Problems of daily living, Kur- 
land explained. He said many 
hve on public assistance. 

He said their multiple Prob- 
lems lead them into an island- 
like existence with little or no 
Community contact. Their rela- 
tives are either non-existent or 
unable to provide much help. 
Such parents do not participate 
in Community activities and are 
not members of social, fratemal 



or religious groups, including 
synagogues, Kurland added. 
They live cheerless. depressing 
lives in isolation from the world 
around them. 

Joseph L. Taylor, the agency's 
executive director, said the pro- 
gram, in its first phases, will 
help such adults re-establish 
social contacts by bringing them 
together in groups where they 
can describe their predica- 
ments, and discuss their prob- 
lems. 



DIÄIOGUE 73 
SINGLES 

Age 26 - 40 

CONVERSATION 

WIME and CHEESE 

April 8th S>M 

NORTHFIELD YM-YWHA 
W«st Orange ^ 

Next Meeting, Aprl 2Mi 



Eye Containerships 

JERUSALEM (JTA)— The 

construction of two 9,000-ton con- 
tainerships for the Zim Lines at 
Israel's shipyards on Haifa Bay 
was recommended to the minis- 
terial economic affairs commit- 
tee last week by Finance Min- 
ster Pinhas Sapir and Transport 
Minister Shimon Peres. The ves- 
sels would be the largest ever 
built in Israel and would take 
about two years to complete. 




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GOStiBRUCH, Martin. Nolde: Water- 
colors and Drawings. ir. by H. M 
Küstncr & J. A. Underwood. 75p. 
color illus. bibliog. Praeter. Feb 1973 
$9.95. LC 72-80695. ' art 

Nolde i.s one of ihe few Expressionists 
about whom there is no dearth of works 
m English. Emil Nolde (U, March 15, 
1960), by Werner Haftmann, reproduced 
some of bis drawings along with many 
oils, while anolher volume by the same 
aulhor, Emil Nolde: Unpainted Pictures 
(U, Oclober I, 1965), included 40 waler- 
colors Irom the arlist's clandestine pro- 
dnclion (the period when the Nazis had 
forbidden him to paint). Two volumes by 
Martin Urban included aquarelles and 
text: Emil Nolde Flowers and Animals 



if-f^^^ovcmhiiT 1, 1966) and Emil Nolde 
Landscapes {U, September 15, 1970) 
The present book does not duplicate the 
illustrations in the earlier, very Jarge vol- 
umes. Gosebruch gives a seleclion start- 
mg with work from the 1920's; and his 
book can be recommended for its solid 
(although Short) text, the high quality ot 
the reproductions, and its low price Lay- 
men will appreciate the book as a con- 
venient introduction to a veritable color' 
magician. Alfred ferner. Contrihuting 
t ditor, A m erican A rtis t" 



This IS an uncorrected proof of a review scheduied for Libra 



ry Journal, Jan. 15, 1973 



By the fourth centry B.C., Greek gold- 
smiths already knew the c/oisonnc proc- 
ess in which the enamel is applied be- 
tween slightiy raised outlines of gold 
wire. This technique is considered the 
forerunner of all other enameling proc- 
esses. Molten glass was poured into 
bronze molds by the Celts in the third 
Century of the Christian era, and the art 
wascarried from the Northern Countries 
to Byzantium. where the cloisonne type 
reached great heights of artistry from the 
9th to 1 Ith centuries. A new process was 
developed in the French town of Li- 
moges where, eventually. small. enam- 
eled portraits of astounding precision 
were created. Germany and Britain were 
other enamel-loving countries. The Chi- 
nese seem to have learned the craft after 
the Invasion of Europe by Genghi 
Khan, in the I3th Century. The Japanes^ 
acquired the knowledge by the 16th Cen- 
tury. 

Kenneth F. Bates has won many 
awards in the fteld, and he certainly 
knows how to explain all about every 
kind of enameling: from materials and 
tools to the shaping, trimming and clean- 
ingof the metal and to the tracing of the 
design; trom testing the colors to the 
making of Limoges, cloisonne, cham- 
pleve, plique-u-jour, hasse-iaille. and 
other kinds of enamel. He recommends 
such experiments as gas flame color- 
ation, overglaze shading, and emboss- 
ing; making textures with glass; making 



enameled jewelry, fantasy designs, and 
new applications of the technique. He 
also asserts that one can make a living 
with this beautiful and exciting work. 

With the exception of a few historical 
examples, the illustrations are Bates' 
own works, which ränge from realistic 
and pretty subjects, through religious 
items, to abstracts and Mirö-esque crea- 
tions, with one small group of examples 
by other American enamelists. Sources 
ofsupplies; tables of Information useful 
to the artist working in enamel, such as 
weights, gauges, and temperatures 
(Fahrenheit and Centigrade); a glossary; 
a bibliography; and an index complete 
tb#very handy book. r.f, 

Late Nineteenth Century Art, ed. by 

Hans Juergen Hansen, many illus. in 
black/ white and color, 264 pp., 12x10 
McGraw-Hill, $25 

In the original German edition, this an- 
thology of writings was entitled Das 
pompoese Zeitalter ( The Age of Pomp). It 
is well that this title was dropped. for 
"pomp" is a pejorative, connoting vain 
or ostentatious display. There is, of 
course, no denying that there were exhi- 
bitionists among the big bankers, mer- 
chants. and industrialists who, around 
1850, replaced the secular rulers and the 
princes of the church as sole patrons of 
architecture and the arts, and the tal- 
ented men whom they employed often 
catered to their taste, which frequently is 




not above criticism. 

But it is probably preposterous for us 
to reject what was considered beautiful a 
hundred years ago as cheap and vulgär. 
That a book like this one could appear in 
1972 is indicative of the fact that we have 
dropped some of our prejudices towards 
the Victorian Age. and its equivalents in 
France, Germany, and elsewhere. Two 
decades ago, names like Leighton or 
Winterhalter would have been greeted 

with deri»iion- \(^i\i\t ,i,^ ,.^,t, .«..; ^ 

look again at works by these once cele- 
brated painters, and this time without 
bias against all that is not austere, that is 
not simplified to the nth degree. 

As the nine chapters-all written by 
different scholars-and the numerous 
photographs indicate, the latter half of 
the 19th Century was a period rieh in 
"splendidly florid'' architecture and 
fiUed with "the delights of overrehned 
delicacy": painting, sculpture, and the 
so-called decorative arts. 

There was a time when nobody looked 
at a late 19th Century picture ünless it 
displayed the "abstract" qualities one as- 
sociates with Cezanne or Seurat. Now 
this book makes us aware of the fact that 
paintings by Rossetti, Millais, Poynter. 
Leighton, Moreau, Chasseriau, and a 
numberof Central Europeans have great 
merits. though at first sight we might be 
put off a little by the emphasis on eroti- 
cism and by a certain dement of theatri- 
cality. The men who produced them had. 



COMING IN 



AY 



Ideas 



erstem 
Painter 



llustrator 

izard of 
\er 



ATTENTION AMERICAN PRINTMAKERSI 

If youareacontemporary American printmaker who is active- 
ly seeking greater recognition and increased sales for the prints 
you produce...then join the ranks of the hundreds of other fine 
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65 



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Your Sketches and notes, made in these 
books, become an invaluable reference for 
future work. The ideas you get today can be- 
come tomorrow's drawings and paintings. 
Your Sketches will not get lost or destroyed 
because these books are permanently bound 
in black, cloth covered hard Covers. Each 
book contains 190 pages of fine quality bond 
sketching paper. Available in four sizes. 



Cat. No. 


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your copy of our big 224-page catalog of 
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ace hc points out that thc opulcnce of the 
prospcrous '20s was cclipscd by the 
(ireat Depression that began in 1929. 
The times were not propitious tbr em- 
barking Lipon a eareer in deeorative arts, 
and manufacturers were reluetant to hire 
expensive designers or to invest in un- 
tried innovations. 

Laek of suftieient means. espeeially 
among the young marrieds, diclated a 
Spartan simpHcity. whieh eventually be- 
eanie a sivie. Siin[)ie. ccoiioiiucaUy [nu- 
dueed furnishinüs were in demand. The 
well-to-do eould reUeve the nakedness 
of pohshed surfaees by means of expen- 
sive seulptures or impressive paintings, 
asymmetrieally arranged. As (br the rest, 
reeourse was had to lartie areas of deco- 
rative wallpapers or fabrics to tili the 
void. 

The "skyseraper" eabinets of Paul 
Frankl were populär and widely imi- 
tated; they now seem mueh less praetical 
than they were onee eoneeived to be. The 
term "art moderne" was used to deseribe 
anvthinü that utilized metal tubintz and 
Hat. geometric surfaees wilh plenty of 
angles. How niany erimes were eom- 
mitted in its name bv amateur desiiiners 
and Main Street furniture merehants! 

Just the same. the deeorative art of the 
'30s is well worth investigating tbr what 
was truly elegant and sophistieated. We 
still prolit from this era's experiments 
with mirrors. laequers. unusual woods. 
lilossv surfaees. and the introduetion of 
plasties and metals in new eontexts. And 
some of the rtnest deeorative paintings 
and seulptures were produeed during 
this period by top-tlight artists whose 
work, ineidentally, had a profound etVeet 
upon graphie and advertising art. Pho- 
tograph v had not yet absolutely taken 
over, and the newsstands displaved a 
wealth o^ illustrated magazine eovers. 

Martin Battersby is a pereeptive art 
historian. and all his books are worth 
eirf^il study. This is one of the best and 
t eomprehenseve so far published on 

e deeorative arts of the '3üs. i-.j. 




Sculpture of the Eskimo, by George 
Swinton. 256 pp.. 800 illus. in blaek/ 
white. 13 X 10, New York Graphie 
Soeiety, Greenwieh. ( onn.. $18.50 

Like people of every small soeiety. the 
Eskimo developed a folk art of their 
own, eontined largelv to the deeoration 
of elothing. the engraving of tools, and 
the earving of small seulptures from wal- 
rus tusks, antlers, or loeal stone. Realiz- 
ing that these people needed additional 
ineome if they were to survive in a highly 
sophistieated eneroaehing eeonomy that 
makes primitive hshing. trapping. and 
hunting methods obsolete, far-sighted 
Canadians. about a quarter of a eentury 
ago. deeided to eneourage the astonish- 
ing native gifts of these Eskimos and 
train them to make small earvings in the 
round that might find a ready market. 

This seheme turned out to be eommer- 
cially suceessful. But while Ameriean In- 



dians have often yielded to the demands 
o'( eommereialism and have produeed 
pieees that are shoddy and aesthetieally 
inferior, the Inuit-as the Eskimo eall 
themselves-did not allow themselves to 
be tempted to mass-produee items for 
populär eonsumption. Their eraftsmen 
took what they needed from their Cau- 
easian teaehers without an uneritieal ac- 
ceptanee of all their tenets and praetiees. 
Henee Eskimo seulptures, as evideneed 
uy ilic iiiuiiy illu>iiaiions in ihis book, 
did not deteriorate into quaint eurios, 
but are, tbr the most part, real works of 
art. 

Mr. Swinton, who teaehes art history 
at the Universitv of Manitoba and is 
himself an artist, has devoted 20 vears to 
the study of this subjeet. He eautions us 
against believing that all of these ear- 
vings are similar. In faet. the artists all 
have distinet and individual person- 
alities, and their pieees— usuallv inspired 
by the human body and forms of aretie 
fauna— treat the subjeet in manv differ- 
ent ways, yet nearly always with great 
delieaey and subtlety. and often with a 
sense of humor. 

Many of the pieees shown here have 
been widelv exhibited in Ameriean and 
Canadian museums. They have been ad- 
mired tbr their "abstraet" eleiianee. The 
present book will eertainly lead to a 
deeper understanding of an art that, 
though ethnoeentrie, is suffieiently 
humanistie to endear itself to sensitive 
people all over the world. a.w. 

Desi^ninj; with Leather & Kur (Real an 
Pake), by Mary Patton. 254 pp.. 9' ^ x 6V4. 
127 b/w photographs. 12 eolor plates. 
327 diagrams. Hearthside Press. 445 
Northern Blvd, Great Neek. N.Y. 1 1021, 
$8.95 

Probably not sinee pre-Golumbian times 
has leather been as fashionable in Amer- 
iea as it is today. Artieles of apparel and 
innumerable aeeessories and other items 
are made of leather orsuede. This handy 
book teils and shows how you ean make 
not only sueh objeets and wearing ap- 
parel. but real works of art-painting and 
seulpture— as well. Fürs and pelts are 
also ineluded. and if you don't believe in 
using real leather and real für, there are 
the exeellent artiheial varieties de- 
seribed. whieh otVer even more textural 
and eolor possibilities than the real ones. 

Simple tools and teehniques are all 
you need. You ean stiteh by band or with 
ordinarv sewing maehine. and many fas- 
cinating deeorations can be applied with 
glue. The book gives all the intbrmation 
you can wish. You'll quickly learn how 
to make sueh basic items as thongs and 
how to use running, couching. saddle, 
doublelocked, whip. cross, and button- 
hole stitches. Awl. swivel knife. leather 
shears. gouge, stiteh ing pony (a gadget. 
not a small horse), stiteh spacer, and 
other tools are illustrated and explained. 

You can easily make many exciting 




62 



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ful were rcluctant to accept sculptures 
and cven paintings in connection with 
religious service because of the Second 
Commandment's prohibition of graven 
images. But the chief reason was that 
Christians were understandably unwill- 
ing to idenlify themselves until the year 
380. when an imperial ediet made Chris- 
tianity the State rehgion. and they did not 
feel entirely secure until 391, when pa- 
gan worship was offieially outlawed. 

ricucc, ai iiic ^iaIi. Ciinsiian an was 
eonfined to a few paintings in the cata- 
eombs and to some reliefs on sareophagi. 
From this period of a more or less elan- 
destine existence, most of the survivin" 
examples of art are a bit crude, though 
possessing an inherent eharm of inno- 
eenee, naivete and spontaneity. The 
forms were still devoid of originality. as 
they were too closely related to eontem- 
porary profane art. It took the ehureh a 
long while to become able to rejeet exist- 
ing Jewish or pagan modeis and to ereate 
new shapes and a new ieonography 
(based, of course. on Old and New Tes- 
tament motifs and on the developing 
Christian theology). As Monsignor De 
Bourguet explains in his texl, and dem- 
onstrates through well-chosen illustra- 
tions, the evolution from the timid Un- 
derground activities, and the very 
unoriginal deeorations. largely imitating 
Greek. Roman. Egyptian or Hebraie ar- 
tifacts, was slow. Not until the middle of 
the fifth eentury was Christianitv at last 
fully able tocombine the "inearnation oi^ 
the divine in the human" with "the 
splendor, in the visible, of the invisible." 

An and Architecture of Christianitv 
also deals with early Christian art. but it 
goes on through the centuries to the 
proud modern churches ereeted all over 
the globe after the second World War. 
There is even a prelude. "The Art of the 
Jews." by Professor Joseph Gutmann, 
suggesting that works like the aneient 
frescoes in the Dura-Europos synagogue 
in Syria or the mosaic floor of the Beth 
Alpha synagogue in the Holy Land mav 
very well have exerted some influence on 
Christian art. 

Ciutmann's artiele is one of fifteen 
ehapters. each w ritten by a ditferent 
Scholar. Ihe book is not limited to Eu- 
rope and the Americans; we are intro- 
duced to churches and ehureh deeora- 
tions in Afriea, India. the Far East. 
Australia, and Oceania. As both the text 
and the many illustrations make explieit. 
each racial or ethnie group envisages 
Christ and the personagesof the Bible in 
aecordanee with its own cultural tradi- 
tions and physical realities. (Inevitably, 
Christ and the saints in African churches 
are dark skinned and have Assyrian or 
Negroid faecs.) 

The last chapter concerns the 20th Cen- 
tury, in which artists like Epstein, Ma- 
tisse, and Stanley Spencer created holy 
images for modern man while architects 
like Perret. Wright. and Le Corbusier 
"exploited the technieal achievements of 




the age: reinforced concrete, stressed 
Steel girders, extruded aluminum. sheets 
of plate glass." to construct religious 
buildings that fit into an age of fast 
trains, jet planes and, above all, a the- 
ology markedly distinct from that which 
prevaiied a hundred, let alone a thou 
sAd.yearsago. a.w. 



Rogier van der Weyden. by Mart 
Davies. 272 pp.. 12 x 10' :, 200 illus., 12 in 



y 

rn 



foU"»r Ph'i i/^/^^t-> 



VI 1 ^> t . 



1/ y 






This is a very scholarly book about one 
of the most influential paintersof North- 
ern Europe in the I5th Century, and pos- 
sibly one o\' the greatest masters of the 
Middle Ages. We know little more about 
him than that he lived. worked. and died 
in what is now Belgium. 

The author of this new book insists 
that Rogier was a pupil of the mvsterious 
Robert Campin. usually idcntified as the 
Master of Flemalle. He also deals with 
another. far less known Flemish painter, 
Jacques Daret, another apprentice of 
Campin. By now. on the strength of 
documents. but also aided bv stylisüe cri- 
teria. scholars have suceeeded in deter- 
mining w hich works each of the three ac- 
lually painted, ending the earlier 
eonfusion of attributions. Yet the task of 
these specialists was not easy. As Martin 
Davies. director of London's National 
Gallery, writes in the introduction: "No 
existing painting is known to be authen- 
tically signed by him [i.e., Rogier], or to 
be in a strict sense documented as his." 

Works by all three artists are repro- 
duced in black and white or in color and 
often supplemented bv details in the 
original size or lariier. Manv o( Ro^iier's 
paintintis are in Belsium; others are in 
Germany, Spain. England, and France. 
But several American museums own 
works bv Van der Wevden. amoniz them 
those in Chicago. Cleveland. Indiana- 
polis, and Philadelphia. The Metropoli- 
tan Museum owns four: the National 
Ciallery in Washington, two. At the end 
of the book there is a scholarlv eommen- 
tary to each of the reproduced pictures. 

As the paintings demonstrate. Rogier 
combined a deep religious feeling with a 
sympathy for his fellow men that makes 
his pictures warmer and friendlier than 
those of his predecessors. Thev consti- 
tute triumphs o\' early Realism. Rogier 
was able to render detail with the utmost 
tidelitv: vet, though the people he 
painted look very genuine and tangible, 
he put them into an atmosphere imbued 
with profound spirituality. Hiscolors are 
soft and rieh. 

Towards the end he achieved a noble 
serenity anticipating the best in religious 
art of the Renaissance. "The delight of 
seeing superior pictures is very strong," 
the author remarks. Even though we 
have here not the Originals, but repro- 
ductions. our pleasure is considerable. as 
the plates were produced and printed 
with remarkable craftsmanshipand care 

A.W. 



70 



American Artist 



y 



Early Christian Art, by Pierre Du Bour- 
guet! niany illus. in black/white. 220 pp., 
14 X 10, Revnal & Co. in association with 
William Morrow & Co., $35 
Art and Architecture of Christianity, ed. 
by Gervis Frere-Cook, many illus. in 
black/while and color. 296 pp., 12 x 9'/:, 
Press of Gase Western University, $29.95 

Early Christian Art isd scholarly mono- 
graph written by a Jesuit who is also a 
curator of early Christian art and Egyp- 
lian art at the Louvre in Paris. His book 
Covers almost 200 years, from the early 
fourth Century, when the Edict of Milan 
annulled all anti-Christian measures in 
the vast Roman Empire, to the end of the 
tifth Century, when the church was able 
to work and flourish in the open every- 
where in Southern Europe. North Af- 
rica, and the Middle East. 

Originally. Christian art was incon- 
spicuous. Most oi the early converts to 
Christianity were poor. the artisans who 
decorated the simple houses of worship 
lacked skills, and quite a few of the faith- 

American Artist 



y- 



Ausfr'ian Information, Page 5 



Volume 26, No. 2 



VIENNA SCHOOL OF FANTASTIC REALISM alfred 



WERNER 



On the occasion of the showin^ of 
a private collect ion "Viennese Scliool 
of Fantastic Realisni" (Mrs. Liso M. 
Starrett) at the Austrian Institute, 
AUSTRIAN INFORMATION re- 
prints an upciated essay hy frofessor 
Alfred Werner which was originally 
written for the cataloi^ of an exhihi- 
tion at the Austrian Institute in 1967. 



Twice in this Century modern art has re- 
ceived significant Impulses from Austria. 
Around 1910, Viennese Expressionism ex- 
posed the strong emotions that had been 
bottled up in an earlier period more intent 
on decoration than on penetration. Then, 
after two wars and their grim preliminaries 
and aftermaths, a start was once again made 
to free the spirit, to lay bare fundamentals, 
to uncover visions shrouded by those who 
prefer smug uncertainty to the painful, yet 
in the long run liberating and satisfying, ex- 
perience of truth. 

This second liberation came through a 
movement entitled "The Vienna School of 
Fantastic Realism." The very detinition of a 
school postulates the presence of a teacher, 
yet the forty-odd men and women, many of 
them still young as artists go, do not follow 
the lead of any unchallengeable authority. 
While most of the artists have, at one time 
or another. studied at Vienna's Academy of 
Eine Arts (some under the inspiring peda- 
gogue, Albert Paris Guetersloh), their In- 
struction came largely from the pictures in 
the capital's magnificent museums, vvhere 
they worshipped the best of Flemish, Dutch, 
German, Vcnetian painting, and where they 
learned to borrow from the past, only to 
translate old motifs into their own vocabu- 
lary. Though they have shown selected 
works in special groupings, they are not 
united by the close ties that existed among 
the Nazarenes, the Pre-Raphaelite Brother- 
hood, or, more recently, among the rebels 
of The Bridge or those of the Blue Rider. 

There are, nevertheless, certain associa- 
tions of a more than transitory nature. There 
are the Big Eive, the "founding fathers," so 
to speak — Erich Brauer, Ernst Fuchs. 



<^ 











^ Susanne Moser: Bunte Steine 



Franz Bayer: Wolkenreise 

Rudolf Hausner, Wolfgang Hutter, and An- 
ton Lehmden — who, for a nuniber of years, 
have collaborated in Staging successful shows 
in many art centers of Europe. The others, 
generally younger and less widely known 
outside Austria, but not necessarily less tal- 
ented, have also engaged in Joint exhibitions. 
In either case, however, aggressive manifes- 
toes, prociaiming common aesthetic Stand- 
ards and goals ä la Bruecke or Blauer Reiter 
are conspicuously absent. 

Perhaps miracles like the Vienna School 
are likely to occur at particularly crucial 
points in history. It is tempting to link 
Jerome Bosch and bis followers with the 
unrest of bis period, or to find it logical that 
the Surrealists — with whom the masters of 
the Vienna School have been compared by 
their admirers and critics — exerted their in- 
fluence in the uneasy years following World 
War I. There can be little doubt that the 
"Third Man" atmosphere and values that 
prevaiied in Austria right after the founding 
of the Second Republic, and thereafter the 
advent of an unparalleled economic pros- 
perity, made impacts on sensitive young 
men and women, distrustful of materialism, 
and also dissatisfied with an international 
practice of art that seemed to have agreed 
on minimal, esoteric pleasures. 

When, several years ago, this writer first 
saw a group show in the basement of a shop 
on the Graben, in the heart of historic 
Vienna, he was immediately Struck by two 
facts: by the serious philosophy that was a 
common denominator, and by the stupen- 
dous craftsmanship revealed in all the media 
embraced. Yet he also feit that these pic- 
tures did not intend to make obsolete the 
kind of more impersonal art current on 
Madison Avenue. Indeed, the Fantastic 
Realists do not claim to give final answers — 
they merely raise questions, aesthetic, moral, 
philosophical. They seem in particular, to be 
concerned with one problem that has been 
puzzling mankind since the "primitive" 
hunters traced the outlines of their quarry 
on the interior of caves: What is art? 



Without referring to public Statements by 
the more successful among these Fantastic 
Realists, I can, on the strength of the dis- 
played work alone, determine that these 
"anachronistic" practitioners of art do not 
think it is a game. or that it should, or even 
could, be "cool." Good intentions on an 
artist's part are, of course, not enough to 
assure the aesthetic success of bis work, yet 
I am biased in favor of those who believe: 
that art is an expression of the imperishable 
that helps overcome the vicissitudes, survive 
the catastrophies which we encounter on 
our search for identity; but there is an 
infra- as well as a supra-liminal stretching 
outside the narrow realm of everyday con- 
sciousness. 

The Fantastic Realists appear to be more 
ambitious in their pictorial aims than many 
of their confreres. All manifestations of art 
are, of course, legitimate insofar as they 
help US to endure the almost intolerable 
span of life, but these Viennese feel — and 
ironically, the "School" originated in a city 
supposedly characterized by a frivolous, 
light attitude — that escapist art is a drug as 
dangerous as morphine. For we do awake — 
and then the hard questions, relentlessly 
posed, weigh more heavily upon our weak- 



VIENNESE SCHOOL OF 
FANTASTIC REALISM. 

A private collertion of water- 
colors and «rraphics l>y Mrs. Liso 
M. Starrett. 

Artists represented are Erich 
Brauer, Ernst Fuchs, F. Hundert- 
wasser, Wolf jiang Hutter, Rudolf 
Hausner, Susanne Moser. 

The exhihition is at the Austrian 
Institute, 11 East 52 Street, New 
York, from April 4 through April 
30 (Monday to Friday, Saturdays 
by appointment). 



Austrion Information, Page 6 



Volume 26, No. 2 



ened capacities: Whence come we? What 
are we? Where are we going? 

This is the title Gauguin gave to a large 
picture planned as his treatment on the eve 
of an attempted suicide. He was without 
hope — unlilce the Viennese artists who are 
filled with Faith. Faith, or, at least, convic- 
tion that they must continue to strive, gives 
them the strength to ßo bevond rational 
Vision, to dip into the mysterious sphere that 
religion has tried to explore with the means 
at its disposal, and depth psychology with 
methods of its own. The Surrealists of the 
i920's had ventured far into the world of 
Chance, dream, even madness, yet, unlike 
them, the Viennese do not wish to be cata- 
pulted into weird psychic states by "auto- 
matism," by drifting down the dark river 
without the ruddcr of mental and moral con- 
trol. At least in theory, the men around 
Andre Breton were against any interference 
by reason, taste, or will. With the hindsight 
of 1973 we can easily see why their boats 
foundered in Anarchy, Totalitarianism, or 
even in the muddy waters of fashionable 
superficiality. 

What will be written about the Vienna 
School four decades hence? At the very 
least, they are likely to be credited for hav- 
ing tried their best to use the data of reality 
and prcsent them in startling juxtapositions 
or even deformations to emphasize the con- 
tradictions in man's nature, to focus on the 
perils in a world of absurdity. Faced with 
the alternative of either administering pallia- 
tives or venturing to cut deep, the Fantastic 
Realists have chosen the latter course, which 
requires honesty and daring. They scrutinize 
Man and his world, yet they concentrate on 
their selves. Hence, their work is largely 
autobiographical, autogenous, autohypnotic, 
part of the enigmatic "I", whether the artist 
is preoccupied with the lines and colors in 




his own face, or with those of a landscape 
that might be found in some stränge zonc 
but actually exists only in the day-dream: 
whether hc conjures up frighteningly seduc- 
tive nudes: aninials not appearing in text- 
books of zoology: or modern machines 
obviously built by and for today's Franken- 
steins. These "Realists" have also lent their 
wild imaginations to the ßuidance of the 
Holy Scriptures, yet never and nowhere are 
they illustrators. Whatever they touch be- 
comes their own living bodies that they dis- 
sect to get as close as possible to the secrets 
of Being. 

There can be no doubt that the Vienna 
School belongs in the stream of modern art 
which, since 1945. has moved on in those 
zig-zags that in the eyes of distant observers, 
perhaps only half a Century from now, might 
give the illusion of a straight line. They are 




Rudolf Hausner: Narrenhui 



Wolf gang Hutter: Die Zauberin 

not "old-fashioned," not "obsolete" for 
ignoring the non-figurative. From my talks 
with some of them I realized that they are 
not at all hostile to the current trends in art, 
but only that they hold with Sophocles: 
"While there are many wonderful things in 

nature, the most wonderful of all is Man" 

and that the rigid exclusion of the human 
figure, the human face leads to impoverish- 
ment. Assuredly, they have nothing in com- 
mon with Naturalism which demands that a 
thing or a scene be recorded with mechani- 
cal accuracy or Photographie verisimilitude. 
Hence, I find the term Malerei des Phan- 
tastischen Realismus, coined by an Austrian 
critic, very descriptive of a group that, while 
made up of die-hard individualists, has the 
same method: they "build" their pictures out 
of apparently disparate Clements which are 




Ernst Fuchs: Cherubskopf 

actually based on various recollections and 
associations. In gencral. the Clements are 

drawn and painted in a "realistic" way it 

is their illogical and free grouping that cre- 
ates the metaphorical character. 

Metaphors by mystics: are both the 
ciphers and their scribes so deeply embedded 
in the cultural ambience of Vienna that one 
may speak — as has been done — of autoch- 
tonous art? Even today, critics seek Vien- 
nese, Parisian, Chicagoan imprints on prod- 
ucts of the modern mind, forgetting that 
four and a half centuries have elapsed since 
a painter named Jerome Bosch could remain 
in one small city, immersing himself in 
phantasmagorical dreams, more concerned 
with the reality of Hell than with the sociol- 
ogy of the next town. Some of the members 
of the Vienna School are widely traveled, 
and all have at their disposal world literature 
and world art, as the denizen of medieval 
Bois-le-duc had not. But it is permissible to 
say that this School Stands, to a degree, for 
that "Other Vienna" that is not in pleasure- 
seeker's Baedeker, the Vienna that knows 
and acknowledges Weltangst, experiences 
Spiritual as well as physical hunger, and 
points to the insecurity of Everyman even 
amidst apparent plenty. 



Articles in this publicatiön may be 
reproduced at any time. Reprints and 
copies of articles will be appreciated. 
Austrian Information Service, 31 Hast 
69th Street, New York, N.Y.' 10021. 



u 



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4) 



CA 

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X 



CO 



Oi 






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\l 




The Synagogue by Otto Pankok 

Views and Visions 

3 Anti-Nazi Artists 



By ALFRED WERNER 

Jewish News Art Critic 

Forty years ago, Hitler 
seized power in Germany. 
Among the many people 
severely affected by the 
sudden switch from a 

democratic System to a ruthless 
dictatorship were quite a few 
outstanding artists. 

Those who were not Jewish, 
were allowed to change their 
aesthetics, and, by doing so, to 
placate the Philistinc nazis. In 
such cases, they were iorgiven 
their trespasses — their affilia- 
tions with expressionism, 
cubism. surrealism and other 
progressive trends — and even 
regarded, if they so desired, with 
ample commissions. 

It must be said to the honor of 



ERNST BARLACH: LEBEN IM WERK 
(His Life in His Work), by Naomi 
Jackson Groves, published by 
Langewiesche, Koenigstein (Ger- 
many). ERNST BARLACH: WERK 
UND WIRKUNG (His Work and Its 
Impact), compiled by Elmar Jan- 
sen, published by Athenaeum, 
Frankfort (Germany). OTTO PAN- 
KOK, by Rainer Zimmermann, pub- 
lished by Rembrandt, Berlin. MAX 
BECKMANN, by Friedhelm W. Fis- 
cher, published by DuMont Schau- 
berg, Cologne; English version pub- 
lished by Phaidon, New York, $25. 



this group of artists that very 
few took advantage of the oppor- 
tunity to collaborate with the 
devil - the vast majority pre- 
ferred to adhere to their princi- 
ples, and to suffer the con- 




sequences which could be dire, 
indeed. 

The most upright of these was 
Ernst Barlach (1870-1938), who is 
the subject of two new books. 
The first ''Ernest Barlack: 
Leben im Werk" (His Life in His 
Work), by the Canadian art his- 
torian, Naomi Jackson Groves, 
is a slim volume about this 
expressionist sculptor, print- 
maker and poet that will serve 
as an excellent introduction to 
the achievements of a rare indi- 
vidual. as gifted and versatile as 
he was unselfish and noble. 

Interspersed in the text are 
samples of his ecstatic poetry, 
excerpts from his very personal 
letters and scenes from his 
haunting Biblical drama, "The 
F'lood." In his final years he was 
the target of vicious attacks by 
the fascists who slandered him, 
destroyed his war memorials 
because of their anti-militaristic 
spirit and conf iscated his works. 

This fine book presents Bar- 
lach as the deeply religious and 
stubbornly independent man he 
was, one who understood and 
sympathized with the downtrod- 
den and interpreted their sor- 
rows and afflictions to the world. 

Convey Force of Work 
The second volume, "Ernst 
Barlack: Werk Und Wirkung" 
(His Work and its Impack), is an 
anthology edited by Elmar Jan- 
sen. It collects essays, reviews, 
excerpts from conversations 
with Barlach and other docu- 
mentation that convey the force 
of his work and personality on 
his contemporaries. 

Some of the Statements are 
brief; others cover several 
pages. Of the men and women 
whose comments are collected 
here, quite a few were famous 
even outside Central Europe. 
Among these are: the print- 
maker and sculptor, Kaethe 
Kollwitz; the painter, Max Lie- 
bermann; the novelists, 
Heinrich and Thomas Mann; the 
poet, Hermann Hesse; the dra- 
matist, Bert Brecht; and the 
pacifist, Carl von Ossietzky, 
whom the nazis sent to a concen- 
tration camp and who. to their 
(See VIEWS - Page 34) 



Self-Porlrait by Otto Pankok 



ORIGINAL OIL PAINTINGS 
LITHOGRAPHS MODERN PRINTS 



Art I Q AA Picture 
Gollery L Ck IVI Frames 

124 ELMORA AVE 

ELIZABETH 

CLOSED 0»« MONDAYS 



-^ . I n (^ 




Miscellany 




Young Artists Display 
Talents in Recital at Y 

By JERRY BEN-ASHER 

Jewish News Music Critic 

Soprano Mary Meyers and pianist Zelma Bodzin, 
winners in the third annual Young Artist Auditions of 
the YM-YWHA of Essex County, appeared in recital 
April 8 before a sizable 
audience in the Y's 
Maurice Levin Theater. 

Both of them proficientiy devel- 

oping artists, they illustrated the less studied forcing at the top 



which rhapsodizes over fragrant 
flowers and grppn meadows, 
called for more warmth; the 
extended runs might have had 



high level of training of today's 
aspiring musicians. 

Mary Meyers, who studied 
voice with Robert Baird and rep- 
ertory with Kurt Adler of the 
Metropolitan Opera, essayed a 
group of songs ranging from 
Haydn's "With Verdure Clad" 



In Copland's concluding "Why 
do they shut me out of Heaven?" 
Mrs. Meyers' phrasing of the 
question. "Did I sing too loud?" 
made effective impact. 

Zelma Bodzin, a graduate of 
tiie Eastman School of Music 
and currently a Student at the 



(from The Creation) through four Academy of Music and Perform- 

lieder by Hugo Wolf; a brace of ing Arts in Vienna, demon- 

chansons by Henri Duparc, stratedon stage the assuranceof 

Ernest Chausson, Joseph Szulc a practiced artist. She is an 

and Gabriel Faure; an excerpt intense musician, with fingers 

from Puccini's "La Boheme"; that roam skillfuUy over the 

and art songs by Peter Warlock, piano keys. More songful legato 

Virgil Thomson, Celius Dough- and greater subtlety should 



erty and Aaron Copland. 

The soprano's good, strong 
voice is most effective in dra- 
matic passages, somewhat lack- 



come with the passage of time. 
Beethovens Sonata in A flat 
(Op. 110) tested Miss Bodzin 
most seriously. The composition 



ing in color in the mezzo ränge, ranges from airy delicacy in the 



and heightened by her person- 
able stage presence. 

Faure's "Fleur Jetee," con- 
veying the sense oi hopoless 
abandonment of passion in a 



openmg cantabile, with a coda of 
exquisite melodic counter-point, 
through heightened tension in 
the scherzo-trio and the ascen- 
dancy of the final triumphant 



doomed love. showed perhaps fugue. Warmth and intensity 

constitute two faces of passion; 
Miss Bodzin's strong pedal 
emphasized the second. 

The pianist's playing of Bach's 
Chromatic Fanstasy and Fugue, 
which opened her program, 
showed the ease with which she 



more anger than bitterness; 
nevertheless, following the- 
structure of the verse. Mrs. 
Meyers shaped her phrases nice- 
ly. Wolfs "Er Ist's," an ode to 
the Coming of spring, had a 
touch of the ecstatic, further 



brightened by Sarah Ramsey's attacks difficult technical prob- 
sensitive (as throughout the reci- lems. Miss Bodzin brought the 
tal) piano accompaniment. concert to a close with a clear 
Puccini's "Mi Chiamano delineationof the vivaciousqual- 
Mimi" illustrated the vocalist's ity of Ravel's "Jeux d' Eau" — 
feel for coloratura style, though the vision of "a river-god laugh- 
betraying insecurity in the low ing at the waters as they caress 
ränge. The Haydn's excerpt, him." 



Beverlv Seifer 




Rahtings Drawings SculptuB 

April8ttTu30 



222 S. Livingston Ave. 

Livingston, N.J. 

Mon-Sat 10-5:30, Fri. 10-8 



CO 



CA 

•-5 
4) 

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x 

CA 

u 

X 



CO 

05 






Views 

(Continued from Page 12) 

great fury, was awarded the 
Nobel Peace prize. 

The book is addressed to the 
reader who is thoroughly famil- 
iär with the work of Barlach as 
an artist and as a writer. Most of 
the contributions extol his char- 
acter, praise his political stand 
(akin to a democratic version of 
socialism), and acclaim his 
sculptures in wood and bronze, 
his drawings, woodcuts and 
lithographs, his novels and 
plays. A few are negative. 

It is, of course, perfectly legiti- 
mate to dislike an individual, or 
to disapprove of his creations, as 
did several of Barlach's contem- 
poraries. Hut the 'obituary" 
that appeared in "Das Schwarze 
Corps," organ of Hitlers elite 
guard, savagely dismissed him 
as "entartet" (degenerate), par- 
ticiilarly sinrp hi« attitiiHp ity thp 

World was "unheroisch" (anti- 
heroic). His profound Chris- 
tianity was irreconcilable with 
nazi aggressiveness and bellico- 
sity! 

While several of Barlach's 
works are owned and displayed 
by New York's Museum of Mod- 
em Art, his compatriot, Otto 
Pankok (1893-1966), is not 
included in the museum's per- 
manent coUection, except for a 
woodcut Portrait of his friend 
Barlach. 

Yet Pankok, who was impor- 
tant as a painter. a print-maker 
and a sculptor. was as fine a per- 
son as Barlach, and equally 
staunch in his Opposition to 
nazism. anti-Semitism and other 
anti-humanitarian phenomena. 
Through the efforts of his ener- 
getic widow. Hulda, their home, 
Haus Esselt. in a town on the 
Lower Rhine, was transformed 
into a memorial, where his 
works can be exhibited and dis- 
cussed. 

Works Confiscated 

As we learn from Zimmer- 
mann's lucid text. Pankok, a Vet- 
eran of the first World War. was 
a member of the progressive 
Junges Rheinland. He had been 
introduced to this association of 
progressive artists by his friend, 
Gert WoLlheim. who later fled 
from nazi persecution to New 
York. Pankok stayed on in Ger- 
many, but many of his works 
were confiscated. and at one 
point he was even ^xpressly for- 
bidden to engage in any creative 
activity. 

He brought upon himself the 
wrath of the nazis not only on 
account of his style — which was 
romantically expressionist — 
but also because he was most 
sympathetic to two groups who 
were being systematically exter- 
minated: the Jews and the Gyp- 
sies (it is not commonly known 
that of the latter, half a million 
perished in gas Chambers and 
concentration camps). 

Pankok's love and devotion 
went to all those who were vul- 
nerable, who were made to suf- 
fer. But he could use his tools 
only to express his compassion 
by leaving to the world unforget- 
table pictures deploring man's 
inhumanity to man. 

A charcoal drawing of 1940. 
"The Synagogue" shows a few 
desolate man in front of a 
wrecked building. Equally 
strong is the picture, "Retum 
from Auschwitz ' in the center of 
which is a moumful young 
woman. 

Max Beckmann is probably 
the most widely known of the 
German expressionists. He was 
bom at Leipzig in 1884. By 1933 
he had achieved international 
recognition as a painter. But this 
did not stop the nazis from f iring 
him from his teaching position at 
Frankfort. 
For a while he hoped that, by 



moving to the more cosmopoli- 
tan Berlin, he could continue his 
work without official interfer- 
ence. But upon learning that 10 
of his pictures were included in 
the "Degenerate Art" exhibition 
of Munich, he and his wife decide 
to emigrate to Holland. They 
stayed in Amsterdam through- 
out the war. 

Spumed Job Offers 

After the fall of the nazi 
regime offers of teaching Jobs 
came from several German 
cities, but the artist spumed 
them. In 1947 the Beckman came 
to the United States, where the 
artist taught at the Brooklyn 
Museum Art School and sub- 
sequently at Mills College in 
Oakland, California. In 1950, a 
heart attack he suffered in New 
York ended his life. 

The present book, with a very 
readable text by Friedhelm W. 
Fischer, offers reproductions of 
many of Beckmann's most out- 
standing works, all strong in 
color and design, and many of 
them deeply puzzling, as far as 
the subject matter is concemed. 
The author, a lecturer in art his- 
tory at the University of 
Karlsruhe, seeks to examine 
these somber and often tragic 
pictures, and to explain them to 
himself and to others, but he 
candidly admits that some of the 



questions raised by these oils 
cannot be adequately answered. 
He includes many self-portraits 
and, in this connection, com- 
pares Beckmann to Rembrandt : 
"Both painters were con- 
cerned not merely to explore 
their own features and personal- 
ity, but to study humanity in and 
through them . . . Beckmann 
always regarded self-under- 
standing as paramount: he 
believed that no extemal System 
could relieve a man of the duty 
of constant self-examination, or 
take away the continuous 
responsibility of the individual 
for his own destiny. This may 
seem to many a moral rather 
than an aesthetic viewpoint, but 
it it is scarcely one that has 
outlived its usefulness." 



Frankfurt and his two daugh- 
ters, had been visiting family 
grave sites when they were 
ordered out. Laufer told the 
International Council of Jews 
from Czechoslovakia that he had 



engaged in no political activities 
whatsoever and did not know the 
reason for his ouster. 

He is an official interpreter at 
the country court in Essen, West 
Germany. 



7^-2211 




OUT OFARCA 
CAU COUiCT 



I 



THE BEAUTIFLL 



* * * 



Dr. Weraer's book on Barlach 
was published by McGraw-Hill, 
New York, in 1966. 



Czech Jews 
Are Expelled 

LONDON (JTA>— Three 

former Czech Jews visiting rela- 
tives were expelled from Cze- 
choslovakia, according to a 
Prague radio broadcast. 

The Jews, Arthur Laufer, of 



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sands bluftists and engravers engaged in 
pictorial journalism. Bul as we go back 
into history. illustrative material be- 
comes increasingly scanty, steadily de- 
clining in accuracy and ränge of subjects. 
Thus what pictorial documentation we 
need. particularly on the trivia of every- 
day life, is complelely lost to us or must 
be süught for in background details not 
necessarily related to the subject of the 
picture. And this kind of research calls 
ibr imagination and more than a super- 
ficial acquaintance with iconography. 

This book is meant to be a practica! 
handbook for such research and a gen- 
eral survey of the most likely sources. 
This takes the form of reproductions. 
more or less in chronological order and 
by subjects. with data on the medium, 
source, and extent of related material. 
Aside from its usefulness in this depart- 
ment. it is a fascinating picture book. an 
illustrated history of printmaking. The 
text is also valuable for its description of 
the various printmaking techniques and 
for its comprehensive listing of public 
and commerical libraries of picture ma- 
terial in this country and Europe. Leaf- 
ing through its pages is pleasant and in- 
structive. f.j. 

The Art of Wilhelm Lehmbruck, by 

Reinhold Heller. 140 ill. in black/w hite. 
8 in color, 200 pp.. 11': x 8' 2. National 
Gallery of Art. distributed by The Mac- 
millan Company. $17.50 

This book is the hard-cover edition of 
the catalog for the first comprehensive 
Lehmbruck exhibition in the United 
States. It opened in the fall of 1972 at 
Washington^ National Ciallery and was 
subsequently shown at museums in Los 
Angeles, San Francisco and Boston. 

Professor Heller characterizes the 
work of this German Expressionist art- 
ist whose dates were 1881 to 1919 as 
gestural symbols of emotional states. 
While most German sculplure of his 
lime was stiff and static. Lehmbruck's 
work is lively. agitated, and tends to 
create the illusion o\^ weightlessness. As 
the well-chosen photographs demon- 
strate. Lehmbruck simplilied forms. 
elongated proportions. and attenualed 
the human body. He remained 
steadfastly preoccupied with the human 
figure at a time when the Cubists were 
dissolving it into a maze of geomelric de- 
tails. Yet he had no sympathy for the 
thoughtless Naturalism that placed all 
emphasison verisimilitude and mechan- 
ical perfection. Boldly he turned from 
the traditional closed forms and con- 
ceived his pieces in space, which became 
an integral part of the work. Limbs ex- 
tend far from the narrow trunk, and 
arms strike out into the open in a true 
Expressionist manner. though the bal- 
ance of the whole follows classical con- 
cepts. 

The author knowledgeably places 
Lehmbruck's creations in their proper 
context: the hectic, restless years preced- 



ing the outbreak of history's first global 
war; the tragedy of that war; and the 
dreadfui months of hunger and instabil- 
ity following the armistice. The sculptor 
killed himself half a year after the cessa- 
tion of hostilities: "His death was ... the 
suicide of an artist filled with self-doubt, 
uncertain of himself, intensely melan- 
choly and easily depressed. unsure of the 
future of his art and therefore willing 
abruptly to end its development." While 
his work was cut ofi" prematurely, it is a 
magnificent one. Apart from a few early 
oil paintings, some etchings, lithographs, 
and numerous clrawmgs, it consists of a 
great many excellent castings in stone or 
bronze that, through the nude human 
body, try to express their creatofs 
profoundly searching attitude to life and 
death. a.w. 

Aquarelle and Watercolor Complete, by 

J. Van Ingen, 80 pp., 8 x 9'/4, 687 color 
illus.. Sterling, $7.95 

The artist-author teils you and shows 
vou, in hundreds of small but accurate il- 
lustrations. how to work in true trans- 
parent aquarelle, step by step. He 
doesn't ofi er big, tull pictures but. rather. 
the Clements of painting flowers, leaves, 
mushrooms, spheres, cylinders, blocks, 
and shadows on diverse kinds of paper. 
You can see how an experienced artist 
paints a twisted leaf, how he mixes and 
applies colors. what brushes he uses for 
what and how he holds them. how he 
adds more water or more pigment. how 
he paints a flat wash. how he lightens or 
removes colors. Glazing. diffusing col- 
ors, grading washes. working wet and 
dry. dark to light, light to dark. color in 
color- name it and youMl find it in this 
handy volume. 

Geometrie design Clements simplify 
every form and save the beginner from 
losing his way. as is .so often the case, es- 
pecially in aquarelle. The idea is that if 
vou can see and depict a sphere. you can 
depict grapes or half-spherical mush- 
rooms. If you understand a cylinder. you 
can draw and paint keys. rollers. glasses. 

The illustrations are exercises of the 
most valuable kinds. il will be up to you 
to develop a full-scale pictorial subject. 
landscape, still life, or any other, on the 
basisofthese Clements. R.r. 

Turner's Early Sketchbooks. by Gerald 
Wilkinson. 136 color illus.. 62 in mo- 
nochrome. 157 pp.. 8'/4 x 10y4, Watson- 
Guptill. $15 

When Englishman Joseph Mallord Wil- 
liam Turner died in 1851, aged 76. his 
nation inherited. along with many oil 
paintings. nearly 20.000 drawings and 
watercolors. Because the majority of 
19th Century art lovers considered works 
in the latter categories as mere prepara- 
tory studies-that is. as subsidiary to 
works in oil colors-these thousands of 
treasures were neglected tbr a long time. 
It was only in the last few decades that 
these "minor'' works-often small and 

American Artist 



< Turner's Early Sketchbooks, by Gerald 
V/nkinson. 136 color illus.. 62 in mo- 
n».l"hromc. 157 pp., 8'/4 x IOV4, Watson- 
Guptill, $15 

« 

When Englishman Joseph Mallord Wil- 
liam Turner died in 1851. aged 76. his 
nation inherited. along wilh many oil 
paintings. neariy 20.000 drawings and 
watercolors. Because the majority of 
19th Century art lovers considered works 
in the latter categories as mere prepara- 
torv studies that is. as subsidiary to 
works in oil colors— these thousands of 
treasures were neglected for a long time. 
It was only in the last few decades that 
these "minor" works— often small and 



American Artist 



frcqucnlly even tiny in size— wcrc dis- 
covered by thosc who rcali/.c that skill. 
couplcd with poetic imagination rathcr 
than medium or dimcnsions. dciermine 
the value ofan objcct o\' art. 

Asa matter offacl. Turner himselfdid 
not call too much attention to his aqua- 
relles. Although at first he ineluded some 
in the Royal Academy shows. he laier 
exhibited only his oils. These were eon- 
troversial enough; a tew English crities. 

while others attacked them as his colors 
ürew more and more dazzlin» and as his 
romantic fantasv broke through the limi- 
tationsof British traditionalism. Perhaps 
it was just as well that. l'or deeades. most 
of his watereolors disappeared into the 
vaults of the British Museum. Betöre 
1900. at any rate, the public was hardlv 
prepared to accept the highly "unfin- 
ished'' Sketches of one who is said to 
have remarked. "1 do not imitate nature, 
I improve on it." 

The present book by Gerald Wilkin- 
son demonstrates that Turner could 
create topographically "accurate" pic- 
tures even in such elusive media as wa- 
tereolors and pencils that do not lend 
themselves readily to a "Photographie" 
rendition of all details. As a Student in 
the Royal Academy. Turner was ex- 
tremely careful not to omit anything that 
caught his sharp eye. We are given here 
reproductions oi^ pictures drawn or 
painted into little sketchbooks or on 
loose sheets of paper between 1789 and 
1802. that is to say. from Turner's entry 
into art school to his tirst visit to France 
(a few months after he had been elected 
füll memberof the Royal Academy). In 
these 13 years he traveied extensively in 
England, Scotland. and Wales, some- 
times on foot. at other times on horse- 
back, but always with sketchbooks small 
enough to slip into the pockets of his 
heavy overcoat. 

He stopped repeatedly to record as- 
pects that fascinated him: views of Lon- 
don and Edinburgh; the facades and in- 
teriors of churches; lakes. rivers. tishing 
boats. villages. Castles, trees. hills. and 
even such near-abstract vistas as tho.se of 
stormy waves and interesting formations 
of clouds. One notes that he graduallv 
moves up from timidly executed. labori- 
ous and utterly realistic pictures to pure 
landscapes. remarkable for the economy 
of brushwork no less than for the bold 
blending of the real with the "unreal." 
Thus he was only 27. with many vears 
ahead. when he began to understand 
that less is often more and that to him it 
was more desirable to record the etfects 
of light and atmosphere than the every- 
day, humdrum three-dimensionality. 

The text of this book consists of a short 
introduction ("Preamble") and brief yet 
sufficient commentaries on the repro- 
duced pictures. Thanks to the smallness 
of the Sketches, it was possible to render 
most of them here in the original size. 



While nearly all of the works in this vol- 
ume are from the hands of Turner, also 
ineluded, for comparison, are an elching 
by his teacher. Thomas Malton. and 
works by Paul Sandby (praised by 
Gainsborough for being the only British 
artists to have painted "real views from 
nature" instead of artificial picturesque 
compositions). and by Turner's coeval. 
Thomas Ciirtin. All reproductions are 
delightfully clear. a.w. 



Picasso: Birth of a Genius, by Juan- 
Eduardo Cirlot. 971 illus.. some in color. 
288 pp., 11'/: X 9'/2. Praeger, $37.50 

The term "genius" is too otten applied to 
individuals with rather modest gifts. No 
one can. however, deny this appellation 
to Pablo Picasso who, as the present 
book admirably demonstrates, was ex- 
traordinary even as a child. Basically, 
this is an account of what the Spaniard 
produced between the ages of nine and 
23. It is, in a sense, a lavish guide through 
the Picasso Museum, established a few 
years ago in a medieval palace at Barce- 
lona, the "Paris o( Spain" and the city 
where the artist spent most of his forma- 
tive years. (He was born in Malaga in 
1881.) This all- Picasso museum now 
contains almost a thousand drawings 
andpaintings, all but a few done by the 
artist prior to 1904, the year he settled in 
Paris; nearly all were donated by him 
despite his outspoken hostility to the 
Franco regime and despite the fact that 
he has not visited his native country since 
the fall of the Spanish Republic. (But he 
never renounced his Spanish citizenship, 
and he keeps on declaring that he still 
feels as Spanish as ever.) 

The book has a brief foreword by Juan 
Ainaudde Lasarte, directorof all of Bar- 
celona's art museums; a lengthy essay by 
art historian Juan-Eduardo Cirlot. inter- 
spersed by many large illustrations in 
color or in blaek and white; and a cata- 
logof additional drawings and paintings 
now owned by the Picasso Museum. (In 
this section. they are illustrated by very 
small. yet clear, black and white pic- 
tures.) 

Once. while visiting an exhibition of 
children's drawings. Picasso said. "I 
could not have taken part. When I was 
twelve I drew like Raphael." Actually. 
the bullfight scene he drew at the age of 
nine is clearly the work of a child. But 
the little picture oC Hercules w ith a club 
which he sketched from a plaster statue 
in the family home in the same year is as 
firm and sure as a work of a good Student 
at an Academy would be. Indeed. his 
juvenilia reveal the precocity displayed 
by Raphael. Dürer, or Toulouse-Lautrec 
when they were equally young. A picture 
like the large oil of 1897, Science and 
Charitv a doctor and a nun at the bed- 
side of a sick woman-is painted with the 
skill one would expect only of a highly 
experienced master with many years of 
practice behind him. Yet P. Ruiz Pi- 



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drawing and a new pastel technique 
which brings actual life to the portrait. 

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casso— who was to drop the paternal 
"Ruiz" in 1901 -was only 16 when he 
painted this canvas. (It gained two 
awards.) 

All of the "Picassos before Picasso" 
are attractive, and many of them are fas- 
cinatingly good. As a boy. he was given 
private instruction by his father, a pro- 
fessor at Barcelona's Academy of Fine 
Arts. He later studied there, and also at 
two other Spanish academies. Yet his 
early pictures are too vigorous, too force- 

lüi to uC uiSiniSscu as "acauciiiic," while 

done in the 19th Century idiom, in their 
sombre yet streng realism they have the 
Spanish qualities of a Zurbarän or a 
Veläsquez. He often found his modeis in 
the very section in Barcelona in which 
the museum is now located-among the 
dockworkers, sailors, beggars, coach- 
men, cabaret dancers and prostitutes 
who frequented this colorful historic 
area so close to the busy harbor. Ruth- 
lessly depicting the wretched human 
flotsam and jetsam of a metropolis, the 
pictures are reminiscent of Toulouse- 
Lautrec. There are also a few paintings 
of Picasso's Blue Period (ca. 1901-1904), 
works in which a sonorous blue is used 
almost monochromatically. 

Senor Cirlot was compelled to devote 
a few pages to the 1904 to 1916 period, 
not represented in the Barcelona Mu- 
seum, to link the early Picassos with ten 
works of 1916 and 1917 that are included 
in the "Donation" and characterize the 
end of Cubism and the artist's sudden in- 
terest in the art of Ingres. Bearing in 
mind the artist's great respect for many 
masters of the past, Cirlot observes that, 
despite the revolutionär/ trend in his na- 
ture, Picasso "did not start from Scratch," 
but always remained aware of the classi- 
cal tradition he had inherited. a.w. 



Impressionism, by Pierre Courthion. 2Ü5 
pp., 14 X 10, 314 illus., including 62 in 
color, Abrams, $20 

Most books on Impressionism concen- 
trate on the five or six outstanding per- 
sonalities, all Frenchmen, who led the 
Impressionist movement when it started 
in 1874. However, more than 50 painters 
participated, at one time or another, in 
the sensational group shows between 
that year and 1886, when the Impres- 
sionist association formally disbanded. 
One of the merits of Courthion's volume 
is that it also deals with the predecessors 
of Impressionism, such as Constable, 
Turner, Bonington, and Corot, as well as 
with some of the "lesser" followers of 
Monet, such as Cals, Lepine, and Guille- 
min, and with the numerous artists who 
were influenced by Monet's technique 
and ideology but went their separate 
ways. 

It was quite legitimate to include Win- 
slow Homer, who lived in Paris for a year 
before the Impressionists had banded to- 
gether as a group and who must have 
known the early works of Manet and 
Monet. (Yet one cannot agree with 



Courthion that Homef s later works are 
not as good as the early ones.) One is also 
grateful to the author for not having 
overlooked the important North Ger- 
man Impressionist Max Liebermann. In 
fact, Courthion uses the term 'impres- 
sionism" so loosely as to cover also the 
major Post-Impressionists and Poin- 
tillists, and even Bonnard, who reacted 
very strongly against Impressionism. 

The introduction is quite useful, but of 
even greater value are the learned com- 
meniaries on the color plates. A special 
treat is the section entitled "Graphic 
Works," for it is not commonly known 
that the masters, who handled the brush 
so expertly, have-with one exception, 
Monet-left us many fine etchings and 
lithographs. a.w. 



PROFESSIONAL (from page 50) 
to produce more or fewer impressions of 
perfect fidelity. If you cannot find a fine 
art print pubiisher in your local Ycilow 
Pages, write to N.Y. Graphic Society, 
Ltd.. 140 Greenwich Ave., Green wich, 
Conn. 06830. for advice. 

Artists must be welcome to inspect at 
any time the publishing firm's books re- 
lating to their accounts or to request an 
official signed business report. This elim- 
inatcs such qucstions as. "How do 1 
know they stopped printing at 150 copies." 
or. "Are they seliing for more than they 
teil me?" Whether you or they did the 
printing. when your print edition is pub- 
lished. you should require in your con- 
tract that your work receives consider- 
able promotion and distribution by the 
firm. 

In a subsequent coiumn. I will talk 
about Publishing potentials for color re- 
productions of paintings. 

:IDOV (from page 38) 

Socrates, and yet so new its investi- 
gations are just getting underway, the 
neurophysiologist is depicted as a figure 
of all time: the young boy ages as the eye 
travels down the body. Finally, to under- 
score the idea that ingenuity and inven- 
tiveness are imperative if the scientist is 
to increase our knowledge of the brain, 
Lidov drew the boy playing cat's cradle 
with fibers spun out of nerve cells. "If 
your business is creative ideas," he ex- 
plains, "you must be willing to play with 
them." 

When will The Neurophysiologist be 
complete? Lidov doesn't know. Other 
projects prevent him from devoting him- 
self to it full-time. He continues because 
he considers it his responsibility to 
bridge the communication gap between 
the two cultures. "Scientific concepts, by 
their very nature, can be written ex- 
plicitly only in a language comparatively 
few people speak. The problem is to 
transiate these concepts into a language 
most of US understand— to communicate 
not the exact meaning of the formula or 
process— that is impossible-but its im- 



64 



American Artist 



cnd o'books about him or Kcmbrancil. 
Abovv all. PabU) Picasso's "uncxamplcd 
rccundity/' as pu/./ling lo Lcyniarie as to 
evcryonc eise, is a sign o\' genius ihal is 
morc than just a matlcr i)f cnergy. in 
morc ihan 30 ihousand days spcnt in his 
atelier. Picasso crealed a "vast body of 
work" that nol only ''rcvolutioni/cd thc 
arls al ihc beginning o\' ihis Century," bul 
also has contmucd lo throw light inlo thc 
"dcpths o\' thc human condition." 

Whilc. of coursc. admiring thc mastcr, 
thc critic Lcymarie does not continc 
himsclf to wondcr and astonishmcnt at 
thc phcnomcnon o\' Picasso. Instcad ot 
thc usual "homagc." of litllc valuc to thc 
Student, he gives us a solid, penetrating 
analysis o\' works from thc brutally rc- 
alistic drawings Pablo did as a teenager 
in Barcelona to a pen. ink. and wash 
sketch. Two Womcth he made at 9 1 in the 
now easily recognizable Picassoid style, 
with undiminished strength and tirm- 
ness. 

Pcdagocially. thc best featurcs o( this 
long text arc thc carefully chosen quota- 
lions from Picasso's comments about 
himsclf and his methods ("Thc role oi 
painting . . . is not to paint movement, 
but to'^put reality into motion."); ex- 
cerpts trom writings by French intellec- 
tuals; poems by Apollinairc. Eluard, and 
others addressed to the Master; and. 
scattered among the illustrations, rare 
snapshots o( persons and placcs con- 
nected w ith his work. 



Scholars will be plcascd wiffHlK' bib- 
liography. which selects only important 
books and maga/ine articles. In defiance 
of the recent and deplorable tendency to 
quote authorities without stating where, 
prccisely, the excerpt can be found. Lcy- 
marie even cites the page numbers of his 
sources. Similarly. the illustrations all 
of high quality arc carefully describcd 
as to date, medium, dimensions. and 
ownership. In the index, names are in 
capital letters {e.^., aracion). placcs 
{e.i^., Algeria) in ordinary type. The 
translation. by James Emmons, is distin- 
uuished bv tluencv and lucidity. a.w. 



Cülor. 509 ,n h .ui "1 /'•■P;"^"^-'ion,s in 

One's annovancc n th.. l 

'"""h ncw c" L'äbl "*^^' '"' "^^ 

'-avolure'o Ropft^'"-^'"^^' 
Andre Dunovt-r d.- ^r fresnuyeor 

>hcse,wohaveTeneSähr\-"""S'^ 
>"res, wh,le Ihere cx.Tk ' ""^ '"'•- 

' "-""•"• ""'1 Iherc w,l| be no 



Afti ^tti*ii Yhr 



o nerwise interosting painting. 

Blake emphasi/cs the importance o\' 
grays. He pointsout that black and white 
are colors in art. even though they arcn't 
colors in phvsics. He lisls ninc principles 
of color mixin*! and iiives exccllcnt ad- 

CT c. 

vice on loose versus thorouuh mixing. 
the intensitication or graying. thc dark- 
ening or lightening of colors. He also dis- 
eusses thc mediums and varnishes. 

The 80 full-page color reproductions 
lhrou*ihout the book otfer a larüc diver- 
sity oi" subjects. styles. and techniques. 
from thc strictly realistic Rain Forest by 
Richard Schmid and Motlwr and Child 
by Richard Lack, throuuh the illustrative 
Mi^hi Waich by Donald Pulnam. the 
decorativc Tropical Squall by Miliard 
Sheets, to the impressionist Street Scene 
by Sidney Rayncs. the highlv dramatic 
and individual deor^ia by Lamar Dodd. 
and the Magic Realist Checker Players 
by Joseph [)awlcy. The captions cxplain 
the color etVects. contrasts or harmonics. 
hot and cold colors. as well as the han- 
dlingof paint in each painting. r.i . 

Gericault's Raft of the Medusa, by Lo- 
ren/ Eltner. 17(1 pp.. 12 x 9. 158 illus., 
Phaidon. dist. by Praeger. $35 

In this book Profes.sor Eitncr discusses in 
füll detail the genesis and signiticance of 
one of the Louvre's most celebrated 
early I9th Century paintings. La Meduse 
was a government frigate that. in 1816. 
carried French soldiers and settlers to 



the colony o\^ Senegal. I he ship. com- 
mandcd by an incompetent but well- 
eonnected high-born ollicer. t\>undered 
otVthe west coast of Africa and had to be 
ahandoned. One hundred and fifty pas- 
sengers eould not be accommodated on 
the lifeboats and were crowdcd on a 
hastily constructed raft which. for 13 
days. drifted on the stormy sca. Hungry. 
thirsty. desperate, many o[' thc ship- 
wreckcd lost their minds. By the time thc 
raft was pickcd up by a rescue ship. all 
bul 15 of thc victims had perished. and 
five more died shorlly alter the ship 
reachcd land. 

Distre.ssed by the tragedy. like nearly 
all other Frenchmen. Jean-Louis- 
Andrc-Theodore Cicricault decided to 
express his protest in a huge painting. In 
Order to uct all thc facls. he interviewed 
the survivors and. in a hospital. made 
carcful Sketches o\' the dead and dying. 
After he had compicted an enormous 
body of preparatory work, he began to 
paint. 

Workinu from davbrcak to sundown 
for eight months. he covered a canvas 16 
feet high and 22 feet K)ng. When first 
shown at thc Paris Salon of 1819. the pic- 
ture attracted great attention. It was 
praiscd by all who were furious at the 
governmcnt's Icniency towards the inept 
captain (who was sentenced to a mere 
thrce years in prison by a naval court), 
and it was, of course, condemned by men 
o\' the Establishment, who resented the 



picture as an unjust political attack. 

Today, morc than a Century and a half 
after thc event. visitors to the Louvre are 
still moved by the dramatic vigor of this 
fine picture. which shows the survivors at 
the moment they are trying frantically to 
Signal a ship that appears. very small, on 
the horizon. Through his carcful aceu- 
mulation of all extant skctchcs, Professor 
Eitncr gives us the füll documentation V)\' 
this remarkable work. The drawings, in 
pen. crayon, or chalk, are of life boats, 
the abandoned raft. figure studies in a 
variety of positions, and skctchcs of 
cadavers and anatomieal details. The 
scholarly text contains all anyone might 
wish to know about the tcrrible event 
and the remarkable picture, "the culmi- 
nating achievement" of the artist's life. 
cut Short at age 33. The book. by thc 
leading authority on this great Romantic 
painterof France, is recommended to all 
who have seen the painting and wish to 
know more about it. a.w. 









. 'Hl' 



2 



HERZL INSTITUTE BULLETIN 



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C^-Li 



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c' 



Israel's Art Comesof Aäe 



bv 



DR ALFRED WERNER 
arl critic and hislorian 



To understand Israel, one must know all of its cultural 
manifestations, including the Visual arts. For art is man*s 
highest form of expression and communication, and creative 
activity in art is a basic need of all people. As for Israel* s 
art, it is a miracle within a miracle. After all, a mere 
quarter of a Century ago, hardly anyone but the most well- 
informed Zionists knew of the existence of "Palestianian" 
artists. 

I speak of a miracle, since the Jewish State has not had 
an art tradition of several hundred years. Though a tiny and 
rather primitive art school was established at Jerusalem in 
1906 - the Bezalel Academy founded by Professor Boris 
Schatz - what, until 1948, was called "Palestine" had little 
of the resources, material or spiritual, technical or 
aesthetical, that would enable its painters and its far less 
numerous sculptors, to reach the height of achievement 
attained in Europa or America. 

By 1948, no more than, perhaps, three or four Israeli 
artists had made names for themselves outside the small 
circle of the Yishuv. A quarter of a Century later, thishad 
changed completely. Today, the artists of Israel are 
successfully competing with their colleagues from scores 
of other countries, most of them much larger, and none 
completely surrounded by enemies, as is the State of Israel. 
Israeli artists participate in international shows at Venice 
and Tokyo, Pittsburgh and Sao Paulo, and they often carry 
off much coveted prizes. Progressive Israel, leading in 
democratic philosophy, in social legislation and in other 
fields, finally caught up in the arts with other, much 
richer nations endowed with celebrated centers of the Visual 
arts, with well -established academies and museums. 

Tlie joy over Israelis achievements in the Visual arts 
must not be mar red by the awareness that its practitioners 
do not constitute an identifiablc group. Inevitably, therc are 
those who insist on the possibility and even desirability of a 

(continued on page 6) 






6 



HERZL INSTITUTE BULLETIN 



distinctively Israeli art, recognizably different from the 
creations of other nations. Biit an eqiial niimber hold that 
any kind of nationalistic cxclusiveness is utterly anachron- 
istic in the age of jet travel. Similarly, there are those 
who keep on working in idioms that seem to belong to a pre- 
World War I vintage, such as Realism, Imprcssionism, and 
Post-Impressionism - and who have a perfect right to cling 
to their philosophy and practice. In the opposite camp are 
those who maintain that genuine works of art must speak the 
language of today, and that the artists must use the current 
modes, such as Pop-Art, Minimal Art, and even Conceptual 
Art. 

One thing is certain: Israeli art is not "Jewish Art", as 
the term was understood in the years before the Holocaust, 
when the artistic vocabularyof Chagall and his associates ' 
was largely Yiddish-French in its expression, Yiddish- 
Russian in its subject matter. Forty and more years ago, 
Gentile critics believed they could detect in the works of 
Jewish artists a vagLie sadness, opposcd to the joyfulness 
and even gaiety in much of tlie art created by non-Jews. 
By contrast, the art of Israel, whether abstract or non- 
abstract, is mainly high-keyed in color, and aJways virile 
in manner. Tlie Israel of today has quite a few artists with 
fresh ideas, with new approaches, and also a great many 
art lovers who likc art that is complex, intricate, with the 
Clement of mystery, that every valid work of art is bound 
to contain - in short, what Kandinsky termed "bridges 
towards inwardness". 

5{j -<■ .'. 

Dr. Werner will deliver at the Herzl Institute an 
illustrated Iccture on "Art and Artists of Israel" on 
Sunday. May 6 at 3:30 P, M. 



JOURNEY^S BND 

Soviet Georgian immi- 
grants unh)ading ihcir 
belongings outside ihc 
homes thcy liave bcen 
alloUcd in ü ncw housiru' 
es täte at Aslidod, IsruM 




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Views (111(1 Visi(ni.s 



For (Armchair) Travelers 



By ALFRED WERNER 

Jewish News Art Critic 

The number of Ameri- 
can tourists who will visit 
Israel this spring and 
Summer is bound to be 
much larger than in pre- 

ceding years. Many, but not 
enough, will arrive with some 
idea as to what they can expect 












1 1 1\ 



\^ V/lVf X 1, tAA 



display of a dynamic. always 
fascinating populace. 

In any event, several good 
guide books are available for 
serious travelers. "Bazak Israel 
Guide," produced by Avraham 
Levi, with an introduction by 
Moshe Kol, Minister of Tourism 
(distributed by Harper & Row 
$3.95) is a handy paperback with 
practical information as well as 
brief but valuable notes on the 
historic sites, such as churches, 
synagogues, mosques. remains 
of ancient fortresses and burial 
grounds, museums, universities 
and cultural centers. 

There are short Walking tours 



for pedestrians, and longer 
excursions for motorists. There 
are lists of recommended res- 
taurants. This writer, who first 
visited Israel soon after the War 
of Liberation, is mildly amused, 
for he remembers the period of 
"tsena" (austerity) when eggs 
and meat were rare items! 

While "Bazak Israel Guide" 
contains a few pages on the 
ronntry's geogranhy and histo- 
ry. and its ethnic variety, as well 
as brief references to archeo- 
logical Sites, houses of worship, 
museums and the like, the trav- 
eler with more scholarly inter- 
ests must turn to "The Holy 
Land," by Michael Avi-Yonah, 
one in a series of "World Culture 
Guides" (Holt, Rinehart and 
Winston, $9.95). The author is the 
well-known professor of Archeo- 
logy and History of Art at the 
Hebrew University and the vol- 
ume contains excellent pho- 
tographs - many in color - by 
Mario Carrieri. 

Israel, where culture "is said 
to have begun about a million 



A Week end of Music 

Mills Service Quartet at Y 



By JERRY BEN-ASHER 

Jewish News Music Critic 



The conventional 
ambience of a prestigious 
suburban synagogue 
hardly provides the most 
likely setting for revival 

of a Segment of East European 
"shtetl" culture. 

Just this attempt was made on 
Friday evening when, in cele- 
bration of his .30th anniversary 
with Congregation Oheb Shalom 
of South Orange, Cantor Edgar 
Mills presented his own arrange- 
ment of a Hasidic Sabbath Ser- 
vice. Obviously prepared with 
loving research, the concert 
included Performances by flutist 
Bernard Berger, organist 
Margaret Meyerowitz, six young 
vocalists (Richard Eisenberg, 
Sharon Kwatkin, Katy Payson, 
Evan Reken, Scott Siegel and 
Robert Treisler) and the con- 
gregations choir. 

That the generally appealing 
results did not match Dr. Mills' 
enchanting Falasha service of 
last May was in part due to ner- 
vousness on the part of the lead- 
ing Singers, but more basically 
related to the fact that the music 
of the Hasidim demands more 
than mere Staging. 

These sometimes sad, some- 
times exuberant, melodies 
inspire listeners to want to sing 
and clap their hands, to sway 
with the exciting rhythms. They 
call for unrestrained involve- 
ment. 

Perhaps the young people who 
joined the cantor on the bima 
(and who did lend an air of fresh- 
ness to the song) were meant to 
symbolize the congregation. 
Should the program be repeated, 
howevcr, the emotional experi- 
ence would be enhanced by more 
purposeful participation of the 
audience. 

Early in the service, the rendi- 
tionof "Lechoh dodi" (Come. my 

(See SERVICE— Page 22) 



Extremism being "en 
vogue" these days, the 
Bowling Green String 
Quartet tried their 
hands at it in Program- 
ming their concert at the YM- 
YWHA in West Orange on Satur- 
day evening. 

Two modern radicals (Charles 
Ives and Anton Webern) con- 
fronted two 19th Century roman- 
tics (Hugo Wolf and Robert Schu- 
mann), with the inevitable 
fence-straddler (Samuel Barber) 
wondering in which camp he 
belonged. Beethoven, Mozart, 
Brahms — bulwarks of the clas- 
sical Order — vanished. as it 
were, into the musty pages of 
history. 

A good-sized audience— not 
approaching the capacity 
numbers attending the five other 
Chamber music concerts this 
season — showed up to accept the 
challenge of the venturesome 
final program. Their cordial 

(See QUARTET— Page 27) 



years ago," is a sheer paradise 
for the knowledgeable sightseer. 
Actually, the earliest archeologi- 
cal finds reproduced here are 
objects from the Calcolithic Age 
(400-3150 BCE). 

Some of the finest antiquities 
can be seen in the Rockefeller 
Museum which, located as it is in 
East Jerusalem, was inaccessi- 
ble to Jews for many years, until 
the unifiratinn of .Tpriisalem in 
1967. Altogether. about 50 muse- 
ums and galleries are listed 
(commercial galleries are not 
included). 

Not all confine themselves to 
Judaica; Haifa, for instance, has 
a Museum of Japanese Art; 
Jerusalem, a Museum of Islamic 
Antiquities; Christian illumi- 
nated manuscripts can be 
viewed at the libraries of the 
Armenian Patriarchate and the 
Greek Orthodox Patriarchate, 
both in the Old City. 

Nor is modern art neglected. 
The list of painters. sculptors 
and architects Stretches from 
the late Yankel Adler to the still 
active Yosef Zaritsky, co- 
founder of the earliest Pales- 
tinian artists' association back 
in the 1920s. 

European Stop-Overs 

Many Israel-bound travelers 
are likely to make stop-overs in 
European cities. London's Brit- 
ish Museum, for many years, 
was a forbidding place: gloomy, 
dull and overwhelming through 
the exposure of too many things 
in the dosest proximity. This is, 
at least, as I remember it on my 
first entry, in 1939. 

Today, the galleries and halls 
are well lit; objects of secondary 
importance have been removed 
to the vaults, and attention is 
focused on the major exhibits. 
F\)r those who wish to prepare 
themselves for the expedition - 
which may encompass anything 
from a two-hour visit to several 
excursions on consecutive days - 
two good books are available: 
"Treasures of the British Muse- 
um," with an introduction by Sir 
John Wolfenden, and chapters 
by more than a dozen specialists 
(Viking Press. $12.95) and a 
(See VIEWS— Page 25) 



ORIGINAL OIL PAINTINCS 
LITHOGRAPHS MODERN PRINTS 

Art I Q AA Picture 
Gailery L Ot IVI Frames 

124 ELMORA AVE 

ELIZABETH 

CLOSED ON MONDAYS 



Exciting Tode/ Gailery 

Art Auction 

sponsorcd by the Short Hills Chaptcr 
of Wonum's American O.R.'l . 

Sunday Afternoon May 6, 1973 

Tayler Park Recreation Center 

Main Street Millburn, N.J. 

Exquisitely custom framed original paintmgs hi6 graphics. each with a lull document ot 
authenticity will be ottered at prices you won 



Chagall 

Braque 

Dali 

Viewing - 



Schreibman 

Miro 

Jansem 



want to miss: 

Büffet 

Liberman 

Renoir 



Manet 

Priedlaender 

Lanier 



1:30 p.m. Auction Starts promptly at 300 P.M. 
Donation: $1.00 per person 

For more information 
Call: 379-6167 or 379-1160 



nl 

4,1 

t( 



A 






Views and Visions 

(Continued l'rom Page 12) 



slightly smaller book, with the 
same title, issued by Praeger 
($12.95) and edited and intro- 
duced with the contributors to 
the Viking Press publication. 

As Wolf enden put it: "Noother 
museum contains documents 
comparable with the Codex Sin- 
aiticus or the Lindisfarne Gos- 
pels . . . There is a very wide 
ränge of people who legitimately 
have an interest in the place, a 
broad spectrum which contains 
almost exactly as many bands 
as the spectrum itself contains 
colors." 

If Vienna should be another 
stop, do not fall to consult "All 
the Best in Austria," by Sidney 
Clark (Dodd, Mead and Co., 
$7.95). While it does not pretend 
to deal with the subject in depth, 
it describes adequately all that 
an American, with a few days at 
hand, can see m the capital and 
its immediate surroundings (an 
extra week is needed to include 
Graz, Linz and other cities, of 
which Salzburg is, of course, the 
most glorious). 

The Jewish traveler is disap- 
pointed that not a Single line is 
given to the synagogue in the 
Center of Vienna, though this 
small house of worship, restored 
after the devastation by the 
nazis, is a gern of neo-Classical 
architecture. Nor is there any 
mention of the Jewish antiqui- 
ties at Eisenstadt, now the site of 
a small Jewish museum and 
research Institute. 

A far more profound book is 
"The Austrian Mind: An Intel- 
lectual and Social History," by 
William M. Johnston (University 
of California Press, $17.50). It 
Starts with the revolution of 1848 
which, though not entirely suc- 
cessful, forced some reforms 
upon the Hapsburg regime, and 
ends with the enslavement of the 
independent Austrian Republic 
by the nazis in 1938. The works of 
outstanding poets, painters, 
musicians, scientists are men- 
tioned and discussed. Three 
chapters are devoted to Prof. 
Freud and his followers. 

Nearly all of the important 
men and women whose work so 
greatly benefited humanity have 
gone to their graves. One of the 
few survivors was the eminent 
Jurist, Hans Kelsen, who taught 
at the universities of Vienna and 
Cologne, fled from the nazis to 
Geneva and Prague, and ended 
his hegira in California where he 
died recently at the age of 91. 

Several pages are devoted to 
the Wittgensteins, who where 
also of Jewish descent. Karl 
Wittgenstein (1847-1913) was an 
industrial engineer who secured 
"a monopoly on manufacture of 
railroad track" and "became 
one of the wealthiest men in Aus- 
tria." He expressed his liberal 
views in many newspaper arti- 
cles, was a personal friend of the 
composer Johannes Brahms, 
and lived as a grand seigneur. 

His son, Paul, a pianist, lost an 



arm during World War I; unde- 
terred. he continued his career 
(several composers wrote espe- 
cially for him piano concertos 
for the left hand). Another son, 
Ludwig Wittgenstein (1889-1951) 
studied at Cambridge and made 
a reputation as a philosopher. 
When he became an outlaw in 
nazi-occupied Europe. he found 
refuge at Cambridge: 

'Inspired Legend' 

"At Trinity College, Wittgen- 
stein inspired a legend. Uncouth 
attire, a cluttered room, delight 
in Cowboy stories and a habit of 
discussing philosophy with the 
chambermaid, set this bachelor 
apart." 

The seven pages on this 
thinker and his family in "The 
Austrian Mind ' made me eager 
to pick up "Wittgenstein's 
Vienna," by Allen Janik and Ste- 
phen Toulmm (Simon & Schus- 
ter, $8.95). I do not ever hope to 
plow through Wittgenstein's | 
main work, the "Tractatus; 
Logico-Philosophicus," but the 
chapters devoted to it convince 
me of the validity of his asser- 
tion that all philosophical Prob- 
lems arise from the illusions 
created by the ambiguities of 
language and that, therefore, 
philosophy must be chiefly con- 
cerned with the analysis of the 
proper use of speech. 

As the book reveals, Old Aus- 
tria was bubbling with cultural 
ferment that influenced many 
disciplines along with philoso- 
phy. I was, in particular, inter- 
ested in the extensive references 
to painters like Klimt, 
Kokoschka and Schiele, to archi- 
tects like Otto Wagner and Adolf 
Loos. 

This book makes clear that 
Vienna was more than just a 
playground for frivolous aristo- 
crats and millionaires - that, in 
fact many of the more signifi- 
cant intellectual revolutions of 
our Century originated there, 
often in obscurity, yet more 
often in an open arena and to the 
angry howls of those who com- 
pletely failed to understand their 
messages. 

However great Vienna was 
during the lives of Wittgensteins, 
father and son. Paris was still 
the cultural capital of Europe, 
especially in the Visual arts. One 
of the most articulate and ener- 
getic pathfinders was the 19th 
Century painter Courbet. 

He and his associates are the 
subject of "The Absolute 
Bourgeois: Artists and Politics 
in France 1848-1851," and 
"Image of the People: Gustave 
Courbet and the Second French 
Republic 1848-1851," both by 
T.H. Clark (New York Graphic 
Society, each volume $15). 

The century-old problems are 
still with US. Should the artists 
declare that they were nothing 
eise but artists, and that for 
them politics was just a dirty 
word? Or should they use their 
(See VIEWS— Page 26) 



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Alfred Werner 

Well-known New York-based art critie and lecturer 
and author of over 20 books on art 




Yigal Tumarkin, Figure (iron scraps) 



IsraePs art is a miracle within a miracle. A quarter of a Century ago 
hardly anyone but the most knowledgeable Zionist knew of the 
existence of Talestinian' artists. Although there were quite a few, 
most of these pioneers were somewhat provincial in attitude and 
technique. Not surprisingly, there was barely a handful of sculptors. 
The painters generally preferred the by then rather obsolete Impres- 
sionist idiom; some were post-Impressionists, others mild-mannered 
Expressionists; their subject matter comprised water-towers punc- 
tuating agricultural Settlements; shepherd-flautists; buxom hora- 
dancers; and a proliferation of silvery olive groves. 

But about the time the State of Israel was proclaimed, a radical 
change began, as a group, led by Marcel Janco, who called them- 
selves ofakim hadashim (New Horizons) broke away from the 
conservative Association of Painters and Sculptors to introduce new 
ideas into a country whose art they feit was thirty or forty years 
'retarded'. Thereafter, progressive Israel, leading in democratic 
philosophy, in social legislation, and in other fields, has not been 
overtaken in aesthetics by other, much richer nations endowed with 
celebrated centres of the Visual arts, with well-established academies 
and museums. 

Israeli artists are now successfully competing with their colleagues 
from other parts of the globe at international shows in Venice and 
Tokyo, Pittsburgh and Sao Paulo, often carrying off much coveted 
prizes; but the magnitude of this achievement is not fully appre- 
ciated — a flowering of art in a tiny nation, surrounded by enemies. 
It must also be borne in mind that neither Orthodox Jews nor the 



^..- 






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Yitzhak Danziger, Nimrod (detail) 



74 



J^v^ 




Mordechai Ardon 

Arab minority participate, and that even Ihe practitioners of art are 
split. For there are those who insist on thc possibiliiy and even 
desirability of a distinctively Israeli art, recognisably difTerent from 
the creations of other nations. There are their opponents who hold 
that any kind of nationahstic exciusiveness is utterly anachronistic 
in the jet age. 

To make things more comphcated, 'internationalists' will be found 
among those who prefer to stick it out in the toueh climate of 
Beersheba, and 'nationalists' among those who have long moved 
to the easy living on the Left Bank of Paris. Yet both groups claim 
the same right to call themselves Israelis! Ironically, even some 
whose panitings or sculptures are entirely non-figurative and non- 
representational insist that their works would not be what they are 
without the physical fact of Israel as a source of inspiration While 
this may very well be true, it cannot be established with any certainty 
One's creduhty is stretched to the breaking-point when an artist 




Marcel Janco 



.nterweavMig ht.lo patchcs of lush pigmcnt into a rather loose 
abstraet des.gn wants us ,o conncct ihis with whateve n cial o 
rehg.ous qual,„cs may ,s.,ll charac.er.sc Abraham's dcscend 

One th.ng ,s cerla.n, though: Israeli art is not 'Jewish an as the 
tertu was understood ,n the 1920s and 1930s. when the a i t,c 
vocabulary o men hke Chagall. Mane-Katz and Rybaek wa 
Y,dd,sh.French ,n ,ts expression, Y.ddish-Russ.an ,n its subrec 
mal er. and when Genlile critics believed they could de eet ,n ,l.e 
works of Modigliani. Pascin. Soutine and oth'ers vagueladne« 
opposed to the joyfulness and even gaiety in much of thf art erea d 
by non-Jews. By and large, the art of Israel is high-keyed in eolour 
vinle ,n manne, and. whether abstrac. or non'abstr^ct. unthS 
w,th what a French cr.ttc, writing about the Ecole y»/v. descr b d 
as emotional nostalgia . ucs(.nDcu 

Yet all generalislttions are dangerous. Forty-year-old Yisael 
TumarkMi. who uses m his assemblages scrap.,;etal and et 
rubbtsh does not sh.rk from treating the most unpleasant ubjeet 
among h,s pieees exh,b,ted in North America a few years ago wte 
three ent.tled HMna. Cn,cifi.ion and Cn>n,au,Zn 'ut ZI 
expresses a cry of pa,n. a challenge to and a protest at comfortab le 

be",^dl r '°"p'' • '" '^^"'" ^""'^ '^'-'^ -^'"^"- Tumarkin mi 
be calied a neo-Expressiomst. Much closer to the earlier Expre 

s.on.sts ,s the patnter. Mordecai Ardon. who was indeed a pup I and 
adm.rer of Paul Klee. Ardon. who is nearly twice Tumarkin' aäe 
imerrupted h,s career when he fled from the Nazis- his enormcfus 
.r,p.ych. Missa Dura, covern^g about 1 10 Square feet.'was conaved 
as a panited monument to the memory of cur six million dead 

Nonetheless, ,t ,s safe to say that Israeli art is much less fettered 
o the past than was the art produced by European Jews pr.or o 
the holocaust titles may occasionally still refer to Biblical fiaures or 
events but rarely .fever, to the life. death and myth of the Diaspora) 
Nor has Israel the equ.valents to America-s Social Realists (whose 
best known representative was the late Ben Shahn), But Israel has 
a great many artists with novel ideas. new approaches (thouah a 
concerned cr,t,c cannot help observing ,hat there miaht be a Tittle 
too much expermientation for the sake of experimetnation. at the 
expense of long and sustamed contemplation of the less technical 
yet more eternal Problems of existencc and art) 

Among the strong Personalities, with unmistakably orieinal 
creations. ai-e Ephranii Roetenberg, who chose to sign himself plma 
and his colleague Abraham Ofek. both of whom\ecently scored 
successes at New York 's Jewish Museum. Fima showed dream-like 
lyncal abstractions vaguely recalling Far Eastern painting and 
calligraphy; Ofek. work that combines the fantastic with thc real 
An older artist is Moshe Castel. who Covers panels with a thick 
layer of pulverised basalt and from this surface creates shapes that 
suggest some sort of faded ancicnt writing. 

Sculpture, for a long time. was anathema in a country still moulded 
by thc Second Commandment- the openinc of the Billy Rose 
^culpture Garden, adjoining Jerusalem-s Israel Museum evoked 
the anger and Opposition of certain sections of the population 
Moreoyer. the nation's aversion to worship of its leaders prevented 
the making of monuments to Herzl. Nordau. Weizmann and other 
Pioneers of Zionism (though there are monuments eommcmorating 
the country's fallen warriors, and the victims of Nazism) 

Nonetheless. Israel devcloped a crop of very imacinative sculptors 
Yehiel Shemi uses scrap-metal and spare machine parts. preservinc 
the texture of the material. to create abstraet picces that seem to be 
inspired by animal or plant forms. Shammai Haber combines 
unhewii stones into tall shapes that have the quality of Stonehenge 
monohths. Yaakov Agam Stands outside the narrow categories of 
painting and 'sculpture'; Ihe most recent works of this immensely 
inventive man are transformablc paintings-rotated. to allow the 
spectator to sce dilTcrent eolour patterns. without changing his 
Position. " 

Seven decades have passed since the first Jewish artist. Abraham 
Neumann, came to the Holy Land to create impressionistic land- 
scapes of Palestine. and half a Century since the country's first group 
Show of pamtmgs was staged at Jcrusalem's Tower of David by 
Reuben Rubin. Joseph Zaritsky and their friends. Today, thousands 






75 



of artists are working in Israel, which has several art schools, 
numerous galleries, and many good museums. It would be an 
exaggeration to say that now every Israeli is a lover of the plastic 
arts — everywhere the watchers of football games or athletic com- 
petitions outnumber the afficionados of art. Why should Israel be 
an exception? 

Still, it is amazing how many Israelis do purchase works of art — 
even working-class people with limited means adorn their homes 
with less expensive and often excellent etchings or lithographs. 
Kibbutzim long ago began the practice of hiring art instructors, 
allowing gifted members to devote at least some hours per week to 

time when the more timid leaders feit that art was a luxury the 
Community could scarcely aflford. 

The greatest, most powerful Sponsor of the visual arts is, of course 
the State: it enables the artist and his family to live decently by 
means of commissions, prizes, awards, stipends and scholarships. 
Luckily, the Government has thousands of art enthusiasts solidly 
behind it. For what the American, Walt Whitman wrote — to have 
great poets, there must be great audiences — applies to all the arts. 
Indeed, many Israelis like to look at, and to live with, art, and most 
of them spurn the merely decorative or illustrative. They prefer art 
that is complex, intricate, with the element of mystery, that every 
valid work of art is bound to contain. 1^ 

Top, left to right: Abraham Ofek, The Synagogue 
(section of a mural). Esther Peretz-Arad, Clowns 
(aquatint) 

Below, left to right: Mordechai Ardon, Blue Morning 

(oil On Canvas), Marlborough Gailery, London. DsieS Hofstetter, 

Memory of a Clown (water colour), coiiection of Benjamin 

Tammuz, London. YoSSef Zaritsky, Painting, Israel Museum, 
Jerusalem 



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76 



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Views and Visions 



Pablo Picasso: In Memoriam 



By ALFRED WERNER 

Jewish News Art Critic 

In April, New York's 
Jewish Museum paid 
homage to the just 
deceased Pablo Picasso 
by placing in the center of 

a dark room a tiny bronze of a 
mournful seated woman, a work 
done when the artist was only 20 
(it is not as well known that 
Picasso was a prolific sculptor, 
though two of his large works in 
this genre actually have long 
dominated Squares in Manhat- 
tan and Chicago). 

This small but sincere tribute 
was deserved by an artist who, 
more than any other, influenced 
the development of the Visual 

for worse. Since no explanation 
was offered, a few visitors may 
have wondered whether the late 
master had not been Jewish, 
after all. 

Yet Picasso - the artist used 
his mother's maiden name 




\ 



PABLO PICASSO 

rather than Ruiz, that of his 
father - was not a Marrano name 
like Pissarro, but one frequent in 
his birthplace, Malaga. Often he 
was believed to have been at 
least partly Jewish. Asked by his 
dealer, Paul Rosenberg, about 




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Le Grand Coq (Picasso) 




Owl with Man's Face (Picasso) 



the true facts, he replied that to 
his knowledge he had no Jewish 
blood. He then added, "I wish I 
had." 

Tapable of Anything' 

Ethnic origin is irrelevant in 
dealing with a man of his stat- 
ure. While many of us ques- 
tioned the validity of some of his 
creations, and shuddered at sev- 
eral of his more outrageous 
Statements, we all agreed that, if 
there ever was a superman, it 
was he. Even his mother, in her 
old age, so admired her famous 
son that she wrote him, "I think 
you are capable of anything. If 
you were to teil me one day that 
you had read Mass, I would 
believe you." 

Yet though he behaved as if he 
were a kiüg wliu cuulu uo no 
wrong, and though he might 
make such arrogant pronounce- 
ments as the notorious one, "I do 
not seek, I find," I feel that the 
man Picasso was less sure of 
himself than was the public fig- 
ure Picasso, and that he, who 
was constantly at work - he must 
have spent at least 20,000 days in 
the solitude of his studio - often 
worried and even despaired 
behind the stony immobile mask 
that his Square face acquired in 
the course of hard decades. 

He was 85 when he admitted to 
an interviewer: "Today I am a 
rieh and famous painter. But 
when I am alone with myself, I 
don't think of myself at all as an 
artist in the old and great sense 
of the Word, like Giotto, Titian, 
Rembrandt or Goya. Im just 
one who understands his time. 
This is bitter to contemplate. but 
it's the truth." 

Apparently, the air of cer- 
tainty he exuded was a smoke 
screen. He. who could paint the 
enormous and frightening 
"Guemica." but also sentimen- 
tal small portraits of children, 
and who, in a career longer than 
that of any modern master, 
Matisse included, was painter, 
draughtsman print - maker 
scdlptor. ceremicist, stage- 
designer, poet, dramatist and 
even a political figure of sorts, 
was basically a tragic figure. as 
he altemately built and tore 
down what was only half- 
finished, to go on to new experi- 
ments. 

Seemingly never contented, by 
his very manner of living and 
working he reversed the State- 
ment quoted above to read more 
accurately; "I do not find, I 
seek ..." 

'Ease the Pain* 
What did he seek? He wanted 
to make pictures whose sight 
would "ease the pai^ of a tooth- 
ache." In a way he did achieve 
this in the tender renderings of 
mothers and children in his Blue 
Period, with his works of the 
Rose Period inspired by circus 
folk, his subtle classic portraits 
that stemmed from Ingres and 
with his cubist still lifes. 

But he was not a Matisse, who 
was a "decorator" in the best 
sense of the term. The French- 
man wanted to convey a sense of 
peacefulness, to induce pleasant 
dreams. Matisse yearned for an 
art of balance, of purity and 
serenity free of troubling or 
depressing subject matter, an 
art that should be "like a good 
armchair in which to rest from 
physical fatigue." 

Of course, Picasso and 
Matisse had, in the last analysis, 
the same goal: to make the 
human condition more bearable 
(could any artist aim at less?) 
But Picasso's successful works - 
and one must never judge any 
Creative person by his failures - 
are more than anodynes. Like 
George Braque, he too enjoyed 
the sight of such uncomplicated 




Harlequin and Women (Picasso) 



things as lemons on a pewter 
plate, or. like Matisse, goldfish 
in a bowl. 

He too was drawn to the peace 
ful, the Mediterranean ideal of 
beauty - and his work occasion- 
(See VIEWS— Page 30) 



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TcxiaN, Hannah Senesh i> remembered as a national hero- 
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Views and Visions 

(Continued from Page 12) 



CO 






ally recalls Raphael, or is 
inspired by the bucolic mytho- 
logy of ancient Greece. 

But the completely "charm- 
ing" Picassos are rare, and, at 
any rate, they are silenced and 
dwarfed by the "monstrosities," 
from the disturbing "Demoi- 
selles d'Avignon" of his early 
years to the strongly erotic 
drawings often indicative of con- 
flict, of anxiety, he did as an 
otcogenarian. 

Apparently, he never man- 
aged to allay his own chronic 
metaphysical toothache. A 
drawing, "Redemption," by the 

teen-ager, might very well have 
been by Edvard Munch: old, 
weary and sick people trudge 
along a road that loses itself in 
distance. It was often reported 
that Picasso could laugh heartily 
and enjoyed fun. I recall photos 



make clear to the generation 
that came to maturity after 1940 
- when I saw my first Picasso 
Retrospective at the Museum of 
Modern Art. And to those born 
after 1940 he is likely to be a 
stranger, though they may feel 
inclined to pay perfunctory resp- 
ect to his alleged greatness - 
more stränge than even many 
artists of the distant past. 

What does he have to say to 
those who are convinced of the 
death of art, even if they may 
think of its replacements as 
''anti-art"? 

I asked one young man for his 
reaction to a recent Picasso 
show in New York. He replied 
that he feit as though he had 
been invited to the showing of a 
movie, supposedly experimental 
and even controversial. Yet the 
sound track failed, and he saw 



„u. 



— rt: -i. _ !•_ 



party, with false moustache and 
trick spectacles, and other poses 
that present him as the eternal 
"cut-up." 

Shall I say: Magnificent 
Picasso - or, perhaps, Poor 
Picasso? What made Pablo run? 
Why did he need so many 
"wives," and why did he break 
up with most of them through his 
monumental egocentricity? Why 
did he switch from one "style" to 
another? Why, along with indis- 
putable masterpieces, did he 
paint so many abysmally poor 
pictures? 

I am inclined to ascribe his 
obsessive activity in many direc- 
tions to a kind of fear that was 
unknown to Renoir, to Matisse, 
to Braque, his erstwhile friend 
and co-founder of cubism. 

One might say that Picasso 
was, all in one, the doctor and 
the patient, the hangman and the 
condemned, the hunter and the 
prey. He wanted to extemalize 
the conflict, to defeat the enemy 
symbolically as did the pre-his- 
toric cavemen who drew images 
of the beasts they wanted tokiU. 
He wished to tear off the veil that 
hides reality, tugging at it here, 
there and everywhere. 

Though basically a man mod- 
ern, he was, perhaps, the grea- 
test, and possibly the last, 
seeker among the men of the 
Renaissance, outdone only by 
the grand Leonardo da Vinci. 

"O Leonardo, why do you toil 
so much!" Da Vinci was well 
aware of his tragic inability to 
carry out more than a few of the 
countless plans in countless 
realms explored by his restless 
mind. Only 10 finished paintings 
have come down to us; of his 
ambitious sculptural and archi- 
tectural projects none was exe- 
cuted; of his inventions, very 
few could be put into use; of his 
numerous writings on art and 
science, not a Single one was 
developed beyond the stage of 
copious notes. 

I have wondered whether 
Picasso was not a 20th Century 
Da Vinci, and am tempted to 
regard even the most "finished" 
of Picasso's paintings and sculp- 
tures as "notations," made by 
one aglow with a consuming 
inner flame. In the '20s and '30s 
critics ranted against the artist 
for daring to present us with 
Sketches, with "unfinished" 
work - until World War II came 
and taught them that Picasso 
anticipated rather than created 
"fragmentation" as a State of 
matter. 

One can sympathize with pre- 
Hiroshima Americans who won- 
dered how much of Picasso's 
work might survive; but in an 
age of apocalyptic horror, does it 
make sense to judge an artist by 
the quantity of surviving pieces 
rather than by the quality of his 
warnings? 

Much of this will be difficult to 



without hearing them, without 
understanding them. He knew he 
could not even shout or clap his 
hands to make the Operator cor- 
rect the error. As far as he was 
concerned, the man whom all 
the textbooks acclaimed as the 
world's greatest artist had failed 
to communicate with him. Per- 
haps Picasso understood his 
time, but not that of his grand- 
son . . . 

Whose Fault? 

But was it really Picasso': 
fault that the young man could 
not hear the voices? I, who was 
Standing midway between him 
and Picasso, did not lose faith in 
the significance of what I saw on 
the walls, even if, now and then. 
I too failed to grasp the connec- 
tion between the sign and the 
thing signified. 

Occasionally, I was deeply 
moved. profoundly affected, as 
my companion seemingly never 
was. At worst, I still admired the 
stupendous draughtsman, the 
juggler equally deft and dex- 
terous with materials and ideas; 
the architect ingeniously divid- 
ing up and filling the large Spa- 
ces; the mercurial tempera- 
ment, whimsical, but also, when 
the occasion warranted, over- 
whelmingly serious; mercilessly 
ironical, but also capable of the 
tenderest sympathy. 

He is dead now. The very fact 
of death transforms the luckiest 
of all persons - and who, in 
recent memory, was blessed 
with more achievement and with 
a longer life?-into a figure of 
tragedy. Yet he at least suc- 
ceeded - perhaps to a degree not 
to everyone's liking - in convinc- 
ing the world that art, and thus, 
life, extended far, far beyond the 
"safe" sensations received by 
the retina, and that the artist 
was the gatherer of emotions 
and inspirations from every 
source. 

He in fact, was more than a 
recipient - he was a world archi- 
tect, a World philosopher, 
reshaping, as seemed best to 
him, a universe he had tom and 
broken into many parts. 

An unusual man! From the 
moment he was able to shake off 
the yoke of academic realism, he 
was Picasso. For 60 or more 
years he heroically tried, in 
whatever he did, to cram the 
irritating world into philosoph- 
ical Containers, each more oddly 
shaped than its predecessor, 
fashioning one bag after 
another, always hoping to have 
created the fitting one, yet 
always discovering he had torn a 
hole or two in his orgiastic 
frenzy of intellectual effort, and 
always fashioning, out of scraps, 
the new thing in the hope of 
final success. 

Even those of his works that 
are ill-conceived or even appear 
absurd are worth looking at Cer- 
tainly, his was not the last word. 




The elements that undermine 
Jewish "internal security" in 
this country, he said. are assimi- 
lation, intermarriage, inadequa- 
cies of Jewish education, alien- 
ation of Jewish youth, and the 
lackof positive Jewish lifestyles. 

What must be done to check 
♦hese elements? . . . Mr. Gold 
thinks there must be new ways 
for finding new self-definitions 
than merely the definition that 
one is a Jew because he was born 
a Jew; and develop stronger cul- 
tural infrastructures, more ade- 
quate Jewish communal 
responses to Jewish needs and 
new approaches of relating to 
the non- Jewish Community. 

it was brought out at the meet- 
ing that one of the reasons young 
Jews give for their being'turned 
off" by the Jewish Community is 
the lack of suitable Jewish lead- 
ership "role modeis." By that 
they mean that may Jewish 
leaders have no roots ir. — or ai-e 
unfamiliar with— the Jewish tra- 

VA« VAVTAA. 

In this connection a question 
was posed: Should Jewish 
knowledge and commitment be 
a significant criterion for the 
selection of Jewish leadership in 
the Community? 



The Frugal Meal (Picasso) 



He was no God speaking to us, of Paradise with at least one 

not even the serpent, but Man precious thing to keep forever - 

who had eaten the fruit of the the knowledge that there was 

tree and was leaving the Garden evil, and that there was good. 



Between 

(Continued from Page 10) 

ty" of American Jewry. One 
relates to the years following 
Israel's Six-Day War, and the 
other has to do with new con- 
flicts of group interests in this 

country. 

* * * 

THE "EXTERNAL" FRONT: 

The AJCommittee leader 
avoided mentioning the fact that 
after the Six-Day War. a sub- 
stantial segment of the Ameri- 
can clergy began to display a 
conspicuous coolness toward 
Israel. Practically no outstand- 
ing clergyman participated in 
the nationwide celebrations 
marking the 25th anniversary of 
Israel's existence. 

Even worse is the fact that 
many clergymen, previously 
only too eager to back Jewish 
causes, now refuse to lend their 
signatures to appeals seeking 
unhampered Jewish emigration 
from the Soviet Union to Israel. 

While side-stepping these facts 
— which undoubtedly affect the 
spirit of the movement for 
Judeo-Christian amity— the 

AJCommittee leader pointed 
out, however, that since the Six- 
Day War, Third World advoca- 
tes, doctrinaire Marxists, Lenin- 
ists, Black Pan-Africanists and 
the amorphous amalgam known 
as the New Left, violently anti- 
American and passionately anti- 
Zionist, have maintained a 
steady furious drum beat of 
harsh anti-Israel Propaganda. 

"By accident or design— the 
intent is really immatieral— 
theirs is the anti-Semitism of 
today," Gold asserted. He 
expressed the view that even 
where it might not be labeled 
anti-Semitism, the erosion of 
Support for Israel leaves Jews in 
this country with a feeling of 
insecurity for themselves. This 
feeling, he said, is still further 
heightened by the profusion of 
group conflicts that have arisen 
out of differing perceptions of 
group interests in this country. 

In the light of these new devel- 
opments. Gold urged the assem- 
bled Jewish leaders to think in 
terms of the Jewish sage Hillel 
by asking themselves the ques- 
tion about any issue: "Is it good 
or bad for me? | 



Without raising this question, 
he believes, one can only pro- 
ceed to naive Solutions that may 
bear no relationship whatsoever 
to one's own central interest. 

At the same time he advanced 
the thought that political saga 
city also suggests that the Jew- 
ish stance must end with the 
realization that Jewish interests 
are best served in a world which 
is Stahle and whole, and which 
holds at least the potential of 
achieving equahty for all. 

♦ * :f 

THE "INTERNAL' FRONT: 

While analyzing the factors that 
provoke uncertainty about the 
"extemal security" of American 
Jewry, the AJCommittee leader 
also made it clear that there is 
nothing uncertain about what 
threatens the "internal security" 
of Jewish life. 



Letters 

(Continued from Page 10) 

Every responsible Citizen is 
extremely grateful to the law 
enforcement agencies for the 
work being performed. We are 
thankfui to them for their Ser- 
vices and realize the magnitude 
of the Problems they have. We 
understand their frustrations in 
seeing the disposition of some 
cases and the penalties imposed 
on crim.inals by lenient judges. 
Why should there not be punish- 
ment to fit the crime? 

Are we that stupid that we 
complacently accept this type of 
Society without making a tre- 
mendous effort to change 
things? 

Let US Stop being so apathetic 
and become involved. Let us 
wake up now. We need positive 
action to get us back to the beau- 
tiful country we used to be. To 
once again be "America the 
Beautiful!" 



Union 



Mrs. Dorothy Schreiber 



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ABOUT 




BOOKS 




THINGS 




Marc Chagall 



Homcige to a Painter-Poet 



By ALFRED WERNER 

Jewish News Art Critic 

Of all 20th Century 
artists, none set more 
pens, typewriters and 
printing presses in motion 
than the late Picasso. 

Close behind him is Chagall, the 



MARC CHAGALL, by Werner Haft- 
mann. Published by M. DuMont Schau- 
berg, Cologone. 160 pp., 48 color plo- 
tes, 91 ilL in block and white. 



■ v* A «A • a 



LA vr ««A 



whose creations have evoked a 
tidal wave of words around the 
World. 

In a jumbo volume, simply 
called "Chagall," and issued 
here by the firm of Harry N. 
Abrams in 1963. Franz Meyer 
listed nearly 700 publications 
dealing with his famous 
father-in-law. 

In the decade that elapsed 
since the publication of that 
manimoth "Chagall," more and 
more books about the artist have 
appeared, all of them very use- 
ful to those art lovers who real- 
ize that the immense "oeuvre" 
of a man as versatile and pro- 
ductive as Chagall deserves the 
attention of many excellent 
minds to discuss and elucidate. 

Interestingly, a considerable 
literature on the artist has accu- 
mulated in the Federal Repub- 
lic of Germany. As far back as 
1914, the comprehensive one- 
man show of the then still very 
young artist at Berlin caused 
quite a stir; the admiring 
expressionist painters hailed 
him as a pathfinder (just as, a 
few years later, the French sur- 
realists. were to claim him as a 
"father"). 

In the years of the Weimar 
Republic, Chagall's work was 
quite sought after by connois- 
seurs in Berlin, Cologne, Dres- 
den and other German art Cen- 



ters. But in the nazi period his 
works were confiscated from 
German public collections, and 

horrible examples at the infa- 
mous "Degenerate Art" exhibi- 
tion of Munich. 

Ignorant of His Work 

The generation that grew up in 
the Reich between 1933 and 1945 
was kept in total ignorance of his 
work. When, around 1950 his cre- 
ations were again shown in Ger- 
man cities, vast crowds came to 
admire the charm and wisdom 
of one who, while largely 
inspired by Jewish life and lore, 
manages to enchant persons of 
all nations. races and creeds. 

German bookstores are filled 
with tomes on Chagall; apart 
from Meyer's work, which has 
nearly 800 pages and was first 
issued in 1961 by the Cologne 
publisher to whom we owe the 
present book, the contributions 
by Walter Erben and by H.M. 
Rotermund ("Marc Chagall und 
die Bibel") ought to be men- 
tioned in particular. 

'Illogical at First Sight' 

Haftmann, now director of 
West Berlin's Nationalgalerie, 
expressed his interest in Chagall 
back m the 1950s, when he com- 
piled an important book that was 
to appear also in an English " 
translation. "His pictorial 
arrangements seem illogical 
only at first sight," he wrote in 
"Painting in the 20th Century" 
(Praeger Publishers). 

"Each Single image in them 



corresponds to a definite poetic 
Statement; when We see these 
Statements together and relive 
the recollections and associa- 
tions they release, a coherent 
narrative emerges." 

For him, Chagall is a truly 

Hasidic painter, who knows that 

every object of nature "conceals 

ä spärk Ol tiie uivine presence." 

By way of explanation he 

added: "Just as Chagall's bunch 

of lilac blossoms into a tender 

couple of lovers, so his love of 

the things of this work blossoms 

into a legendary image." 

Arranged Exhibition 

To celebrate the artist's 85th 

birthday, Dr. Haftmann 

arranged at his Nationalgalerie 

an exhibition of the artist's more 

recent gouaches (paintings in 

opaque watercolors). Thousands 

lined up to see it. 

In the introduction to the cata- 
logue he praised the artist as the 
pre-eminent "painter-poet" of 
the Century, who shared this 
fame only with Paul Klee." This 
Statement is reiterated in the 
first sentence of his text for the 
new DuMont Schauberg volume. 
Haftmann defends the master 
against attacks by writers who 
were partisans of abstract 
movements in art, and who 
assaiied him on the very ground 
that his pictures were "poetic," 
and that they were imbued with 
literary, symbolic, folkloric and 
religious Clements. 

Curiously, this defense is still 
or perhaps again, valuable and 
even necessary, as the "bad 
press" Chagall received in 
recent years can, to a large 
extent, be attributed to profound 
currentmisunderstanding. After 
all, Chagall encountered all 




Bürning Hoüse (Marc Chagall) 




I and the Village (Marc Chagall) 



modern trends upon his arrival 
in Paris in 1910, and - unlike the 
self-isolating Chaim Soutine - 
was familiär with all the art 
fashions and fads. 

But he realized that what he 
had to say could not be confined 
and limited by the rigid "syn- 
tax" developed by Fauves, 
Cubists and Constructivists. 
Thus he enlarged the realm of 
pictorial possibilities by allow- 
ing any subject to enter his can- 
vas, to express the irrational, 
the invisible, all the phenomena 
that deely influenced the ghetto 
boy, whose imagination was fed 
by White Russian and Jewish 
Visual experiences, whether in 
reality, in day-dreaming or in 
the complexity of the sleeper's 
images. 

Chrom atic Magician 

Haftmann hails Chagall as the 
chromatic magician he has been 
ever since 1907 when he painted 
"Young Girl on a Sofa." This 
picture, now in a South Ameri- 
can coUection, precedes by four 
years Chagall's first work to 



become internationally known: 
'I and the Village," painted in 
Paris, which for decades has 
been a favorite at New York's 
Museum of Modern Art. 

Altogether, one is grateful to 
Haftmann for having included a 
great many works that are not 
as widely known here as "I and 
the Village," or certain other 
pictures owned by the Guggen- 
heim Museum or museums m 
Philadelphia, Buffalo and Chi- 
cago. 

Among paintings reproduced 
in füll color on tipped-on plates I 
must mention a seif-portrait of 
1909, and early "Still Life with a 
Lamp"; "The Poet Mazin"; 
"The Green Jew" Ywith a 

(See CHAGALl^Page 25) 



ORIGINAL OIL PAINTINGS 
LITHOGRAPNS MODERN PRINTS 



l 



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MARC CHAdALL 

Chagall 

(Continued from Page 12) 

Hebrew text as background at 
the bottom); and a 1926 Portrait 
f»f his f'rst wif6. B'?lla, lookin^^ -it 
a vase of flowers. 

There are also quite a few pic- 
tures from the 1950s and 1960s 
still owned by the painter him- 
self and kept in his Paris apart- 
ment or in his villa in the South 
of France, pictures that we can 
now see for the first time in all of 
their chromatic splendor. 

The 48 colorplates reproduce 
oils and gouaches, as well as a 
detail from the mosaic, "The 
Message of Odysseus" that 
Chagall designed for the new 
building of the Law School at 
Nice. In addition, the fron- 
tispiece is a colorplate of the 
"Benjamin" window, one of the 
12 stained glass Windows for the 
Hadassah University Hospital's 
synagogue near Jerusalem. 

The book jacket contains a 
cropped version of color plate 31, 
"Wedding Candles." The picture 
was made in 1945, after nine 
months of inactivity following 
Bella Chagall's sudden death. As 
Haftmann explains, it goes back 
to a large work, "Circus Peo- 
ple," that Chagall had painted in 
1933. In 1945, the artist cut it in 
two; the left portion was trans- 
formed into "Around Her," a 
touching homage to his late wife. 
The right section, also consider- 
ably altered, became "Wedding 
Candles." 

In the Center is a white-garbed 
bride, with her bridegroom and 
members of the wedding party. 
Behind them is a huppah (bridal 
canopy). 

Like most of the late Chagalls, 
it is an anthology of motifs used 
and reused in earlier years of his 
career. But the atmosphere is 
quiet and subdued, almost silent. 
despite the presence of musi- 
cians. The only grotesque ele- 
ment left is the large winged fig- 
ure with a goat's head, who lifts 
a glass to drink health to the 
young couple. 

Works in Other Media 

While the emphasis is on paint- 
ing - the series is entitled 
"Library of Great Painters" - 
works in other media are not 
neglected. Apart from the 
mosaic and stained glass win- 
dow mentioned, one finds, inter- 
spersed in the lucidly written 
text, drawings, ceramics, sculp- 
tures and details from the huge 
ceiling painted by Chagall and 
assistants for the Opera House in 
Paris. 

There are also photos of the 
artist; one, of 1920 or 1921, was 
taken in Russia (caught there by 
the Revolution, he held high 
positions under the Soviet 
regime until 1922, when he 
decided he could not work under 
an authoritarian regime and 
went back to Paris). A more 
recent photo shows him putting 
the finishing touches to the Win- 
dows he designed for a church in 
Zürich. 

Though a non-Jew, the author, 



Prof. llaftmann, succeeded 
admirably in tracing the Jewish 
influences - religious or cultural- 
in Chagall's work, especially in 
his iconography, without mak- 
ing the mistake of over- 
emphasizing the importance of 
these sources, or neglecting the 
inspiration that came to the 
artist from the general Russian 
civilization, and from the 
various aesthetic trends the 
young immigrantencountered in 
the metropolis of Paris. 

The book - which ought to be 
translated into English - will, 
undoubtedly. draw many Ger- 
man readers to a place in Ger- 
many where some of the finest 
Chagalls can be viewed now: the 
Haubrich CoUection of the 
Wallraf-Richartz Museum at 
Cologne. 

One might also mention that 
the major theater in Frankfurt 
commissioned him to do a huge 
wall painting for its foyer. It is a 
fact that, for a variety of reasons 

- artistir as well as nsvcholnpioal 

- Chagall is now in German art 
circles of all age groups the most 
populär and beloved represent- 
ative of the School of Paris. 



Human 

(Continued l'rom Page 10) 

Jewish Agency officials weren't 
eager to make a big splash with 
the news, but the significance of 
Uzi Narkiss' trip to Hebron was 
not lost. The Director of the 
Agency's Immigration and 
Absorption Department was 
busy last week scouting Kiryat 
Arba, the Jewish Quarter near 
Hebron, for the possibilities of 
setting up an absorption center 
there. If the government 
approves — and this seems likely 
— it would be the first such 
center in Israel's administered 
territories. 



can merchant ship symbolizing 
end of British influence and rise 
of American power. The seal 
also shows a sheaf of grain. 
pickax and plow to represent 
mining and agriculture. 



after the parade, the men were 
already at work, taking down the 
main reviewing stand in Fast 
Jerusalem. 



* * * 



♦ + * 



A tragic accident, killing a 
father and four of his children. 
was the lead story in one of the 
Israeli newspapers the day after 
it happened last week, a telling 
point about the way Israelis feel 
about the loss of life, whether on 
the road or on the field of battle 



* * * 



+ * * 



+ :»: * 



Dr. Werner is the author of 
three books on Chagall. 



The army spokesman was 
busy telling the contingent from 
Oregon that Israel displays its 
flag on its side of the Suez Canal, 
but, for some unexplained rea- 
son. Egypt doesn't show hers. 
Ron Schmidt, the 36-year-oId 
press secretary to Oregon Gov. 
Tom McCall, who led the contin- 
gent, noted: "We ought to show 
our Oregon flag. That would 
shake up the Egyptians." 

The seal on the Oregon flag 
shows a departing British 
man-of-war and arriving Ameri- 



A Haifa woman named Bella 
Gerald apologized to the Jerusa 
lern Post last week for writing a 
letter to the editor in which she 
had professed anger at the mili- 
tary parade in Jerusalem. Now, 
having heard details of it on the 
radio-she did not actually see 
it — she has changed her mind. 
"Just listening," she wrote in a 
second letter to the editor, "one 
could hardly fail to feel the real 
spirit of the parade, its moving 
pleas for peace, for brotherhood 

between nations." 

♦ * * 

The officials who ran the mili- 
tary parade have promised to 
dismantle all the equipment. 
including flags, grandstands. 
etc. in three weeks. The day 



Israel Aircraft Industries 
invited newsmen on a special 
tour and promised to announce 
"big news." It tumed out that 
the most interesting revelation 
was that Israel Aircraft Indus- 
tries was not as willing to find a 
vacancy for just-retired Air 
Force Chief Mordechai Hod as 
Hod v/as. The Air Force Chief 
retired the day after the parade 
-May 8— and two days before 
the tour. 



* * + 



The new dean of the diplo- 
matic Corps, Finland's Ambas- 
sador Algar von Hieroth, 
appeared at Abba Eban's Inde- 
pendence Day banquet wearing 
a big bandage on his forehead. 
No. he explained, when propos- 
ing the toast to the State of 
Israel's second quarter-century, 
he had had not wom it specially 
for the occasion. It was the 
result of a mishap at the 
Casearia golf course. "A 
fifteen-year-old Sabra overes- 
timated his aim," the Ambas- 
sador explained. 



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MAKC CHAGALL 

Chagall 

(Continued from Page 12) 

Hebrew text as background at 
the bottom); and a 1926 portrait 
of bis first wife. Bella, looking at 
a vase of flowers. 

There are also quite a few pic- 
tures from the 1950s and 1960s 
still owned by the painter him- 
self and kept in bis Paris apart- 
ment er in his villa in the South 
of France, pictures that we can 
now see for the first time in all of 
their chromatic splendor. 

The 48 colorplates reproduce 
oils and gouaches, as well as a 
detail from the mosaic, "The 
Message of Odysseus" that 
Chagall designed for the new 
building of the Law School at 
Nice. In addition, the fron- 
tispiece is a colorplate of the 
"Benjamin" window, one of the 
12 stained glass Windows for the 
Hadassah University Hospital's 
synagogue near Jerusalem. 

The book jacket contains a 
cropped version of color plate 31, 
"Wedding Candles." The picture 
was made in 1945. after nine 
months of inactivity following 
Bella Chagalls sudden death. As 
Haftmann explains. it goes back 
to a large work. "Circus Peo- 
ple." that Chagall had painted in 
1933. In 1945. the artist cut it in 
two; the left portion was trans- 
formed into "Around Her," a 
touching homage to his late wife. 
The right section. also consider- 
ably altered, became "Wedding 
Candles." 

In the Center is a white-garbed 
bride. with her bridegroom and 
members of the wedding party. 
Behind them is a huppah (bridal 
canopy). 

Like most of the late Chagalls, 
it is an anthology of motifs used 
and reused in earlier years of his 
career. But the atmosphere is 
quiet and subdued. almost silent. 
despite the presence of musi- 
cians. The only grotesque ele- 
ment left is the large winged fig- 
ure with a goat's head, who lifts 
a glass to drink health to the 
young couple. 

Works in Other Media 

While the emphasis is on paint- 
ing - the series is entitled 
"Library of Great Painters" - 
works in other media are not 
neglected. Apart from the 
mosaic and stained glass win- 
dow mentioned, one finds, inter- 
spersed in the lucidly written 
text, drawings. ceramics, sculp- 
tures and details from the huge 
ceiling painted by Chagall and 
assistants for the Opera House in 
Paris. 

There are also photos of the 
artist; one, of 1920 or 1921, was 
taken in Russia (caught there by 
the Revolution, he held high 
positions under the Soviet 
regime until 1922, when he 
decided he could not work under 
an authoritarian regime and 
went back to Paris). A more 
recent photo shows him putting 
the finishing touches to the Win- 
dows he designed for a church in 
Zürich. 

Though a non-Jew, the author, 



Prof. llaftmann, succeeded 
admirably in tracing the Jewish 
influences - religious or cultural- 
in Chagalls work, especially in 
his iconography, without mak- 
ing the mistake of over- 
emphasizing the importance of 
these sources, or neglecting the 
inspiration that came to the 
artist from the general Russian 
civilization, and from the 
various aesthetic trends the 
young immigrant encountered in 
the metropolis of Paris. 

The book - which ought to be 
translated into English - will, 
undoubtedly, draw many Ger- 
man readers to a place in Ger 
many where some of the finest 
Chagalls can be viewed now: the 
Haubrich Collection of the 
Wallraf-Richartz Museum at 
Cologne. 

One might also mention that 
the major theater in Frankfurt 
commissioned him to do a huge 
wall painting for its foyer. It is a 
fact that, for a variety of reasons 

- artistic as well as psychological 

- Chagall is now in German art 
circles of all age groups the most 
populär and beloved represent- 
ative of the School of Paris. 



Human 

(Continued from Page 10) 

Jewish Agency officials weren't 
eager to make a big splash with 
the news, but the significance of 
Uzi Narkiss' trip to Hebron was 
not lost. The Director of the 
Agency's Immigration and 
Absorption Department was 
busy last week scouting Kiryat 
Arba, the Jewish Quarter near 
Hebron, for the possibilities of 
setting up an absorption center 
there. If the government 
approves — and this seems likely 
— it would be the first such 
center in Israel's administered 
territories. 



+ * + 



* •+ * 



Dr. Werner is the author of 
three books on Chagall. 



The army spokesman was 
busy telling the contingent from 
Oregon that Israel displays its 
flag on its side of the Suez Canal, 
but, for some unexplained rea- 
son. Egypt doesn't show hers. 
Ron Schmidt, the 36-year-oId 
press secreiary to Oregon Gov. 
Tom McCall, who led the contin- 
gent, noted: "We ought to show 
our Oregon flag. That would 
shake up the Egyptians." 

The seal on the Oregon flag 
Shows a departing British 
man-of-war and arriving Ameri- 



can merchant ship symbolizing 
end of British influence and rise 
of American power. The seal 
also shows a sheaf of grain, 
pickax and plow to represent 

mining and agriculture. 

♦ * * 

A tragic accident, killipg a 
father and four of his children. 
was the lead story in one of the 
Israeli newspapers the day after 
it happened last week, a telling 
point about the way Israelis feel 
about the loss of life, whether on 
the read or on the field of battle 
+ * * 

A Haifa woman named Bella 
Gerald apologized to the Jerusa- 
lem Post last week for writing a 
letter to the editor in which she 
had professed anger at the mili- 
tary parade in Jerusalem. Now, 
having heard details of it on the 
radio-she did not actually see 
it— she has changed her mind. 
"Just listening," she wrote in a 
second letter to the editor, "one 
could hardly fail to feel the real 
spirit of the parade, its moving 
pleas for peace, for brotherhood 
between nations." 

♦ * * 

The officials who ran the mili- 
tary parade have promised to 
dismantle all the equipment, 
including flags, grandstands, 
etc. in three weeks. The day 



after the parade, the men were 
already at work, taking down the 
main reviewing stand in East 
Jerusalem. 



* * * 



Israel Aircraft industries 
invited newsmen on a special 
tour and promised to announce 
"big news." It tumed out that 
the most interesting reveiation 
was that Israel Aircraft Indus- 
tries was not as willing to find a 
vacancy for just-retired Air 
Force Chief Mordechai Hod as 
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* * * 



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for the occasion. It was the 
result of a mishap at the 
Casearia golf course. "A 
fifteen-year-old Sabra overes- 
timated his aim," the Ambas- 
sador explained. 






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SOUTINE 



'oe of the Shtetl 



HREE decades ago, a hearse madc a 
long ioLirney from Central France to the 
city of Paris. Inside the vehicie were two 
frightened people: the painler Chaim 
Soutine, a very sick man, and his com- 
panion, Marie-Berthe Aurenche. 

For two years, Soutine, a Russian- 
born Jew, and his friend, a French 
Cathohc, had hidden from the Nazis in 
one little village or another. But Chaim 
was sufTering from peptic ulcers; owing 
to the constant worries, his health de- 
teriorated. An Operation had to be per- 
formed in Paris. The trip was made in a 
hearse because this sort of vehicie was 
not likely to be stopped by German 
troops. The physician in Paris made this 
diagnosis: perforations, with internal 
haemorrhage. The Operation was per- 
formed, but loo late. On the ninth of 
April, 1943, Soutine was dead, at the 
age of fifty. He was buried in the Mont- 
parnasse Cemetery. Among the mourn- 
ers who had the courage to follow the 
coffin-after all, Soutine had been a 
"non-Aryan", and Paris was still occu- 
pied by the Hitlerites! - were the poet, 
Jean Cocteau, and the deceased man's 
famous colleague, Pablo Picasso. 

He is not forgotten. His pictures hang 
on the walls of many museums in France, 
England, the United States and Israel' 
Recently, a small oil by Soutine, Tlw 
Mild IVoman, sold for 40 000 guineas al 
an auction in London. At the Orangeric, 
m F^aris, a mammoth Soutine memoria! 
Show, under the auspices of the Musee 
National d'Art Moderne, has just open- 
ed. A new book about the painter, au- 
thorcd by the critic, Pierre Courthion, 



Dr. Werner /.v a well-known lecturer 
in the Uniled States, and tlie aut/ior of 
twenty Iwoks on ort. 

Jewish Affairs — February 1973 




D C/iaini Soutine 



has been issued recently by a publishei 
in Geneva. 



HESE tributes were paid to an erra- 
tic "Litvak'". who was a conspicuous 
oddity even in the uniraditional artists' 
quarters of Paris. In France, where he 
spent all but his jirst twenty years, 
Soutine was never anything but an 
alien. Yet he would have loved to speak 
like a native Frenchman! Hencc, as one 
of his friends told me, at the hcight of his 
career he studied with a well-known 
language teacher, but unfortunatcly 
never lost his heavy foreign accent. 

Similarly, Soutine unrequitedly ador- 
ed French art from Fouquet to Ce/anne, 
with its stress on carefui balancc and 
Order, yet he rarely, and only in his very 



19 



ast yeais, managed to approach it. One 
( f the OLilstanding French art historians, 
Rene Huyghe, mixed his praise of 
SoLitine with resentment: ihc mad for- 
cign Jew, "the vampire, the painter 
lipsy with blood"! Huyghe insisted that 
an Linbridgeable gap existed between 
Soutine and the art of la helle France: 

"The style of this artist vveakens the 
great traditions of French painting. This 
unprimed style, flamboyant Gothic, 
assymetric Baroque, is opposed to the 
siender, gracefui, piecise French style." 

SoLitine's kinship to another eternal 
"foreigner" Van Gogh is undenia- 
ble. As Lin-Gallic as this unhappy Hol- 
lander, who had also chosen to live in 
France, Soutine painted rapidly, fever- 
ishly smearing his colours in very thick 
impasto on the canvas. Like Van Gogh, 
Soutine left niany picturcs that are im- 
perfect, and not a single one that a die- 
hard academician would havc considered 
finished. 

Perhaps as many as a thousand oils 
survive, but these are, in all likelihood, 
only a fraction of the works he created 
between his arrival in Paris in 1913 and 
his death there three dccades later. For 
in his final years Soutine bought back 
and destroyed all those canvases that 
he no longer thought satisfactory. "He 
used to shut himself up for days, and 
would make an unbelievablc din as he 
destroyed paintings he had worked on 
for months," one of his patrons, whose 
house guest he was repeatcdly, has re- 
called. Alas, someof hissurviving works 
are oils that he had slashed and thrown 
into the garbage can from which thcy 
were rescucd by a dealer who had thcm 
re-lined and repaired. 



H, 



E painted several self-portraits, of 
which iwo are known to havc come down 
to US. One, owned by a New York col- 
lector, shows Soutine as an uncouth, 
sulky young man with an anguished 
"ugly" face. Actually, all of the (igures 
Soutine painted rcveal a defiant attitude 
towards a world he considered excessive- 



ly hostile. The artist's own truculence 
and uneasiness turn up in the features of 
many of his subjects. 

Soutine's landscapes and still-lifes 
also "conceal art" and "revearthe ar- 
tist," to borrow Wilde's phrases. The 
painter Michel Kikoine, himself a Rus- 
sian Jew, once told me how profoundly 
his boyhood friend Chaim loathed his 
native town, Smilovitchi, and all it 
stood for. 

Soutine was infatuated with French 
people, French landscapes and the 
tlowers that grow in French gardens. 
But in the canvases painted prior to 
1923 -when his misery and poverty 
began to abate - even the peacefui and 
charming French town of Ceret, near the 
Pyrenees, was a "Smilovitchi" to him, 
to be devaluated, violated and torn from 
its foundations. 

In the Ceret pictures, the houses are 
tossed about as if by a volcanic erup- 
lion, as if what the artist wanted most 



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Jewish Affairs — February 1973 




to do was to bury ''Smilovitchi'" iinder 
*'a torrent of lava foaming in stormy 
billows," as his tirsl biographer, the 
French-Jewish critic, Waldemar George, 
characterized Soutinc's orgiastic chro- 
matics. 



Bi 



HJT in 1923 a change occurred. In 
that year he was discovered by the 
Philadelphian collector. Albert C. 
Barnes, who bought from this unwashed, 
unkempt tramp a large numbcr of oils 
- enough to make Soutinc "rieh" and 
to catapuh him into fame. Soutine 
quieted down, the whirlwind subsided, 
the houses are allowed to stand. His 
personal life having turncd happier, his 
work is calmer, even though therestless- 
ness would never qiiite disappear Irom it. 

The general trend, in the years to 
follow, is towards a more careful execu- 
tion, a firmer composition, a closer re- 
semblance to reality, indicative of 
changes in the artist's personahty. In the 
pictures done from about 1936 onward, 
the wind tosses and tears the branches 
and foliage of the trees, but they remain 
firmly rooted. As the British critic 
David Sylvester so aptly put it, "The 



D 'Childn'n on the road lo Charlres 
hy Chüim Soutine 



last pictures of Soutine are unexpectedly 
pacific and serene, possessed of a re- 
strained joy . . . (they) convey a timeless 
aspect." 

One must bear in mind that some of 
these last "pacific and serene" pictures 
were done after the Nazis had invaded 
France. Some time in 1940, when Paris 
was no longer safe for a Jew, Soutine 
and his friend, the aforementioncd Ma- 
rie-Berthe Aurenche, proceeded to a 
little village near Tours. Soutine feil in 
love with the landscape. and he would 
paint it for ten or eleven hours, day after 
day, undeterred by the wcather. 

But even there the nearness of German 
troops made them change their lodgings 
six times. At one place, the hotel clerk 
knocked at their door: "The Germans 
are here, quick, hide yourselves!" The 
tensions, caused by fear of detection, 
certainly had a terriblc efTect on the 
painter's health. As stated before, a 
hurried trip to a Parisian hospital was 
taken - but this action came too late. 



Jewish Affair.«* — February 1973 



21 



OOUTINE's biography is füll of stories 
which are difiicult lo verify. In particu- 
lar, we are not sure about the happen- 
ings of his first twenty years, spenl in 
Tsarist Russia. Born in drab liitlc 
Smilovitchi, near Minsk, in 1893, he 
was the tenth of eleven children of a 
poor ciothes-mender and his humble 
wife. Chaim hated his family and fellow- 
townsmen, since to all of them he, the 
budding aitist, appeared mcshu^'i^'uh. He 
escaped to Vilna, where he studied at 
the School of Fine Arts, and then to 
Paris, where he arrived in 1913. His ten 
years of misery like his friend, Amedeo 
Modigliani, he spent on liquor whatever 
little money he could earn, and in a ht 
of despair he even iried to conimit sui- 
cide - came to an end when Dr. Barnes 
decided that he, Chaim, was a genius. 

"I never saw Chaim as a poor man," 
the painter Gregoire Michonze recalied, 
"but I saw the result of his poverty tili 
he died of it twenty years later. He had 
an iilcer and never once in the whole of 
that time did I see him eat a proper 
meal. 

"Soutine . . . got angry with himself 
for his own inadequacy, which he calied 
his clumsy vision. He never made draw- 
ings, but drevv straight on to the canvas 
with his brush, and he lashed himself 
into a fury as he did so. These heaving, 
intoxicated landscapes were not in- 
fluenced by alcohol, for after his youth- 
fiil days with Modigliani his only drink 
was cafe creme." 

Another artist who knew him well 
and admircd him was Arbit Blatas, who, 
like Michonze. was born in a shtcti: 

"He was a man of enormous contra- 
dictions . . . When I first met him, his 
-dark face and burning cycs created a 
tormented expression; his body hiiddied 
mto his coat, he secmed a frightened, 
suspicious man, imprisoned wiihin him- 
self, waniing only to be left alone, dis- 
trustful of everyone now that his sudden 
recognition had come to him, after years 
of inner struggle. But I soon rcalized 
that he still desperalely needed associa- 
tion with peoplc, that he wanted friends. 



22 



that he was curious about and interested 
in even those whom he had pushed away 
in his search for solitude." 

Much interesting information has^ 
come to US from Gerda Groth, a Jewish^ 
refugce from Nazi Germany, who, for a 
lime, was his companjon in the I930's. 
She relates that at the hcight of his 
success Soutine retained the habits he 
had acquired in his years of poverty; 

"He never had enough clothes. When 
his shoes were worn out, he stayed in 
bed all day until they were repaired." 

While he liked to go to the Louvre 
(where he admired Rembrandt and 
Courbet), he read very little and never 
went to the theatre. He preferred wrest- 
ling maiches and neighbourhood movie 
houses. He never visited people. 

The sculptress, Ghana Orloff, re- 
membered going to the Louvre with 
her friend Soutine: 

"I can still see him gazing at the can- 
vases of Rembrandt with respectful awe. 
He would contemplate them for a long 
time, go into a trance, then suddenly 
stamp his foot and exciaim: This is so 
beautifui that Tve gone mad over it.' An 
alarmed museum attendant would fol- 
low in our wake . . ." 

Soutine made several pictures calied 
Side Ol Bcef. He and his dealer Zborow- 
ski bought a llayed ox and carried it to 
the studio where the artist began to 
paint. Here is Madame Orlolf's story : 

"The ox became black and began to 
smcll. It Started to putrify, but Soutine 
could not alTord another. He went to 
the butchers, bought several litres of 
blood, sprinkied the ox with it, and 
went on painting. Days passed, Soutine 
continued to paint, throwing buckets 
of blood over the carcass until the blood 
Howed out of the studio into the street. 
The caretaker thought a murder had 
been commiited and notified the police. 
They confiscated the remains and carted 
them off with the help of the garbage 
disposal men. Yet modern art had ac- 
quired a masterpiece." 

Jewish Affairs — February 1973 









HH outbrcak of World War II put 
an end to Soutinc's sccurity. It is said 
that the painter spurned an opportunity 
^1 flee [0- the United States, that he did 
not wish to leave his beloved France, 
and that he exciaimed, "What could I 
paint in America!" Yet Madame OrlotV 
teils a ditTerent story: "He had made 
fruitless approaches to the United States 
Embassy. There was cerlainly no lack 
of Americans who would have saved 
Soutine, but he did not possess a Single 
identity paper and his request was, 
therefore, turned down." 

Soutine, who was fated to be one of 
the six million Jewish martyrs, definitely 
belongs to the Ecole Jiiive. This combi- 
nation of words was coined to categorize 
the immigrant Jews who lived in Paris 
between 1910 and 1940 and who created 
paintings and sculptures quite distin- 
guishable from the work of native 
Frenchmen by their radical Expression- 
ism. 

Yet it is absurd to talk about a 
"Jewish School" of art if this category 
were to be based on religious or racial 
distinctions. Rebelling against their 
childhood niilicus in Fastern or Southern 
Europe, virtually all of the men and 
women in this "group" were freethink- 
ers. Like many of them, Soutine never 
painted what is calied a "Jewish thcme". 
They did distort and exaggerate wildly. 
But so did Van Gogh and Kokoschka, 
non-Jewish self-exiles from Holland and 
Austria, respectively. "Jewish painters 
tend to have an exuberant relish for the 
manipulation of oil paint", David Syl- 
vester has written. But in the same breath 
he mentions Rembrandt, who had the 
same "relish." Sylvester also observes 
that "Jewish painters unanimously and 
vociferously aftirm . . . that art has no 
business to exist if it does not speak to 
the onlooker of the miseries and occa- 
sionally the triumphs of human evi- 
dence." And again in the next sentence 
he mentions the humanisl Rembrandt 
who was a Dutch Protestant beyond any 
doubtl 

What Soutine, and many o{ his col- 
leagucs from Eastern European ghettoes 




D Ciirl in hliie". oil on canvas hy 
Chaim Soutine 



have in common with Rembrandt, with 
Van Gogh and Kokoschka is. apart 
from their special gifts, the similarity of 
fate, moulded, of course, to a large 
degree, by characterological traits. Rem- 
brandt ran away from fashionable socie- 
ty to be able to givc shape to his spiri- 
tual visions; Van Gogh left the provin- 
cialism of Holland to mature in France; 
and Kokoschka went abroad after the 
heir to the Hapsburg throne had de- 
manded that he be Hattened to pulp. 
Soutine could have stayed on in Smilo- 
vitchi and becomc a craflsman or small 
merchant, like his brothers; but he 
followed the demands of the Hame that 
burned in him, and to the purity of this 
llame he sacrificed life and what is 
commonly calied happiness, as every 
true artist would. 



Jewish Affairs — February 1973 



23 



^^^m, 



PAULA 

MODERSOHN- 
BECKER: 
A SHORT, 
CREATIVE 
LIFE 



BY ALFRED WERNER 




V/h k/'- : >i jl 



Sclf-portrail. /^M}5. charcoal. CoUcciion 
Kunslhiillc. Bremen. I'hc works shown Iwrc 
and on i/w /ucini^ /'</,i,'t' <"'<■' (dl self-porinüls, 
direct and intimaic siaiemcnis. 



American Artist is proud to be the 
first American art putilication 
to exhibit the work of the post- 
Impressionist painter Paula 
Modersohn-Becker ( 1 876- 1 907). 
Although her work is 
extraordinary, not one of her 
paintings appears in an American 
pubhc collection. During her brief 
career as an artist, Paula 
Modersohn-Becker created a 
treasure of paintings worthy of 
greater attention than she has thus 
far received in this country. 

16 



". . . / know I shall not live very loni^. But whv should this hc sad? Is a feast more 
heautiful for lasting langer? For niv lijc is a feast. My sensiial perception ^mws 
sharper, as thou^h I were supposed to take in everythin^ within thefew years that 
will he offered nie . . . A nd ijnow love will also hlossom for nie, hefore I leave, and 
if I shall have painted three i^ood pietures, I shall leave willini^lv, with flowers in 
my hands and in mv hair. " Paula M od crsohn- Beck er in her Diarv. aiie 24. 



TRAVEL BOOKS oftcn fall to mcntion the German town of Worpswede, about 
12 miles northeast of the busy port city of Bremen. The town is not only attrac- 
tive, it isalso ofcultural importance. Around 1890 Worpswede was one of Cen- 
tral Europe\s major artists' colonies. with the motto, "Back to nature." Sim- 
ilarly, tew of the histories of art published in English pay more than scant 
notice to the one painter who was greater than any other of the town's numer- 
ous praetitioners of art: Paula Modersohn-Becker (1876-1907). At times she is 
even missed in the literature on women artists, though she ranks with Angelika 
KautVmann, Gabriele Munter. Kaethe Kollwitz, and Renee Sintenis, to name 
only some of her colleagues in Germany. (Indeed. aloof as she was from the 
Feminist Movement, she would have resented putting too much emphasis on 
her sex in connection with her profession.) 

When she first came to Worpswede, in 1897. it was still an unspoiled village. 
Today it is more of a fashionable summer resort than a haven for artists. How- 
ever, most of its visitors are "art conseious." too. and in its shops one can buy a 
spate of superbly illustrated volumes on Paula Modersohn-Becker. Luckily. 
the landscape has retained the austere loveliness that had drawn to it a pil- 
grimage of artists, as well as poets, in the last years of the 19th Century. Great 
care has been exercised to bar large apartment buildings. industrial enter- 
prises. huge advertisements. and glaring neon lights that so often blight the 
most enchanting areas near our big cities. 

This most famous Worpsweder was actually a native o( Dresden. Her 
father was a hijzh official in the German railroad administration. and her 
mother descended from an aristocratic family. When Paula was 12. the Beck- 
ers moved to Bremen. The parents were sufiiciently open-minded to allow 
Paula to take art lessons. tirst in Bremen, and then in London, where the teen- 
ager lived for a while with relatives. But they also insisted that she attend the 
teachers' seminary. Surprisingly. they put no obstacles in her path w hen. after 
graduation. she declared that she wanted to be an artist. and they even allowed 
her to go to Worpswede and to live there alone. unchaperoned. in a studio 
apartment. She was able to take journeys abroad. 

By 1899 she had created enough works to have a solo exhibition at the 
Bremen Kunsthalle (the city's museum). Yet when her show failed to arouse 
any enthusiasm by the public or press. she was urged by her family to forget 
about her art. and to accept a position as a governess. There was one way out, 
and she took it by marriage. She became the wife of the Worpswede painter 
Otto Modersohn, a widower. well-meaning but mediocre in his talents. 

Modersohn appears to have been a patient. tolerant man. who understood 
his wife\ need for frequent and lengthy separations whenever she feit she 
could work satisfactorily only when relieved from the burdens of domesticity. 
His own unpretentious and unobstrusive piclures pay tribute to the stark 
beauty of the Nordic landscape around Worpswede: the vast Stretches of tlat 
country. broken by the lazily moving waters in rivers and canals: the moors: 
the birch and pine trees; the sturdy farm houses with their thatched roofs: and. 
above all, the endless skies, usually veiled by tantastically shaped clouds. Sub- 
dued in color, and rather traditional in technique and outlook. these paintings 
lag far behind the bold and daring ones done by his wife, especially those she 
did in the last three or tbur years of her short career. For him. Paula's non- 
naturalistic pictures were too much "like posters." as he put it. as they are char- 
acterized by large, broad, tlat color areas bounded by clear outlines. But he 
knew that she was greater than he. that she was, as he put it. ''a genuine artist. 
such as there are few in the world." He even predicted that one day she would 
be apprecialed everywhere. Surviving his wife by 36 years. he was able to note 
that his forecast had come true. 

American Artist 



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/.('//; Sclf-Pi>rtrail with Cdmclia Brauch. 
ni\, 2^ : V //';. Colk'clion Folkwani^ Mu- 
sculi. Hs\cn. This is Modersohn-Hcckcr's 
ntosi /anioiis painilni;, wilh a mysichous aml 
cjiu'silonini^ iUülitdc. 

Top ri\ihi: Sclf'-Pi)rlrail wiih Amber Ncck- 
lacc. ca. 1^1 )f\ oH. 2.^': v I^':. Collect ion 
Mociersohn- Baker Hans. Bremen. The 
/low er iippeurs repeatedly in her self-por- 
tnüis. 

Ahove: Sclf-Pi^rirait on Si\lh Wcclditiii An- 
nivcrsarv. /V^M, 40 v 2^':. Colleetion Mo- 
Üersohn-Becker Haus. Bremen. This anni- 
versarx piuntin<i uv/.v compleiecl shorilv 
hefore her deaih. 



June 1973 



17 



-r^- '#* 




Fven Rainer Maria Rilke, soon to beeome a world ee- 
lebrity as the outstanding poet he was, did not feel quite 
easy in the presence of Paula's work, although the two 
wcre friends, and Rainer even sat for a portrait. He has 
deseribed a corner of Paula\s studio as eontaining v mask 
of Dante, a guitar resting against a pile of sketches, and a 
lily in a vase. The two talked endlessly about the 
metaphysieal problems often so dear to young people. 
Paula, he recalled. wanted to have no God outside the 
Great Mother. the giver of life. When Rilke published a 
monograph about Worpswede, eaeh of the colony's well- 
known artists was included-with the exeeption of the 
only remarkable one, Paula! 

This was not surprising. Rilke, who referred to her as 
"Modersohn's wife," had not yet been exposed to the 
newer trends in art. Paula, however, during four sojourns 
in Franee, assimilated all that the Salon d'Automne and 
Vollard's shop could offer her eyes-espeeially the work 
of Cezanne. and, one assumes, also the paintings of Gau- 
guin and Van Gogh (though she does not refer to them in 
her letters or diaries, where she mentions Manet. Redon, 
Vuillard, and Denis, among others). Even before her first 
Parisian trip, in 1900, she had begun to rebel against her 
teacher in Worpswede, Fritz Maekensen: "The manner 
in which Maekensen paints is not big enough for me; 
there is too mueh 'genre' about it. To be brought off, it 
should be writ large, in runie eharacters." 




/o/K I vv()( hildrcn and Birch Trccs. o,l. rnvaic col/cctlon. Ahovc: 
Okl Pcasant Wonian. /W.^. oiL 2S v 2^. ColUriinn Kunsiludlc, 
Hamlmr^. Riu/u: Mother and Chikl with Orange and Lcmon. ca. 
I^M)7. (ollcciion Miinicipul Mmcum. Huppcrfa/. 

18 




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Pcasaiii WDinan in a Red Drcss. (v/. /V(0. oU, Jv v /V'-. Co/Icction State Museum jor An und An Uisiorv. Münster, rransparenev eouriesv 
firurknutnn-l erlui^, Munieli. 



'unc 1973 



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Top: Slill Life with Yellow Bowl. oil. Collcction Galeric St. Eiiennc. Ahovc: Pcasani 
Woman vvith Hat. oil. Collcction Municipal Museum, Wuppertal, Germanv. Rii^ht: 
VQüSimyharcoalandchalk. Collcction Künsihallc, Kiel. Oppo.site pa^c: Pcasant Woman 
with Hat. Oll. Private collcction, (lermanv. 




20 



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22 



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Niklc Girl. I'M)'^, .?.>'.- \ -V.v ( o/IciUoh Munntfuil Museum. H up/icruj/. Ihr hoUi. nii/icr pnniiinc approiuh is rcnunisccnl of I \in (io^ih und 
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Allhoiiüh Paula Modcrsohn-Bcckcr ollen sharcJ ihc 
subjccl maller of her eolleaiziies al Worpswede, she was 
opposed to iheir prosaie approaeh. A decade or niore be- 
töre ihe lerm was lo be eoined. she had beeonie a '*Posl- 
Impressionisl." ihai is lo sav. a painler no longcr eliniiiniz 
lo ihe classical nolion ihai ihe salvalion lav in ihe eon- 
leniplalion and nnilalion of nalure. As earlv as 1902 she 
wrole in her diary. "I belie\ e onc should nol think about 
nalure when paniuni:. al leasi nol durni^ ihe eoneeplion 
of ihe pielure." l nvMiimtzK she iherebv eehoed (iau- 
Liuin's deelaralions. "Il is beller lo paml Ironi nieniory." 
and. "I shul my eves ni order lo see." 

In her malure work. she does nt)l miilale i:i\en Ibrnis. 
bul linds arlislicequi\alenis tor life. as il were. Inslead of 
coneerninii hersell wiih ihe surlaee. as niosi Worps- 
\seders did. she was as eaiier as her idol. (e/.anne. lo 

.liiiic h>73 



grasp ihe seerel organi/alion of ihnigs. the slruelure be- 
neath ihe appearanee. ihe "bones o( nalure." She eame 
lo reali/e ihal il was the painler's lask lo represenl. not lo 
reproduee nalure. (iraduallv she lost inlerest in light and 
shade as well as atmosphene perspeelive as means lo 
produee the seniblanee o\' ihree-dimensionality. She 
taught herseif lo use eolor arbilrarilv. to distort or exag- 
üerate ordinarv Ibrms of nalure lo aehieve emotional or 
aesthetie etVeels. and al times she eame close to the aims 
of a later iiroup of artists, known as Rxpressionists. 

It was her nianner rather ihan her ehoiee oi' subjeet 
matter ihal disiinnuished her work from what was done 
in C^Mitral luiropean sludios between 1897 and 1907. She 
\santed lo "give fii:urali\e expression" lo her "uncon- 
seious feelini:": she had a "burniniz desire to beeome 

( Ontinuccl on /h/[^c 6(S' 

23 










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Braziller, George, Inc., 1 Park Ave., N.Y. 
10016: 

Woman. photograph.s by Edouard Bouhat, 

$15; Short introduction and 64 full-pagc platcs 

by France'.s tamou.s romantic photographer; 

143 pp., 12x9, biog.. bibliog. 

Classical Greek Art, by Jean Charbonneaux. 

Roland Martin, and Francoi.s Villard, $35: 

evolution of clas.sical Greek art (Vom 480 to 

330 B.C. tran.s. trom the French; 422 pp., 1 1 x 

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dence, R.I. 02912: 

A View oj Greek An, by R. Ro.s.s Hoiioway, 

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Where Limd Meets Sea: The Enäurin^ Cape 
Cod. written and engraved by Cläre Leighton. 
$3.95 paper; reprinl of an importanl artist's 
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Chilton, 401 Walnut St., Philadelphia 19106: 
Clav and Cilazes for the Polier, bv Daniel 
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Collier Books, 866 Third Ave., N.Y. 10022: 

The Anxious Oh/eci, An Todav and Iis Au- 
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back edition of study firsl published in 1964; 
39 illus.. 272 pp., 8x5'/4. 

Crowell, Thomas Y., 666 Fifth Ave., N.Y. 
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The Amateur Photo^rapher'.s Handhook, by 
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+ 562 pp.. 9'/4 X 6. with 188 b/w and color 
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Dover Publications, 180 Varick, N.Y. 10014: 
(ireek Ornament, edited bv Patrick Connell. 
$4.95; brief intro. and bibliog. followed by 37 
halftone reproductions, hundreds of line 
drawings. moslly of molifs from ornamental 
ceramics; 127 pp.. 9^4 x 7'/4. 
Monii^omerv Ward & Companv's Cataloj^ue, 
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bridged reprint with thousands of cuts of items 
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Earlv Illustrations and Views of American Ar- 
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when they went into their slreels, industrial 
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Callii^raphv hv Arthur Baker. Pictorial Archive 
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free for use or adaptation, plus other original 
calligraphic designs; 154 plates. foreword by 
Tommy Thompson, iv 4- 155 pp., 8'/4 x 1 1 Hs 



oblong. 

Drake Publishers, 381 Park Ave. S., New York 

N.Y. 10016: 

Quilnnakini^. by Ann-Sargent Wooster. S8.95; 
füll introductory book on applique and palch- 
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photos and drawings, 24 color reproductions. 
bibliog., indexes. 

Fogg Art Museum, Harvard University, Cam- 
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Frederick M. Watkins Collection. $14 paper; 
catalog of objects consistmg mostly of Greek 
poiicry and scuipiure; i8u pp., 9Vi x 8'/2, many 
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PROFESSIONAL (from pa^e II) 

be up when the slide is put in a viewer. 
If you wish to take advantage of any 
free Services of non-profit organizations, 
remember that they usuallyoperate on 
shoestrings, even if they have received 
small grants. For any communication 
you send requesting a reply. enclose a 
stamped envelope. 

Grafts Concerns 

With the considerable upswing in the 
crafts-as-art movement, there are new 
sources of information for such prac- 
titioners as well as some older ones. Best 
known among the latter is the American 
Grafts Council, its Museum of Contem- 
porary Grafts. 29 West 53 St.. New York, 
N.Y. 10019. and its monthly puhlication, 
Craft Horizons. You will find others, 
such as Artists' Craftsmen, Inc.. New 
York, in the American Art Directory. 

Few art galleries in New York-and I 
believe elsewhere— have heretofore en- 
compassed this field. But a pioneer was 
the Lee Nordness Gallery, whose owner 
sold the Johnson Wax Co. the idea of as- 
sembling and purchasing 300 art objects, 
which are now on international tour, 
breaking European museum attendance 
records, slated to go to Stockholm for 
June and Julv. to the Edinburgh Festival 
for August. Perhaps as a result of this Sig- 
nal recognition. new galleries are spring- 
ing up. showing work ranging from tra- 
ditional to experimental. and older art 
galleries are opening their walls from 
time to time to such art-crafts as woven 
and batik paintings and sculpture-jew- 
elry. 

A new quarterly. Artisan Crafts. pub- 
lishes a directory of craft items and sup- 
plies and exchanges information useful 
to art-crafts people. It costs $5 a year; 
you can get a sample copy free from Ar- 
tisan Crafts, Box 179F, Reeds Spring, 
Mo. 65737. 

M - B EC R E R (from pai^e 2.^) 

great through simplicity." For her, the 
main thing was what she called "the per- 
sonal Sensation." Only after having 
achieved this in her picture would she 
bring-for the layman's sake-"enough 
of nature into it to make my picture look 
natural." Yet apparently this was not 
sufficient for the viewer who preferred 



68 



American Artist 



thc academic accuracy and smooth tech- 
nique she lacked. 

Rilke, who belatedly came to recog- 
nize her greatness, suggesled thal she 
must have seen works by Matisse. 
"Thcie'is an inherenl truth which must 
be disengaged from ihe outward appear- 
anee ot^ the objeet/' Matisse once wrote: 
"This is the only truth that matters . . . 
Exactitude is not truth/' Although Paula 

w u.:> \jun.v^ aivi uvii v\^ ^-»nw ** »^^j «.^.^- .*^, 

slim. and wore her long hair in a ehignon 
at the nape of her neck-her numerous 
self-portraits render. not her prettiness. 
but her anxiety. her tension. her ques- 
tioning attitude towards the world, as she 
appears with a slightly open mouth, and 
with large eyes that look beseechingly at 
US. (Repeatedly. she painled herseif 
nude, with a flower between her breasts, 
and even with the enormous belly of ad- 
vanced pregnancy.) 

Her landscapes and her still lifes lack 
what is often called feminine tenderness 
and softness. But they have strength. So 
doherpicturesof men. women. and chil- 
dren of what in the Kaisers Germany 
was called the "lower classes," while to 
her they represented "poor little man- 
kind." They are ditferent from the facile 
and pretty renderings of rural humanity 
that were eagerly collected around 1900. 
Paula's approach was entirely unroman- 
tic. unsentimental. Melancholy, sutfer- 
ingor. at best, resignation is written into 
theraw-boned "ugly" Square facesof her 
stolid and brooding blue-eyed Lower 
Saxony types. Their large. uncouth 
hands attest to years of unceasing toil. 
Nor did her brush omit the aged and the 
sick. 

In the beginning. dark colors pre- 
vailed. Gradually the browns gave way 
to more reds. blues. and greens. The col- 
ors within the somewhat stylized. arti- 
ficial forms remain heavy; the brush- 
strokes are never concealed; they are 
always visible. One is often reminded. by 
their quality. of the encaustic panels of 
antiquity. In their brutal directness Mo- 
dersohn-Beckef s pictures are especially 
reminiscent of the so-called Fayoum 
portraits of Egypt. mummy portraits 
with a disproportional emphasis on the 
eyes as the "mirrors of the soul." and in- 
cluding the most unflattering details. 

It is easy to note that the eternal 
theme, "Mother and Ghild." takes a 
dominant position in her work. This mo- 
tif plays. of course. a very great role in 
Christian art. While in secular art the 
subject is not contined to female prac- 
tioners, it comes as no surprise that it was 
favored by Mary Cassatt and Kaethe 
Kollwitz, along with Modersohn-Beck- 
er. Cassatt's milieu was that of middle 
class Paris, and both mothers and chil- 
dren looked well scrubbed and well fed. 
Kollwitz sketched the hapless proletar- 
ian mothers and children in the Berlin 
slum district where her husband had his 
medical practice among the poor. Paula 



Modersohn-Becker regarded her modeis 
with sympathy. but without undue senti- 
mentalily. The faces oi^ the children of- 
ten look like potatoes. with little holes 
for eyes. Yet these awkward creatures, 
shown in their simple dignity. inspire 
warm feelings. Van Gogh would have 
loved what she created. In Modersohn- 
Becker one is often reminded of him. as 
she shared his compassion for humanity. 
and she miizht have written his lines. "I 
want to paint men and women with that 
something oi' the eternal that the halo 
used to symbolize. and which we seek to 
give by the actual radiance and Vibration 
of our colormgs . . ." 

Van Goghs can be seen here in many a 
museum. Yet not a Single of the approxi- 
mately 400 oils Modersohn- Becker pro- 
duced has landed in an American public 
collection. To see some of these small 
oils, as well as her drawings and etchings, 
one must go to Bremen, whose Kunst- 
halle is one of the finest art museums in 
Northern Germany. There is even a 
Paula Modersohn-Becker Haus— en- 
tirely devoted to her memory~in the 
heart of the Old City. 

Unquestionably. she died too soon for 
her talent to come to füll fruition. For 
she had all the gifts to become one of the 
greatest artists of this Century. Somehow. 
she had a premonition that she would 
die young. United with her husband 
again after a long Separation, she be- 
came pregnant. On November 2. 1907. 
she gave birth to a healthy baby daugh- 
ler. But on the 20th of the .same month. 
she succumbed to a heart attack. (She 
was only 31.) Her tinal words were sim- 
ply. "What a pity!" On her grave in the 
Worpswede cemetery, there is a sculp- 
tured group by her friend. Bernhard 
Hoetger. presenting a dying mother w ith 
a child on her lap. 

Hoetger had, for a long time. been thc 
only person to encourage her. She had 
written to him. tull oi uratitude. *'You 
have given mc the most wonderful thing 
in the world: faith in myself." Her two 
exhibitions hardly contributed to this 
.sort of faith. for the public's reaction was 
indignant. Altogether. she sold only two 
pictures (one more than had Van Gogh 
during his lifetime). When she donated a 
work oi' her own to a charity raffle at 
Worpswede, the winner returned the 
picture and chose something eise in- 
stead. 

But exactly a decade after her prema- 
ture death her name suddenly spread 
through the publication of Briefe and 
Tüji^ehuchhlaetter, including the letters 
and diaries from which 1 have quoted 
above. Two years later. in 1919. the first 
scholarly monograph about her ap- 
peared. From then on. her reputation 
continued to rise (though there was a set- 
back during the period of the Third 
Reich; the Nazis contiscated as "degene- 
rate" no fewer than 70 of her works from 
German public collections). 



LAKE PLACID WORKSHOP 

Painting. Printmaking. Ceramics. Drawing. Photography 
Summer. Fall & Winter Sessions. Umited Enrollment! 

June 25. 1973 -August 17. 1973 

For Information write: Daniel C. Patchelt, Director 
Box 351. Lake Placid. New York 12946 



MASTER CLASS IN WATERCOLOR 

EDWARD BEHS N.A.A.S. 

AT "RANGEMARK ", BIRCH HARBOR, 
MAINE, AUG. 12 thru AUG. 17 

Founded by Ihe late Barse Miller 1966 
Inquiries: 804 Dodds Drive 

Champaign, III. 61820 



FIGURES AND PORTRAITS IN WATERCOLOR 

PHOEBE FLORY 

(Author, in collaboration with Dorothy Short and 
Eliot O'Hara, of Portraits in The Making and Water- 
coior Portraiture. ) 

IUI Y 1Q79 Intensive two-week courses for ex- 
wULl lißiö perienced painters and beginners. 

Write: The Phoebe Flory Watercolor Sctiool 
Main St., Mont Vemon, NH 03057 



GEORGE CHEREPOV 

Nolcd arlist. leachcr and author. 
inviles \ou to paint with him 
VF.RMONT. her niDunlains. forcsls. 
mcadows and lakcs; her villages 
and her people. 

JULY AUGUST OC TOBF.R 

You paint i>n localiiMi but hve 

at comforlahle. ^raciiiiis North 

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north 
branch club 

Mt Snow. Vernnont 05356 
^-^-._^__^ 802-464-3319 

1 IHIWP^^ 212-972- .362 (NY 

■III 




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OUTDOOR PAINTING 
CLASSES 

WITH 

NEIL DREVITSON 




WOODSTOCK VERMONT 

INSTRUCTION IN 

• WATERCOLOR • CONTROL • 
• TECHNIQUE • BASIC DRAWING • 

July 16th T^^" August 17th 

for Information write 

NEIL DREVITSON 

WOODSTOCK, VERMONT 05091 



June 1973 



69 



BRACKMAN 

In Madison, July 9-August 24 

Write to James E. Waish 

MADiSON ART GALLERY AND STUDIOS 

Madison, Conn. 06443 (203) 245-9119 



Call Or Write For Füll Information 

DOOR B AIIT SCHQOL 

Certificated By The State Of Texas 

900-B Newman, El Paso, Texas 79902 

Telephone 915-542-1206 



THE 



TAUBES 



Art 
Courses 



in Ruidoso, N. M. 

19th year 

June 18th-30th 

For Information write Mrs Em Burbridge 

Hidalgo Sur 137. Saltlllo Coah., Mexico 



CITY ir GUILDS OF 
LONDON ART SCHOOL 

An Independent School for Fine Art in Central London. 
Füll & Part-time Courses in Painting. Sculpture. Wood- 
carvingÄ Etchmg. July Summer School — Pamting- Draw- 
ing (from life). Particulars from Registrar. 

124, Kennington Park Road, London S.E. 11. England 



1973 PAINTING WORKSHOPS 

of T.H. Hewitt (Since 1956) 

GEORGE POST 

MEXICO • JULY 

BUD SHACKELFORO 

BRITISH COLUMBIA • AUGUST 

REX BRANDT 

CORNWALL • SEPTEMBER 

write: T.H. Hewitt, P.O. Box 2292 
San Francisco, Cal. 94126 




ARTISTS' 
WO RLD VOYA GE 

100 INTERNATIONAL 
EXHIBITIONS 

(2-Year Charter) 

Sails early 1974! Live and work creatively, 
paint, etc., aboard Ist Class 145 ft. 3-masted 
Barquentine whilst visiting 100 foreign ports 
on 4 Continents. Minimum Participation — 
3 months (10 EXHIBITIONS). From US$3342. 

Write Airmail: R. Bruderer, 

International Yacht Charters, 

P.O. Box 149, Broadway, N.S.W. 

Austraiia 2007. 



The paintings of Paula Modersohn- 
Becker are sheer music, fraught with 
mysticism, with passion. Her work re- 
vitalizes her, as she was, in every facet of 
her being: unconventional, sensitive, 
warm, but endowed with a tremendous 
stubborness and a persevering strong 
will. Her philosophy of living permeated 
all she produced, in keeping with her 
credo that "art must penetrate the whole 
man, each phase of our existence." 



COLOR (from pu^e 33) 

be sure that you add the new color with 
quick, decisive strokes and a minimum 
of blending. Too much blending is likely 
to mean mud. If the wet-into-wet attack 
won't work, scrape out the entire passage 
with a knite and start over. That is all 
there is to it. 

When you scrape out the offending 
passage. don't leave hard edges around 
the shape you've removed. The scraped 
passage shouldn't look like youVe cut it 
out with a scissors. Try to wield the knite 
so that you leave a slighily soft, ragged 
edge. The soft edge makes it easier to in- 
tegrate the fresh color with the surround- 
ing colors, avoiding the feeling that the 
new passage has been stuck on like a 
piece of colored paper. 

If the painting is too dry and the unsat- 
isfactory color is hard as a rock, you've 
got to repaint it so that the fresh color in- 
tegrates with the overall texture of the 
picture. The secret is the old-master 
technique called "oiling out." Applv a 
very thin coat of painting medium — with 
a brush. a cloth, or even with your tin- 
ger— to the ofiending passage and a bit 
beyond. Then. when you apply tYesh 
color. you'll be painting on a wet surface, 
and the strokes will seem to merge with 
the rest of the picture. You can then wipe 
away any exce.ss painting medium that's 
left around the edges of the fresh paint. 



ELY (from pui^c 2S) 

they would be willing to sit for me. life 
being what it is." 

Life for Ely isn't just drawing theater 
Personalities. Most of his time is spent il- 
lustrating cosmetic and beauty ads that 
appear in national magazines. the New 
York papers, and Harper\s and Queen. 
the English counterpart of Harper\s Ba- 
zaar. On the non-commercial side, he 
has had a one-man show at the Society of 
Illustrators in New York and is repre- 
sented in many private collections here 
and abroad. He also does numerous pri- 
vate Portrait commissions as well as 
those commissioned by Harper\s and 
Queen; the magazine asked him. for ex- 
ample, to draw the writer Tom Wolte and 
Lady Pamela Egremont, current chat- 
elaine of Petworth. "The latter portrait 
was a particular treat for me, because I 
also got a look at the magnificent house 
where Turner did so many of his daz- 



KORDAS PAINTING WORKSHOP 

Fifth Annual Summer Session on the 

Aegean island of SAMOS in GREECE 

June 29 - August 25 

PAINTING • DRAWING • CERAMICS 

ART HISTORY • EXCURSIONS 

Brochure: Pythagoreion Institute of Pairting 

P O Box 59, Hast Orleans, Mass 02643; 

Tel; (617) 255-1345 



WALLACE BASSFORD 



NORTH TRURO SCHOOL OF ART on CAPE COD 

Drawino; JULY-AUGUST. p-.:-*; — 

BOX 63 • NORTH TRURO, MASS. 02652 

Winter Class: 136 Worth Ave. 
Palm Beach, Florida 33480 

"Painting the Female Figure," by Wallace Bassford 
Published by Reinhold, New York 



ART SCHOOL DIRECTORY 

Send 50C to 

AMERICAN ARTIST 

1 Astor Plaza, New York, New York 10036 



CLOUDCROFT, N. M. 

Art I rainini; .luiii- 4-29 

Marold Riitii'N -Oil l.andscapt' 

Bud Bii;t:v-\\att'rt((l(ir (.Juni- 4-15» 

NVm. Hfnr\ Fark-Siill l.iff (.luni- 18-29) 

Kamon Kronian-Porlrail 

l.ontiii- Vlasori-DraHinti 

brochure: RAMON FROMAN SCHOOL OF ART 

8483 Stults Road Dallas. Texas 75231 

Afli-r Ma> 25- Address ( loudcrofl. \. \1. 8X317 







24th year two week Station wagen tours 
painting the Maine Coast area nchest in 
subject matter, staying at Maines finest 
motel No transportation Charge Demon- 
stration, personal Instruction and class cnti- 
cism every day by E A Wfiitney, AN A- 
AWS . Instructor, watercqlor painting at 
Pratt Institute 14 years Tour objective; paint 
the Maine Coast with a group bound by com- 
mon interest; arrive back in New York with 
increased knowledge of watercolor painting, 
new friends, and some fine paintings Write 
for brochure Edgar A Whitney, ANA, 1970 
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most essenlial facts at any rate. Homer 
was notorioLi.s for his rcluctance to talk 
aboul himscir or to explain his piclures 
to others. Yet the author rightly suggests 
that the artist t'ully expressed his inner- 
most feelings. his most personal ideas in 
his works. and he therefore set out to ''re- 
examine the paintings themselves. to 
eonsider afresh the development of his 
style and the meaning of his images. and 
to view them in the broader eontext of 
19th Century America." Professor Wil- 

4-.. . i, j :., .1,:,. 1. i u. 

UlCIUUl^ MlCV-CtUCU m iiii.> la.MV. a;i\a iiv. 

increased our admiration for an artist 
who. from a humble commercial li- 
thographer. developed into a tirst-rate 
painter and, reversing the general trend 
in men of talent. became better and bet- 
ter as he grewolder. A.W. 

The American Impressionists. by Donel- 
son b. Hoopes. 160 pp.. 1Ü'/4X 1 1.64color 

plates. Watson-Ciuplill. $25 

One must not expect terms used in art 
hislorv to be as precise and unequivocal 
as those emploved in mathematics or 
chemistrv. impressionism the work was 
coined bv a hostile Kreuch critic com- 
prises a great manv painters. including 
some who did subscribe to all ot the ten- 
ets endorsed by Monet. leader ot" the 
school (who himself was not always 
quite clear about his ainis and prin- 
ciples). His followers were. in many 
cases. eclectics who chose those Clements 
o\' practice and theory that best tillcd 
iheir aesthetics and temperament. 

At anv rate, several of the 35 artisis in- 
cluded bv Mr. Hoopes in this anthologv 
can be calicd Impressionists onlv if one 
applies the term verv looselv. Cjeorge In- 
ncss. who Starts the lisl here. even "de- 
nicd any connection between his art and 
Impressionism." Yet. dcspite Inness* 
avowed anlaiionism to Monet and his 
group. he developed along their lines to 
some extent; his late works "reveal an in- 
tcrcst in dissolving subject matter into 
the veils of translucent color." 

("uriouslv. he and Whistler were the 
onlv American impressionists for whom 
the subject matter became as secondary 
as it was for Mt)nel. lo w hom all that was 
important was "the lonal poetrv of light 
and color." \ov the others. thouüh ihev 
admired Monet as inness did not. a deli- 
nite cicarlv defmed subject was most es- 
sential. Marv Cassatt was the only Amer- 
ican to parlicipate in the Impressionist 
group shows of the l87(Tsand ISXO's. vet 
she prcKluced works more solid, more 
wciühlv. as well as more linear and con- 
ceptual than the tvpical examples of im- 
pressionism. and she refused to allow 
light and purecolor tt)disintegrate form. 

What. then. have these 35 in common 
with the t)rthodox nucleus of the French 
Impressionists? in the first place, the un- 
complicated happiness. the joy of living 
that led them to look at the countrvside 
with neverdiminishedenthusiasm.(Most 
o\' the plates depicl landscapes. with or 



without people.) (assall alone restricted 
herseif to the human figure. Secondly. a 
chromalic splendor that dislinguishes 
these paintings from the largelv dark and 
subdued piclures done in America be- 
töre 1880. To ditferent degrees. some of 
ihe Americans adopted the more or less 
"scientitic" analytical principles that 
separated the rebels o\' 1874 from their 
more conservative colleagues. Still, even 
the more radical never wem as far as 
Monet did in discarding space. shape. 

'ir\/J /4ti-t<ir^/*<^ Ac * l^ '* ^. ..->!.. —»-. ^ .4 ,, -. .-. 

slrates, the artists on the whole remained 
wilhin the American tradition of linear, 
descriptive Realism. 

Mr. Hoopes'selection of lamelv ücntle 
and lyrical piclures. culled from mu- 
seums all over the United States, is a verv 
exciting one. While some oi' the artists 
are internalionallv known— especially 
Whisller. Cassatt. and Sariient or. like 
inness. Robinson. Twachtman. and Has- 
sam, at least known to all student.s of 
American art— .several have been rescued 
from an oblivion thev did not deserve. 
The text. consisiina of an introduction 
and of commentaries facing the piclures. 
is lucidlv w ritten, and the reproductions 
are clear and beauliful in color. ,\.w . 

Maurice-Quentin de La Tour, by Adrian 
Bury, 202 pp.. manv illus., some in color, 
10 X 7. Abner Schräm, $17.50 

Of the two French artists named La 
Tour, the 17th Century religious painter 
celebraled for his dramatic juxlaposi- 
tions of light and dark is better known 
than his namesake. the 18th Century por- 
traitist. No monograph about the latter 
wa.s available in English until the present 
one by Mr. Bury. who himself is a 
painter ofwatercolors. Maurice-Quentin 
de La Tour (1704-1788) wa.s, perhaps, 
the world's most skillful manipulator of 
pastels, that very ditficult and elusive 
medium, often but not always elassified 
among drawing media. 

La Tour handled pastels with unsur- 
pa.ssed mastery and .soon became the fa- 
vorite of French high society at the peak 
of the Rococo period. He drew-or 
painted -pastel portraitsof the King and 
Queen, of Madame de Pompadour, and 
of the aristocracy. But his sitters also in- 
cluded his coUeague Chardin and the 
philosophers Rous.seau and Voltaire, 
and he left numerous self-portraits. He 
was frankly commercial and gave his pa- 
trons all the elegance and charm they as- 
pired to. While he concentrated on a 
client's complexion and expensive 
clothes rather than on his character and, 
altogether, achieved what might be 
called an agreeable superficiality, his 
adroit craftsmanship cannot be suf- 
ticiently admired. 

In the book, the eventfui life of La 
Tour, his friendships, his triumphs are 
vividly described. Though immensely 
successful, he was not entirely satisfied 
with his accomplishments: "He sutFered 



60 



American Artist 



as most qrtydl artists suffer from ihc 
thought that there was something to cx- 
* press that had eluded his powers." 

The volume reproduces many of La 
Tour's portraits. with short commen- 
laries accompanying the piclures. There 
isachapteron pastel teehnique and a lisl 
of the artist's works to be found in public 
collections. especiallv in France, where a 
museum dedicated' exciusively to La 
Tour was established al the artist's native 
lown, Saint-Quentin. in the north-east- 
ern Corner of the country. a.w . 



46 




WHAT 

MADE 

PICASSO 

RUN? 

ALFRED WERNER 



Exit the king — or was he a dictator? For the first time 
in the annals of the American press, an artist's obituary 
appeared on the front page of newspapers. If col- 
lected, the eulogies of Pablo Picasso printed all over 
the World in the second week of April, 1973, would add 
up to a thick book. It was a week of superlatives, of 
many naive exaggerations. If Picasso was greater than 
his one-time friend and collaborator, Georges Braque, 
or his leading competitor, Henri Matisse, by what 
yardstick does one measure "greatness"? 

Soon, I predict, a period of "de-Picassoization" will 
sei in. That he was a genius is incontestable. Unfor- 
tunately, the term "genius" is too often applied to indi- 
viduals with far more modest gifts, so that the term 
has been devalued. Picasso was extraordinary, even as 
a boy. Visiting an exhibition of children's drawings, he 
once Said: "I could not have t^^ken part — when I was 
twelve I drew like Raphael." He did not exaggerate: 
his juvenilia display the precocity shown at the same 
age by the Italian master, or by Duerer. He was only 
sixteen when he received an award for a large canvas, 
Science and Charity — a doctor and a nun at a sick-bed 
— which was painted with the skill one would expect 
only from a highly experienced master. 

Fate's cornucopia showered him with good fortune. 
What did he do with all of it? He was given ninety- 

Alfred Werner is the distinguished art critic and historian. 
His books include "Degas Pasteis" and "Modigliani 
the Sculptor." 



one years and one hundred and twenty-six days to see 
and discover the world. Even skeptics niust admit that 
he did not waste his time. Despite his travels and his 
addiction to bull-fights and fiestas, he must have spent 
more than twenty thousand days in the solitude of his 
atelier. Those who have marveled at his "unexampled 
fecundity," at the energy he poured into the creation 
of a "vast body of work," larger than that of Rubens, 
or of Tiepolo, might begin to wonder whether less 
might not have been better. Conceivably, such quiet 
and unspectacular men as Matisse, Braque, and even 
Juan Gris have given us as many important works of 
art as the "Niagara" Picasso, and none of the trivial- 
ities that clutter up the countless coffee table books 
devoted to him. Along with indisputable masterpieces, 
many flimsy exercises were allowed to occupy much too 
much Space in the mammoth shows devoted to him on 
his sixtieth, seventieth, eightieth, and ninetieth 
birthdays. 

Perhaps he was as much a victim as he was a vic- 
timizer. His dynamic personality attracted too many 
poets, critics, dealers, and collectors, who joined in 
chorus to sing his praise. The New York Times obit- 
uary extolled him as "the greatest single force in seven- 
ty years of art," and another eulogist hailed his work 
as a source of Inspiration "whose influcnce can know 
no limit." 

Nobody asked: What made Picasso run? Why so many 
"wives,'* and why did he hurt most of them through 
his monumental egocentricity? Why so many "styles"? 
Why so many wiles and whims? Why did he paint 
so many abysmally poor pictures, and why did he 
allow so many insignificant works to leave his studio? 

All this has to be said by one who insists upon be- 
ing counted among Picasso's admirers. I am still one 
of them, even though Picasso — unintentionally, I as- 
sume — encouraged a plague of clever performers who 
lack his immense gifts but adopt his manner of playing 
to the grandstand. Unwillingly, and perhaps even un- 
wittingly, he opened the dikes to let in the practition- 
ers of minimal art, of conceptual art, of anti-art, of 
non-art, who today flood the scene. Of course, it would 
be unfair to blame one individual for all the current 
ills of the art world. One is reminded of Serge 
Diaghilev, the great Russian ballet impresario (for 
whom Picasso designed süperb sets and costumes) : 
"Stop eating peas off a knife," he scolded a ballerina. 
"But you eat peas off a knife," she protested. "That is 
a different matter. I am Diaghilev." 

Perhaps it was "a different matter" with a personal- 
ity like Picasso. He could allow himself to be photo- 
graphed wearing a false moustache and trick specta- 
cles, or clad in nothing but a pair of shorts, and yet 
not lose his dignity. He was not even embarrassed by 
his uncritical fans, by disciples who never ceased being 
solemn about him even when he was clowning. At any 
rate, he never stopped Sir Roland Penrose — who played 
Mohammed to his Allah — from getting ecstatic even 
over certain "constructions" that are carelessly put to- 



JUNE 1973 



i 



I 



\t 



1^ 



47 



gether and arc perishablc, works with as much phil- 
osophical validity as the paper hat a father makes for 
his little son. 

To put it differently, one can hardly disagree with 
Sir Roland or with The New York Times eulogist 
that Picasso cxerted the most powerfui influence on 
Twentieth Century art. But I am not sure that it 
was an entirelv beneficial one. or that he fnllv snr- 
ceeded in the ambitious task he set himself — to "draw 
the spirit in a direction in which it is not accustomed 
and awaken it," to quote one of his grandiose State- 
ments. Of course, there are the unforgettable pictures 
of his Blue Period, there is Guernica, there are many 
prints superior to most of modern graphic art. But 
there is too much that is merely amusing, witty, roguish, 
or that fails to "awaken the spirit," that does not — to 
use a phrase Picasso would have hated — touch the 
heart. 

But what is the goal of art? Surprisingly, Picasso, 
who was not inclined to philosophy, was able to give 
a good answer: "to ease the pain of a toothache." Sur- 
rounded by Picassos, perhaps in one of the memorial 
shows now hastily assembled by museums, Man, that 
chronic patient, may indeed forget his physical and 
even more pressing metaphysical ills. But for only a 
Short while. The impact of a Rembrandt, an El Greco, 
a Van Gogh, or a Rouault is bound to last much longer. 

Perhaps Picasso's failing can be traced to one flaw: 
he often forgot that art's function is to reconcile Man 
to his destiny — death; when he did not forget, he cre- 
ated immortal masterpieces. He loathed any reminders 
of man's vulnerability. He could not avoid illness, but 
he scolded his own women for daring to be sick. He 
did not like anyone to mention death. He had, a friend 
recalled, "an absolute horror of emotional display." 

Yet, as a hungry young artist who had to feed the 
stove with his own drawings to keep warm, he began 
with emotion-fraught pictures. He was so deeply 
moved when he learned the fate of Guernica under 
fascist attack in Spain's civil war — the first "saturation 
bombing" of a city — that he created the only Twen- 
tieth Century painting which successfully expresses ab- 
horrence of war and brutality. There is tendemess in 
some of his Cubist still-lifes, as there is in his neo- 
classical Wornan in White, and in his renderings of 
children, of animals, of flowers. 

What a pity, then, that this eminent man so often 
confronted us with double-take and double-talk, that 
he created in us, time and again, the uneasy feeling 
produced by a magician's legerdemain. It was pathetic, 
and also infuriating, to see a megalomaniac playing 
God — only to end up as a mildly entertaining, super- 
annuated clown. Perhaps it was his misfortune that he 
became too successful too early. By the time he was 
thirty he was internationally known as the leader of 
Cubism, and his quick rise may have made him im- 
pertinent. His mother may have sensed the dangers 
lurking in his facile virtuosity: "I think you are capable 
of anything," she told him upon learning that he had 



taken up writing. "If you were to teil me one day that 
you had read Mass, I would believe you." 

His fellow-Cubist, Braque, compared Picasso's man- 
ner of painting to "drinking petrol in the hope of 
spitting fire." Picasso played with fire without being 
burned, but by so doing, he contributed to the confu- 
sion of the 1970s, to the prevailing make-believe, to 
art's near-suicide. From his famously rnnreited obser- 
vations, such as, "You should be able to pick up a 
piece of wood and find you have a bird in your band," 
there is only a short Step to the "art" of a Bruce 
Nauman which, as a New York Times critic put it 
crisply, rejects the customary gratifications of visual art 
and reduces aesthetic experience to "a minuscule mar- 
gin of ratiocination." 

To hold Picasso responsible for all the sins committed 
in his name is unjust. He may deserve some blame for 
having seduced, through his example, bright young 
men and women of his grandchildren's generation into 
indulging in a partly pathological, partly infantile fas- 
cination with new, untried techniques, with reckless 
experimentation for experimentation's sake. But it was 
also he who warned, "There is no abstract art." His 
work, with all its peaks and Valleys, reveals his great re- 
spect for many masters of the past — despite the revolu- 
tionary trend in his nature, Picasso did not start ex 
nihilo, but always remained aware of the classical in 
which he was rooted. 



The Old Master he most revered and whose direct 
influence can be seen in many of his works was El 
Greco, who rebelled against the Naturalism of the 
Cinquecento by deliberately elongating and "distort- 
ing" faces and figures, and by inventing glowing and 
orgiastic colors. In Vision of the Apocalypse there is as 
much ecstasy and anguish as there is in Guernica. To 
El Greco's questions, there was one ready answer: 
Christ. For Picasso there was such a multiplicity of 
possible Solutions that in actuality there was no Solution. 
Each of his works is another step, or stab, into the Big 
Unknown. What Picasso gave us, one of his biog- 
raphers sagely remarked, was "answers that ask 
questions." 

Perhaps we expected too much from the king, who 
astonished us by his vast reservoir of vitality, unfalter- 
ing energy, and unmatched regenerative power. He was 
no God, although he bequeathed to us the myth of 
the artist as a superman. More importantly, he has 
left US enough works from which fifty, or even a hun- 
dred, might be selected to "ease the pain of a tooth- 
ache" for a while. To those who will view his work 
in the year 2000 he will no longer be "7^ mystere" 
or "la legende" as he is for us today. But they will be 
astute enough to admire the phenomenon — the pro- 
tracted, dramatic, forward thrust of a passionate tem- 
perament, that puzzling combination of self-destruc- 
tion and constant rebirth, that never-finished process 
of the breaking-up and then marvelous reassembly of 
the World of Man. ü 



THE PROGRESSIVE 



lA.-., 



/ 



-t 



48 



/ 



/ 




lETTERS 



Vietnam Reconstruction 

In response to Morton Kondracke's editori- 
al, "Aid for Reconstruction," in the April 
issue, I agree that the issue of reconstruc- 
tion aid for Vietnam has magnetized more 
general political tensions and distracted 
from the human suffering of the people of 
Indochina. 

I believe that since the massive destruc- 
tion which vve rained on Indochina was 
caused by war, reconstruction aid— if any 
— should be considered as a cost of war and 
taken out of the defense budget. But 
the Administration has not come around 
to that point of view— at least, not yet. 

Secretary of Defense Richardson said on 
March 5 that if the Vietnam cease-fire is 
"fully observed," some of the $2.9 billion in 
the Pentagon budget for Southeast Asia 
could be saved and diverted, with Congres- 
sional approval, to economic aid. Of this 
figure, $1.9 billion is earmarked for mil- 
itary aid to South Vietnam, Laos, and 
Cambodia, and $1 billion for U.S. forces in 
Southeast Asia. Secretary Richardson 
added that if more than "a low level of 
hostilities" continued, there would be no 
savings in the $2.9 billion figure. 

Frankly, I am not very optimistic about 
either the implementation of the cease-fire 
or the Pentagon's assessment of our military 
needs in the area. Hopefully, painfully, 
slowly, we will have peace of one kind er 
another. But if Pentagon war-planners are 
offering to pay for refugee relief at the 
present time, I haven't heard about it. 
The other source named by Kondracke 
— Security Supporting Assistance— is more 
seriously misrepresented. Specifically, his 
Statement that the Security Supporting As- 
sistance Program has provided "economic 
assistance" to our allies in the past is 
misleading. The program is part and par- 
cel of military-related aid, not economic 
assistance. Its primary purpose is to en- 
able selected allies to purchase weapons, 
and it is accordingly classified by AID as 
a "security program." 

My more general criticism is that the 

tone of the editorial is far too simplistic. 

To explain the behavior of what he 




chooses to call "antiwar liberals," Kon- 
dracke comes up with nothing more orig- 
inal than the tired, old "seil out" theory. 
It does not seem to occur to him that some 
of US — "liberals" and "conseivatives" alike 
— in the Senate are taking a second look at 
aid partly because of its entangling political 
ramifications abroad, 

Direct aid for refugee resettlement is one 
thing, but administrative support, police 
training, and other items traditionally in- 
cluded in our aid programs seem to do lit- 
tle but shore up dictatorships like Thieu's. 
But the editorial assumes that aid is auto- 
matically "good," and that an attempt to 
set our priorities in order before plunging 
into a multi-billion-dollar aid program is 
"bad." 

In my opinion, Kondracke should think 
through his goals for Indochina and spell 
out the role for U.S. aid more precisely 
and realistically. 

Alan Cranston 

Senator from California 

Washington, B.C. 



Nixon's Vietnam Aid Ploy 

Morton Kondracke does Senator J. W. 
Fulbright, at least, a serious injustice when 
he imputes hypocrisy, irony, and shame to 
certain antiwar liberals who join the ex- 
treme Right in opposing the Nixon propos- 
al for aid to North Vietnam. 

Kondracke concedes that Fulbright is 
correct about charmeling such aid via 
multinational Channels, but does not dis- 
close the slightest grasp of the deeper, 
underlying, clearly implicit reason, over 
and above the principle, which is the Ful- 
bright perception that the Nixon scheme 



is not for rompassionate reasons at all. 

Nixon conditions and priorities for aid 
to North Vietnam would be mainly a ploy, 
lypically Nixonian, to buy off Hanoi from' 
destroying the Thieu and the Lon Nol 
governments. 

It seems clear that it is Kondracke who 
is unaware of the history and the facts 
and the Nixon character, or eise is delib- 
erately promoting partisan ideoiogy at the 
cusi Ol sacrificing the reputations for honor 
and sinccrity of men like Fulbright, 
Church, Cranston, and McGovem, to sup- 
port the program of probably the least 
compassionate, honest, sincere, and trust- 
worthy President in U.S. history. 

The Progressive will remain high on my 
list, if only because of its general excel- 
lence— editorials like "The New Morality" 
and füll treatment of the brilliant, gutsy 
Herbert Denenberg's successes in the in- 
surance and health jungles of America, in 
the May issue. But my admiration and un- 
qualified confidence have had a severe 
jolt from which recovery may be rather 
slow. Your public apology to Senator Ful- 
bright, at least, would help. 

Reuben Thomas 
Fayetteville, Arkansas 



Commends Kondracke 

I commend Morton Kondracke's editorial, 
"Aid for Reconstruction," in your April 
issue for its courageous and rightfully hu- 
manitarian position. I cannot agree with 
you more; there must be a reconstruction 
program for Indochina undertaken by the 
United States. 

The flimsy excuses used by many, if not 
all of the antiwar Senators who spoke out 
so strongly and courageously against the 
Indochina war are ridiculous and absurd. 
As Kondracke so deftly pointed out, the 
simplest and most direct way to obtain 
money for reconstruction is to make a 
Wholesale cut in the monstrous and infla- 
tionary Department of Defense budget. 

On the other hand, I agree wholeheart- 
edly with the same antiwar Senators who 
say we must not cut our social programs 
funding to pay for reconstruction. 

Michael Carrick 
Omaha, Nebraska 



Kondracke Comments 

There was neither an accusation of selling 
out nor an attempt at reputation-assassina- 
tion in my editorial. It was a lament that 
liberals were on the verge of joining in the 
abandonment of the victims of American 



JUNE 1973 



_y>'»l 



Tlie Restless Centun: Paintinj» in Brit- 
äin 1800-1900, by William Gaunl, 171 
plalcs (including 24 pp. in color). 255 
pp.. 11': X 10. Phaidon Press, dist. by 
Praeger Publishers. $25 
Sickert: The Painter and His Circle, by 
Marjorie Lillic. 176 pp., 10 x 6':. a few 

:ii.. -" :.- 1- 1 . ,1. /...i- :* - vi — -. r» r»....i- 

iiiu>. iii i;iav.N/ Wime, iNuycs ritss, raiK 

Ridgc. N.J., $14 

Cjcrtrude Stein spoke for many w hen she 
asserted ihat all important painting in 
tlie 19ih Century was done by French- 
men. Yet in recent years a tremendous 
elVort has been niade to correct this mis- 
conception. at least as tar as Britain is 
concerned. While no one has disputed 
the iienius of Constable and Turner, w ho 
dominated English painting in the early 
years of the period under review. all but 
hve or six oi' the more than 90 artists as- 
sembled here by Mr. Gaunt are un- 
known outside Britain to anyone but a 
specialist. Who has heard of John Henry 
F. Baeon. CJeorge Cliambers. Thomas 
Oeswick. or Riehard Dadd? Yet Baeon's 
,1 Wi'iJiIini^ Xfornlni^ is a eharming, 
skillfully exeeuted genre pieture; C ham- 
bers' Si. \fichüe/\s Mannt superblv Com- 
bines a dramatic seascape with a roman- 
tic view o\' the loftv pyramidal Island off 
Cornwall; and Dadd's Fairv helleres 
Musterst rokc is an amazing composilit)n, 
lilled with startlini: details. 

These and most of the others, who fol- 
low in alphabetical order. are not neces- 
sarily men of genius. Still, the book of- 
fers much \isual pleasure and a great 
deal o{ fascinating variety as we move 
from the earliest anlicipations o[' Ro- 
manticism via the Pre-Raphaelites to the 
sophisticated decadence of the final 
years of the Victorian era. It is inter- 
esting, by the way. that some o( the 
painters were not natives of the British 
Isles: Alma-ladema. Fusel i. Louther- 
bourg. Sickert. Tissot. and the Ameri- 
cans Sargent and Whistler. Yet ihey were 
all fully absorbed by and integrated into 
the cosmopolitan atmosphere of Lon- 
don. The illustrations are well chosen 
and the text an introduction, notes on 
the plates. ihumbnail biographies— is 
quite adecjuate. 

The Munich-born Sickert is hailed as 
one who "sought to re-establish the links 
between Fngland and France" and 
whose renderingsof music-hall perform- 



ers and audiences are "unique in their 
pictorial savor," as they preserve the 
mood o{^ the 1890s. Sickert is also the 
subject o\' a biography. written by a 
woman artist who met him in 1917 and 
remained his friend until his death in 
1942. Instead o{ an objective historical 
study, we are given a very personal book 
of memoirs. recaliing him as a dedicaled 
teacher. as a iienerous host to his manv 
admirers. and as an unusual person en- 
dowed with sincerity, integrity. and de- 
lighlful wit. He was not sulViciently ap- 
preciated during his lifetime: "Fngland 
was not yet readv for him. Today, he is 
considered by most experts to be the 
•ireatest linülish artist since Turner. '" 

All illustrations are in black and white, 
hence they do not do justice to a painter 
who made excellent use o\' lighl elVects 
that gleam brilliantly in canvases of gen- 
erally sombre and restrained coloration. 
They nonetheless whel our appetite for a 
book that will reproduce Sickert's finest 
works in lull and faithful color. \a\ . 



American Artist 





ReginalJ Marsh's Twentv Cent Movie. /9.?6, coUeciion IVhilnev Museum of American An, 
New York: an illusiraüon froni Reginald Marsh, hv Uovä Goodrich, puhlished hv Ahrams. 



Reginald Marsh, by Llovd Goodrich. 
3U7 pp.. 15 \ 13. 239 illus'. (85 platcs in 
color). Harrv N. Abrams. $50 

Almost 20 vcars havc passed since thc 
unlimclv death o\' Rcüinald Marsh, onc 
o\' thc most prolitic paintcrs and print- 



makersof hisera. Until thc arrival of this 
ncw. vcry large. and lavi.shly illustratcd 
volumc. thc litcraturc aboul him. apart 
(Vom articlcs in pcriodicals. was limited 
to thc slim cataloiz ofthc mcmorial cxhi- 
bition at thc Whitney Museum of Amer- 
ican Art in 1955. ( F^art of its icxt, also by 



Lloyd (ioodrich, has becn incorporatcd 
in thc prcscnt book.) March dicd at a 
time vvhen thc vogue loi Abstract Ex- 
prcssionism had rcachcd ils climax and 
whcn works by artists like him. vv ho dc- 
lightcd in depicting thc human ligurc 
with skills Icarned trom thc Old Masters. 
werc considered highly obsolete in somc 
quarters. 

But now ihe pendulum has swung 
back, and Marsh is givcn his füll duc 
again. He was neither a painterlv genius 
nor a great intellcct. and Mr. Goodrich 
makes no extravagant claims for him. 
But he righlly hails him as a gifted ob- 
servcr and recordcr of thc urban scenc, 
who cheerfully concentrated on thc ''raw 

aCtliajitlCS üfiu "VüigaiitiCN iiialoilicis 

scorned. Like thc Soyer brolhcrs. but 
with greatcr vitalitv and viuor, he drew 
and painlcd the cxcilemcnt of teeming 
city life. Marsh loved to depict big 
crowds at work and. espccially. at play, 
with emphasis on movement and in 
compositions as complex and exuberant 
as some o\^ the scenes painted in the Ba- 
roque .\^c, though the pcople he was in- 
tercsted in were not sophisticatcd aristo- 
crats. but .simple shopgirls and working 
mcn. and cven dcrclicts. 

Goodrich notes that in 1929 Marsh 
made a change in Icchnique that was to 
shapc the direction his work was to take: 
he switchcd (Vom oil to egg yolk me- 
dium. He quotes thc artist. "It opcned up 

C ontinucd overleaj 



The lexl is highly rcadable. For fur- 
I "c Kaiciüoscopic nictures ir,. 

A.W . 






an ordcrly fashion of working. Hc also 
suggests ihat you look for neu matcrials. 
on which manuraclurers normally are 
glad to turnish intbrniation. Lislsof Brit- 
ish and U.S. suppliers round oul this vcry 
sound book-but don't cxpcct lo master 
the Fiberglas leehinque withoul a seri- 
ouseH'ort. k.j.. 

The Blue Rider, by Hans Konrad Roe- 
thel, 174 pages. 1 1 'x 8':. 77 eolor and 23 
black/white illus.. Praeger. $17.50 

« nor lo VVuilu W'ai i, associaiions of 
progressive artists often chose symbolic 
nanies for their groups, sueh as The 
Wanderers in Tsarist Russia, The Seces- 
sion in Vienna. The Bridge in Dresden. 
Der Blaue Heiler (The Blue Rider). how- 
ever. got its name simply because its iwo 
initiators, Vasily Kandinsky and Franz 
Marc, loved blue. and Marc liked hor.ses. 
while Kandinsky liked riders. This 
rather international Blue Rider as.soci- 
ation was formed at Munich in 1911 
when several artists with unorthodox 
views and practices seceded from the 
New Artists As.sociation that. in their 
opinion. had become stale and sterile, 
The Blue Rider came to an end with the 
outbreak of World War I: Vladimir von 
Bechtejert' joined the Russian Army; 
Alexej von Javlensky left for Switzer- 
land; Kandinsky returned to his native 
countr). where he later served for a 
while as a functionary o\' the Soviets; 



Paul Klee, August Macke, and Marc 
were soldiers in the German Army. (The 
last two died in action on the Western 
Front.) Even those not alfected by the 
Warscattered in all directions. 

Still, in its three brief years of exist- 
ence, The Blue Rider w hose story is 
told here by the former director of Mu- 
nich's Municipal Gallery at the Len- 
bachhaus, owner of some of the finest 
pictures by members of the association- 
did a great deal to revolutionize German 
an and to bnng it within the mainstream 
of European art. These Expression ists, 
through group shows and an almanac, 
focussed attention on what Kandinsky 
called "the Spiritual in art." Though the 
20-odd men and women w ho joined the 
movement did not develop a particular 
"Blue Rider" style, they had, nonethe- 
le.ss, much in common, especially the re- 
jection of all materialistic content of 
painting and. on the positive side, 
profound interests in the works of such 
anti-academic artists as El Greco and 
Cezanne. in the drawings of children. 
and in the folk art of all nations. 

The present book consists of an inlro- 
ductory texl by Dr. Roethel; a letter 
from Kandinsky to the critic Paul Wesl- 
heim. written in 1930 and giving an ac- 
count of the Blue Rider days in pre- 
World War I Munich; reproductions of 
drawings. prints. paintings. and one 
sculpture (Two Horses. a bronze by 



Marc), juxtaposed by quotations from 
the artists and sympathetic critics; and 
brief biographies of the artists. plus list- 
mgsof their works in the Municipal Gal- 
lery. (The book is actually an expanded 
and revised Version of the Gallery \s most 
recent Blue Rider catalog.) 

The Blue Rider a.s.sociation played an 
important role not only in the history of 
modern German art. but in the develop- 
ment of all modern art. It went far be- 
yond any iieoüranhic or n;.fi.^r..,i u,^^ 
ders. for its members included many 
non-Germans. among them the Ameri- 
can Albert Bloch, and it invited to partic- 
ipate in iis shows Ecole de Paris artists 
such as Pica.s.so. Deram. Rouault, 
Vlaminck, Braque. and Van Dongen. It 
repudiated Impressionism. which had 
become acceptable to all collectors after 
having lost all its initial force and vi- 
tality as movement. The Blue Rider. fi- 
nally. extended its interest beyond the 
borders of the visual arts to inc'lude mu- 
sic-one of the Blue Rider painters. Ar- 
nold Schoenberg. became world-famous 
as a composer- and the stane. 

The bulk of the works illustrated are 
by Kandinsky. (The Blue Rider pamter 
Gabriele Muenter. who was his compan- 
ion for 14 years, donated to the Gallery 
all of his works in her po.ssession, includ- 
ing many notebooks.) Many of his pic- 
tures now in the Municipal Gallery 
come from the colleciions of the Koehler 



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tures and carvings to our 1 Ith show, world s 
largest, which grossed over $72,000 in ar( 
sales for 1973. Kxhibii alongside thc top 
western artisfs from across Ihe ISA. Price 
ränge, $25 to $2,000. Ueadlinc for inforroa 
tion, Nov. 30, 1973. 

Collectors . . . we exhibited over 1,300 
paintings and art objccis in the 1973 show 
& sale. All art for sale. See and buy at Ibis 
major attraetion at the San Antonio Stock 
Show & Rodeo. 

* FEBR11ARY8-17, 1974 * 

For füll inlormalion, wrilo Show Dirccior, Alamo 
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family in Berlin. The book makes acces- 
sibie to US. in good reproductions. some 
ot^ the early. not completely abslract 
Kandinskys; romantic renderings. in 
dream-like colors. ot^a variety of animals 
by Marc; quietsimplified Bavarian land- 
scapes, interiors and flower pieces by Ms. 
Muenter; and other treasures not suf- 
ticiently known outside Germany. a.w . 

Finding One's Way with Clay. by Paulus 
Berensohn. 160 pp.. 1 1^4 x 9. richiv illus- 
trated in b/w. 8 pp. in color. Simon and 
Schuster. $9.95 

This large-sized volume is concerned 
with techniques arising out ot individual 
need and personality. lt\s a combination 
of one man's search for artistic and spiri- 
tual growth. a craftsman's diary of Obser- 
vation and practice. and a well illustrated 
and documented book on making pot- 
tery by the pinch method. Hundreds 
of clear. step-by-step photographs show 
every detail of making bowls. bottles. 
symmetrical and asynimetrical ves.sefs. 
"yarn" pots. sculptural pieces. A long sec- 
tion deals with sawdusl tirinü. a Variation 
of primitive technique thal can be per- 
formed in your backyard or with a bon- 
fire on a beach. 

The aulhor ofl'ers exercises for the 
imagination. An extensive part is de- 
voted to the color of clay, the adding of 
color to wet clay. and the blending of 
clays of various hues. Charts, diagrams. 
blending formulas. inlays. wedging and 
applique work show the immense ränge 
of simple pottery with the help of color 
combinalions oflen forgotten or left un- 
noticed bv potters. 

Making pottery isn't merely a way of 
expressing yourself in your own handi- 
work; it's also a sort of "healing play." 
There's .something primordial in il and. 
at the same time. it is as sophisticated as 
you may want it to be. 

Some of the pieces remind one of 
Japanese raku in their natural, organic 
forms. their great variety. and a totatiack 
of slick commcrcial tinish. The photo- 
graphs. made by True Kelly, are quite 
inspiring. as the reader and even the cas- 
ual onlooker has the feeiing that all this 
work is perfectly natural: all this can 
come out of human hands and human 
imagination as easily as seed grows into 
plant or flower from soil. The color re- 
productions are offen poetic. r.i . 

Francis Bacon. by John Russell. 242 pp.. 
11 X 8. 24 color plates. 87 black /white. 
New York (Graphic Society. Greenwich. 
Conn.. 516.50. 

Of all painters of his generation- he was 
born in 1909 in Dublin, yet of English 
parents Bacon is perhaps the most 
pu/.zling. His pictures. with their terrify- 
ing power to present the extraordinary. 
the dark side of reality. have challenged 
the critics. Mr. Russell is the latest to at- 
tempt to understand the working of this 
most elusive artist's complex imagina- 



tion. He admits thal Bacon's paintings, 
inspired by Old Masters, by movies, by 
contemporary events. are open to many 
interpretations. In all likelihood. no- 
body. not even the painter himself, can 
fathom all the mysteries of these often 
very large and generally disturbing oils 
that might loosely be linked to Surreal- 
ism. 

Russell teils us all he knows about this 
London-based quiet and withdrawn art- 
..,v ..,.v/ »-v/iiiiiiuiin.aic?> Wim nie uuisiue 
World only through his paintings. Ba- 
con's few triends are mainly colleagues 
like Frank Auerbach. Lucien Freud, and 
Graham Sutherland. and he has become 
one of the best known and most highly 
respected artists of the post-war period 
despite such unattractive subject matter 
as carcasses and studies of ungainly male 
nudes and the nighmarish quali'ties of 
virtually all his canvases (including 
many weird versions of Pope Innoceni X 
by Velasquez). 

Though self-taught. he is a marvelous 
manipulatorof rieh pigment. and hisdis- 
tortions and exaggerations create apt ve- 
hicles for the painter's anguished visions 
o'( the World. Bacon. who 'Mives very 
much between four walls." has suflered 
none of the misfortunes of Poe or Dos- 
toevski. 19th Century novelists to whom 
he has becn compared. Yet his pictures. 
well reproduced in the book. leave no 
one cold. untouched. They are bound to 
evoke catharsis in the spectator who. af^- 
ter exposure to them. may want to check 
his own impressions with those of the as- 
tuteand learned Mr. Russell. a.w./ 

Mary Cassatt, Oils and Pasteis, by E. 

John Bullard. 88 pp.. lO'a x 1 1. chronol- 
ogy. bibliography. index. 32 full-page 
color plates. Walson-Ciuptill. S 17.50 

A füll volume of paintings and pastels by 
Mary Cassatt. published in Cooperation 
with the National (iallery of Art. this 
book includes some never before printed 
in color and a few quotes fYom her corre- 
spondence. (as well as talk from Pisarro 
and Degas) in an introductory critical bi- 
og raphy. 

Mary Cassatt took influence from 
Courbet. Manet. and Degas. Degas 
found her work "'genuine." saw "some- 
one who feels as I do." and invited her to 
exhibit with the Impressionists. whom she 
always calied "the Independents." Hav- 
ing become friends with Degas. she 
picked up Conventions with him from 
photographs and Japanese prints. Both 
used "the assymetrical arrangement of a 
composition. often depicting a subject 
from an angle or viewed f rom above; the 
cutting of objects by the edge of the 
frame: the emphasis on a form's Silhou- 
ette; and contrasting areas of pattern;" 
also snapshot-like cropping of the com- 
position. the casual pose of a figure. and 
the distortion of perspective that makes 
foreground objects appear dispropor- 
tionately larger. Limiting themselves to 



58 



American Artist 



JEWISH ( HRONKi.E LITKRARY Sl rPLEMKNT June 1 1978 



JHWISII CimOMCLE LITERARV Sl ITLEMI NT June 1 1973 




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ANNA TICHO: 

greatness to smallness 



ALFRED WERNER 




"As soon OS I Started to look at yoar 
drawings I feit that I was in the presence 
of viasier draughtsmati. With such a 
viodest medium as a pencil you succccd 
in creating the atynosphere and the 
light oj your beloved ccnintry. Precisebj 
your country^ because icithont love you 
could not h^Lve done it despite your 
mäste ry" 

Jacques Lipchitz, in a letter lo Mrs Tit-lio. 

For an artist, it is easier these days 
to attract attention to hiniself il iiis work 
is physically large and, even more so, if 
he employs stridently loud "psyiliedelic" 
(olours. But the Israeli artist, Anna 
Ticho, who is dose to eighly, in her long 
tarccr has never sought to be ronspic- 
iioiis either as an artist or as a person. 
Her ( reations — in graphite poncil, char- 
< oal, Indian ink, or watercoloiirs — are 
ronfined to sheets of paper, and niany 
of them are quite small. 

Yet within even the tiniest are lo be 
i'oiind microcosms, epitomised irpresenl- 
ations of the universe. The famoiis .Sw iss 
artist, Paul Klee, once spoke of Iiis uwn 
'Andacht zum Kleinen," devot ion to 
sniall things, and Mrs. Tit ho lould so 
characterise her own work. 

Among the world's outstanding 

draughtsmen tcJday, she is one of the 

dozen most highly appreciated by lon- 

noisseurs. She has had one-man shows at 

several great museums in the Nether- 

ands and in the United States; last yoar, 

he Ashmolean Museum at Oxlord was 

the first British museum to pay honour 

to "the quality of her work, its slrength 

and its deep love of the soil and sand 

and flowers and roots of Israel,' to quote 

rom the foreword to the exhibition 

catalogue. 

In Israel — to which she rame in 1912, 
when the territory was still a ba( kward 
province of the Ottoman Empire her 
rank among the country's foromost prar- 
titioners of the arts has long boen 
acknovvledged. In recent years, sh<^ has 
bcen showered with niuch deserved 
lionours— one-man shows in Israels four 
major museums, as well as the art prize 
of Jerusalem (which conferred upon her 
the frcedom of the city!). 

The list of the more important i ol- 
le( tions, public or private, in whi( h siie 
is represented, is long, but the true 
signifieanee of her work is more relevant 
han its geographic distribulion. At least 
one repository of her drawings niight be 
mentioned here, though — Viennas 
venerable Albertina. 

For it was there, in her \ouih. that 
she saw the world's finost DtK^fT . .ilong 
with many o-ther Old Mastei^irawings. 



ner u 



She sludied nrivatcly. for it was 
to take another decade until Viennas 
Aeademy of Fijie Arts wa.s ready to 
admit wonien sludenfs.) 

Indeed, her earlicst sketehes done in 
Palestine reveal that, in her twenties. 
she was very mueh under the impaet of 
Renaissance ae.sthetics that stressed 
Nature as the sole source of Inspiration, 
and even demanded from the artist the 
most exact representalion of things seen. 
At firs-t she drewcontours a trifle too pre- 
risely, too meticulou.sly. She was still too 
limid to omit unnecessary details, to 
emphasise, to exaggerate and even — 
without becoming surrealistic — to invent. 

But she matured and progre.ssed. In 
the narrow dark lanes of the Old City 
she sought out the faces of simple folk: 
Arab beggars, Yemenite workers, elderly 
Jewish molhers from Kurdistan. She 
found them in front of ancient houses 
of worship, in bazaars and markets. With 
the penetrating cyes of an architect, she 
examincd their souls; skin, bones and 
muscles were the structural Clements, 
but the morlar was hope and fear, long- 
Jng and joy, life and death. For her, 
each line was a meaningful ciphcr on a 
map written by Fate with indelible ink; 
for jier, the ugliness of a wrelched 
beggar was füll of bcauty, as it was to 
Rembrandt. 

It is regrettable that her portraits and 
figure studies are now rarely on view. 
Though none of them was in the Ash- 
molean Museum show, Sir Philip Hendy 
— eurrently an adviser to the Israel 
Museum in Jerusalem — in the intro- 
duition to the catalogue included his 
comments on them: 

"There is a drawing of her husband 
[the late Dr Abraham Ti( ho, a relebratcd 
op)^thalmologist I which I would dare 
compare with one of Rembrandt's for its 
weight of concentrated thought. None of 
the old men and women whom she 
picked up is shown without compassion; 
but thoy are not softencd or explained 
by any hint of their .surroundings. They 
have spent their lives in patiently model- 
ling for the rugged carver Time.'' 

Gradually, Mrs Ticho abandoned the 
portrayal of humans, as she turned more 
and more to landscape. Her manner, too, 
changed in the course of time. l'ncon- 
sciously, she tried lo bestow upon nature 
what nature lacks: the mind and soul 
of man. What she has been giving us 
Increasingly is poelic evorations rather 
than Photographie duplications of 
nature. 

She becanie an Expressionist— yet one. 
In mann«-'!- and atlitude closer to the 
17thcen'Airy Dutch nasler, Hercules 



Seghers, than to the Expressionisten of 
Central Europe, of her own generalion. 
Seghers, even greater as an etrher than 
as a painter, rreafed landscapes that 
have a mystical air about them, as ex- 
pre.ssions of his awe and v onder at 
nature's sublimity. 

Anna Ticho is a 20th Century Seghers! 
One recurrent sujct in the work of her 
middle years was the road winding to 
the top of the hill on which rises Jeru- 
salem, that mystical combination of 
citadel and city, wedded to the ground, 
yet Piercing the sky with its towers. 
Another theme was the twisted olive 
tree, that frugal form whi(h grows 
astonishingly well in the stony and rough 
soil along the approaches to Israels 
capital, its giiarled branches suggesting 
the outstretched arms of a man in 
prayer. 

But even the earlicst land.scapes were 
never the precisely executed birds eye 
vievvs of Jerusalem and other towns that 
the naive patrons wantcd to acquaint 
thcmsehes with the toi)ography of the 
Iloly Land. Alter all, for Mrs Ticho, the 
hills and Valleys that unfold before her 
are simply tlie Stimuli inducing her to 
pick up her tool to slarl on a trip» of her 
own, a journey of the mind, which can 
ponetraie reality deeper than the sharp- 
cst lens. 

Cood artist that she is, she never 
surrendered to the whims of nature. 
Gradually, she became more and more 
abstract — without ever becoming non- 
representational, aware, as she has 
always been, that the monochrome draw- 
ing is the most subjective endeavour in 
all the Visual arts. The Clements of her 
draughtsmanship are strokcs and marks 
that do not copy 'reality,'' but are 
symbolic shorthand notes of the invent- 
ive mind. 

Drawing is not seeing, Mrs Ticho 
argues; since one aclually never sees 
black contours. or lines separating one 
objecl from another, the artist must 
convey largely his spiritual responses to 
what his mind tries to capture, as he 
s< ans the Visual field. 

Her recent works are more "painterly," 
and also more .sombre than her early 
ones that were more linear, lighter. and 
less complex. But her aim has reniained 
Ihe .same: to represent the spirit of 
Israel rather than its likeness, to draw 
the etcrnal lands( ape rather than the 
temporal. 

In the past few years, she has done 
more watenolour studies of flowers than 
ever betöre Sir Philip Hendy felicitously 
dcscribed them as "a joining of the per- 
petual love of charaiter with a furthcr, 
joyous liberation of eye and band." 




"^alleiitine "MkclielP 



The El AI Story 

ARNOLD SHERMAN 

Whelher airhftmg persecuted commumlies or combating hi-jacking, 
Ihe role of El AI, Israels national airime, has been vtal in the hisfory 

of Israel itself. 202 pagei ttluitiattd £2 25 

The Dogs of Paviov 

DANNIE ABSE 

Dannie Abse has written a long, hard-hiltirg es^^ay to preface his 
highly praised play The Dogs of Paviov, which explores the theme 
of how far ordinary people can be made to ooey evil commands. 

128 pag(t £2.25 

The Voices of Masada 

DAVID KOSSOFF 

A vivid reconstruction, written with clarity önd grace. and no less 

admirably illustrated and mapped by Mr Kossoff' — Sunday Times. 

2ä4 pcg<j illuit'ottd £2 25 

When Jerusalem Burned 

GERARD ISRAEL & JACQUES LEBAR 

A vivid reconstruction of the d-'amatic events loading up to and 

toliowing the Roman deslruction of Jerusalem and its Temple in 

70 AD. ;92 pagei tHuitrated £2.50 

The World of Sholom Aleichem 

MAURICE SAMUEL 

Maurice Samuel takes us to the little Russian fowriiets and villages 
of the Pale of Settlement, and recreaies the folklore and memories 
that were Sholom Aleichem's living i.taterial. 334 pages £2.75 

The Blue Arabian Nights: Tales of a London 
Decade 

WOLF MANKOWITZ 

A nemorable record of a period when, as Mankowitz says, 'London 
was still a suitable Samarkand for a seif made mheritor of the long 
tradition of tellers of a thousand and one cunous tales'. 

189 pagfs [2 25 

My Old Man s a Dustman 

WOLF MANKOWITZ 

First published in 1956, and out of print tor some years, this bock 
did much to establish the reputalion of Wolf Mankowitz as a wnter 
of real originality and force. 188 paga £; 95 

Baffy: The Diaries of Blanche Dugdale 

Edited and tntroduced by N. A. ROSE 

As the niece and official biographer of Lord Balfour, and the 
confidaitte of Chaim Weizmann. Blanche Ducdale had a unique 
insight mto back:oom politics. 280 pagfi ~ .liw.uated £3 7'^ 



67 Gl. Russell Street London WCIB 3BT 




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JFWISn niROSlClH; UTfr-RARY SUPPLEMENT Juü« I I97S 



JLWISM (IIKO\Ki.J<: MrUJUJV SlPI'I.iMJ'NT -hu ^ ! 197» 



m 



I 



MEANING OFTHE 
DECLARATION 



Few pledges or statemcnls of British 
Middle Eastern polity were so thor 
oughly examined at all administrative 
levels as the Balfour Dct laration It was 
iioi ibbueu in iiasif or iigiiiiiearieuly, 
still less was it issued in ignorance o( 
the facts of Ihe case. It was made as a 
deliberale act of the British Cabinet. as 
pari of their general foreign policy and 
their war aims. As Lloyd George told 
the House of Commons on November 17, 
1930, it was a "Iruly national Ipoliry] in 
tlie sense that it represented the viewi 
of the three parties in the State " 

It had acquired international Status 
since the principal allies. Hussia, France, 
llaly and the United States, had given 
it their prior approval. Thereafter. it was 
incorporated into the Mandate of Pales 
tine which was approved by tiie Council 
of the League of Nalions on July 24, 
1922; the Mandatory Power was inade 
responsible for its implenientatioii 

To what then had the British (iovern- 
ment pledged itself? The IXn laration 
was an anibiguous document the British. 
it seenis, undertook to use their best 
endeavours to facilitate the acliievement 
of something which reniained undefined 
'ihe key phrase— "a home for the .lewish 
people" — was vague and susieptible to 
niany interpretations. 

There was no precedent lor it.s use 
Textual interpretation alone therefore 
would not be helpful. Nor is it our pur 
pose to enler into legalistic polemiis 
over ils meaning but to show how the 
Declaration was understood by the ton 
toniporary nien in public Uli', and fiar 
ticularly by those who had a band in 
slinping it. 

In Bntain, the United States and olher 
rouTitries the press and represcntative 
spokesmen used the term Jewish 
National Home inlenhanueably with 
•Jewish State,'* "Jewish Ivej)ubric" and 
"Jewish Commonwealth." and even ui 
ficrmany ofTuial circies and the i)ress in 
general took the Balfour Dec laration to 
mean a British-sponsored State for the 
.1ov\ish pef»ple. 

British statesmen encouraucd this 
belief. On Deceniber 2. nn7. at a thanks 



Professor Isaiah Friedman's important full-length 
book, "The O'-'^stion of Palestine," will soon be 
published by Routledge, Kegan & Paul. 
Tran Scripts and quotationsof Crown Copyright 
material appear by permission of the 
Controller of H.M.S.O. 



giving meeting at the London Opera 
House, Ix)rd Robert Ceeil assured his 
audienee that his Government s intention 
was that "Arabian countries should be 
for the Arabs. Armenia for the Armen- 
ians, and Judea for the Jews." Neville 
Chamberlain, in an address at Birming 
harn on October 13. 1918. spoke of "the 
new Jewish State " The Marquess of 
Crewe, in a message sent on the first 
anniversary of the Balfour Üec laration, 
expressed himself in a similar vein 

And on the second anniversary, 
General Smuts was confident that Britain 
"would redeem her pledge . . . and a 
grcat Jewish State would ultimately 
ri.se." Herbert Samuel, in a speeth on 
November 2. 1919, pointed out the dlRi 
culties involved in the 'immediale es- 
tablishment of a complete and purely 
Jewish State in Palestine." but in the 
same breath recommended that "with 
minimum of delay the tountry may 
betome a purely seif -governing Common 
wealth under the auspices of an estab- 
lished Jewish majority." 

Oflicial British doc uments. as well as 
other evidente, confirm this opinion. In 
March 1916 the Foreign OfTlce was con- 
templating a declaration of sympathy 
with Zionist aspirations to be niadc 
jointly by the AUied Powers; the formula 
penned by Hugh O'Beirne and Lord 
C'rewe eonjured up the prospe< t of even 
tual Jewrsh selt-goveriunent. Edward 



JEUilSH CHROniCLE 

BOOK AWARD 
1972-73 



The Jewish Cmronicle invites entries froui pub- 
lishers for its anrnial Book Auard worth £250 

The Award iriU be macle for the best fiction or von 
fiction book of Jewisii interest, ivritten m English, hg 
a Jewish author nonnally resident in Britain or the 
Commonwealth, and published dnring the twelve 
months eytdnig April 1, 1973. 

The judges will be David Daiches, distingwished 
critic and Professor of English at Sussex Universitif, 
T. R. Fyvel. critic, broadcaster and writcr-. a>>d 
the Editor of the Jkvvish Cjikonicle. 

The Award will be announced in the nert issne of 
the Jewish Chronicle Literary Supplement, to be 
published in Decet^iber, 1973, 



Grey. the Foreign Minister, sympathised 
with Ihe idea of a Jewish Statt, as did 
his successor A J Balfour and David 
LlovJ George, the Prime Minister from 
December 1916. 

Sir Mark Sykes. asked in Manh 1917 
about the size of the Jewish comimuiity 
that Palestine would support. replied. 
"in thirty years. one million and a half,'" 
and he agreed that "so powerfui a Com- 
munity could be self-governing " John 
Buchan, Director of Department ol 
Information, thought that the British 
Government had no objection to "a Jew- 
ish Palestine," or at any rate to the 
establishment of "a very large Jewish 
colony." though it was not desirable to 
announce publicly that "it should be 
either a sovereign Jewish State or a 
British proteetorate." 



iE5:^flB&.-MX3&i:s^r.jrit_>j:2*5a 



At the end of August 1917. wlien the 
Declaration was hanging fire, Ronald 
MacNeill, MP, who sub.sequently (in 
1922-24) serve<l as linder- See retary of 
State for Foreign Affairs, advocated the 
reconstitution of the Jewish State which 
would give refuge to four or five million 
Jews; he used the term "Jewish State ' 
synonyniously with "National Home." 

Late in November General Barter. 
assistant military attacht? in Petrograd, 
proposed making "some sort of con- 
ditional promise that in the event of a 
successful termination of War. Palestine 
would be given to the Jews. ' The 
Foreign Oflice made no objection to any 
of these Statements. It is v\orlh recalling 
that Lord Curzons Opposition to a pro- 
Zionist declaration was bast^d on the 
belief that the Government intended to 
found a Jewish State, an idea that he 
eonsider€»d imprac ticable It is however 
Balfour's Statement, at the crucial War 
Cabinet meeting on October 31. 1917. 
that should be taken as the most authori 
tative Interpretation of the meaning of 
tiie words "national home " It was: 
"some form of British, American or other 
proteetorate. under which füll facilities 
would be given to the Jews to work out 
their own salvation and to build by 
means of education. agriculture and 
industry a real centre of national culture 
and focus of national life It did not 
ncccssarily involve the early establish- 
ment of an independent Jewish State, 
which was a matter for grachial cJevelop 
mtnt in accordanie with the ordinary 
laws of political evolution." 

These words. as Lloyd George re( alled, 
"were not chailenged at the time by any 
member presenl. and there could be no 
doubl as to what the Cabinet then had 
in their minds. It was not their idea that 
a Jewish State should be set up im 
niedialely by the Peace Treaty without 
reference to the wishes of tlie majority 
of the inhabitants On the other band, 
it was contemplated that when the time 
arrived for according re|)resentalive 
institutions to Palestine. if the Jews had 
meanwhile responded to the opportunity 
alTorded them by thc> idea ot a National 
Home and had become a definile 
majority of the iidiabitants. then Pales- 
tine would th.us bei ume a Jewish Com- 
monwealth." 



There was certainly no doubt what 
was in Balfours and Lloyd George's 
minds at that time. A few weeks after 
the Declaration the latter told Colonel 
House mal ine Bruisn desire was for 
"Palestine to be given to the Zionists 
under British or . . under Amerieau 
tontrol. ' 

A "Jewish State" or Commonwealth" 
was however a matter of the distant 
future: the immediate commitment of 
the British was limited to the terms o( 
Balfoui's letter But it would be 
erroneous to assume that in 1917 the 
British Government had any interest in 
limiting the scope of the Declaration or 
to give it an anibiguous character. 

The draft submitted by Rothschild on 
July 18 was readily endorsed by Balfour 
and the Foreign Otfice; Sir Ronald 
Graham and Lord Hardinge were pre 
pared to go even furlher. at least as far 
as Cambon s statement made to Sokolow 
on June 4, whieh in (Jraham's appraisal 
was more meaninyful than Roth.sc hild's 
draft. 

The two provi.sos that Leopold Ameiy 
subsequently inserted were meant to 
overcome Opposition and make the birth 
of the declaration possible. not to 
weaken it. The vagueness of the Balfour 
Declaration was not the result of delib 
erate British policy but was of the Jews' 
own making. and. sinee the Zionists 
alone were responsible for the intro- 
duction of the term "national home." it 
may be usefui to examine how they 
understood it. 

Weizmann never eonccaled that his 
ultimate objective was a Jewish State 
However, he had no band in drafting 
the Declaration. and. during his absence 
on a mi.ssion in Gibraltar, the Political 
Committee followed more moderalo 
counsels. 

Sokolow dismissed Sacher and Side 
bothams draft proposals as too bindmg 
upon the British Government Even so, 
he did not disagree with their objedives, 
he differed only will» regard to the 
method and timing Sokolow's intention 
was first to elic it from the British "a 
general approval of Zionism." and only 
afterwards to presenl more c^oncrete 
demands on the scope of Jewish 
autonomy and Palestines future ad- 
niinistration. 



For the Zionists the Declaration was 
not a definitive document It was only 
a skeleton of principles on which flesh 
had to be urafted They .soon realised — 
and this was partic ularly true of Yechiel 
Tschlenow — that the formula was not 
satisfactory. The concept of the "national 
home" was not sufhciently intelligibh« 
and had to be replac ed by a mot e 
meaningful term. 

This they did on the eve of the Peace 
Conference In an attempt to give the 
term 'national home a more clynamic 
character and dispel .some of its am 
biguity. they submitted a draft proposal 
on November 19. 1918. slating that 
"The establishment of a National Home 
for the Jewish People . . . is understood 
to mean. that the country of Palestine 
should be pla( ed under such political, 
economic and moral conditions as will 
favour the ine rease of the Jewish popu 
lation. so that in accordance with the 
principle of democracy it may ultimately 
develop into a Jew ish Commonwealth, it 
being clearly understood | here followed 
the terms of the two provisos inserted 
into the text of the Balfour Declar 
ation |." 

The Americ an Jewish Congress, which 
met in Philadelphia on December 17, 
1918, ado[)ted a similar resolutiori, as did 
congresses in Palestine, Austria Hungary, 
f*oland. the l'kraine. South Africa and 
in other parts of the woild, representing 
millions of Jews 

Even Achad Haam. the moderate 
philosopher, urjjed that Great Britain in 
ils capacity ol Trustee, "shal> place the 




THE NEW JERUSALEM 




l)a\id Best 



An architectural 
adventure 



DAVID PATTERSON 




mg 



Born in Liverpool in 1928, and trained 
at Manchester Cniversity, David Best 
arrived in Israel immediately lollowing 
his graduation in 1951 delermined to 
devote his talents to the complex and 
demandini; problems of architecture and 
town-planning in tlie new State. Some 
twenty years later, the town of Arad, the 
tourist resort of Caesarea, kibbutzim 
and moshavim in Galilee and the (iolan 
lleights. schools and public buildings 
throufihout the country, an entire neigli- 
bourhood on the hilli» of Armon Hana 
ziv (the High Commissioner's Residencc' 
in Jerusalem and a large section of tlio 
Jewi.sh Quarter of the Old City, bear wil 
ness to his striking success. 

A disciple of Richard Kaufman. one of 
the grcat pionecrs of urban plannini; 
and rural settlcment who designed the 
famous moshav of Nahalal, the H**brew 
l'niversity on Mount Scopus and the 
Rehavia district of Jerusalem during 
the Mandate period. and of the English 
architect James Cubitt whose achievc- 
ments in Kumasi and Burma won re 
nown, the young architect worked with 
Professor Ilorowitz on the master plan 
ot Tel Aviv before being appointed first 
a.ssistant to Arthur Glikson. the chict 
planning oflicer of the Ministry of IIous 
in 19Ö5. 

This was the period when the transit 
camps i Maabarot), hastily erected to 
sheller the massive Jewish immigration 
from Furope and the Arab countries. 
were being replaced by new towns. Tlu- 
work was highly responsible. of basu 
importance and coimtry-wide and aftcr 
four years of pcnetrating if hectic ex 
pericnce Best decided to set up in pri 
vate practice to develop his own ap 
prctac h to urban environment. 

Situc 1958 he has been con.stantly en 
gagcd in romplex and dilficult plannin;^ 
picOec ts such as the design of a proto 
type neighbourhood at Arad. A housiim 
(oinph'N designed to .shield play-areas 
and ^iirdens from the desert winds and 
dust. and give shade from the fiercc 
Neoov sim was provided with a pedes 
trian network which enables the resi- 
dents to move to and from the commer 
cial centie. children to walk to school 
and mothers to wheel their prams to 
public gardens without crossing main 
Tctads It is no wonder that Arad is con 
sidered pcrhaps the most successfui and 
happy urban de\elopment in Israel, oi 
that it serves as a model for many 
countries 

The same imaginative approac h 1e 
social needs may be found in his desiyu 
ot s< hools For the small developnieiit 
towti. tlie high .school con.stitutes a sym 
hol of Prestige of no less Import amc 
than a university for a great city. The 
dominatmg position of the high scJiool in 
l'pper Nazareth. for example. provides 
an iniiiqe for the town compaiable lo 
that ot Moimt Scopus for Jerusalem 

After the Six-Day VJar in whic h I; ■ 
servcHl in Sinai. David Best was invited 
hv ilje Ministry of Housing and the 
MiüucJuiiiiiv of Jerusalem to lake pari 




'M^i 



in the exciting tasks of rebuildina the 
Jewish Quarter of the Old City and 
designing new neighbourhoods on the 
Piastern Hills. The central site in tlie 
Jewish Quarler allocated him for the de 
sign of liousing. shops and edu( ational 
facilities to replace the buildings des 
troyed during the Jordanian occ upatic»n 
was c-onsidercHl an archaeologic al trea 
sure. and Professor Avigad had already 
discovered a small porlion of an anc ient 
wall dating from the Second Teinple 
period. 

Subsequent excavation revealed the 
foundations of the wall, seven melrc^ 
w ide. transversing the entire site' Ratlie: 
than bury this interesting find in the 
baseinent of the new buildings he de 
cided to niake the wall a central fealure 
of his composition, standing in a sunken 
arihawlogical garden. The neu build 
ings rising along its length define the 
Space where the great wall once ro.se to 
enclo.se the ancient city. This admirabl> 
simple Solution to a complex architec- 
tural Problem is primarily an exerc ise in 
restraint. respecting the integrity of an 
ancient site white remaining faithful tu 
the present. 

Tlie Southern slopes of the Armon 
Hana/iv will house a neighbourhood ol 
lour thousand dwellings within the nexi 
seven years, ol which seven h und red are 
already under construction Pacing the 
Jordan rift to the east and the Judean 
desert to the south, the site itself in 
spired the urban concept A spine ol 
buildinus along the ridges reinforce the 
natural strength of the Skyline, while 
terraced houses dinging to the ( ontours 
descend to the Valley floor, where the 
recreational and sports faiililies are 
located. The Overall design has been 
guided by a searc h for histoiical <(»h 
tiniiily Kar from \ying with eac h olliei , 
the buildings form a unity. creatin^ a 



three-dimensional mosai( of liyht and 
shade. 

The project has demancied !he exact 
Ing administration of a larse team of 
engineers and planners, quite apart troni 
the need to steer a course through the 
many stages of plannin*.: permission in 
a town whose sensifivity towards nev\ 
building may well be amonc the highest 
in the world The Visual ima.Lic nuist be 
no less acceptable than the soc ial facili 
ties and the ea.se and salely ot move 
inent for residents of all aues When an 
architect is presented with an opimr- 



T«p: Kibbiit/ Gonaii. in Galilee; above. 
primary school at Arnnui ilanazi\: below 
housing ccMuplex in the new town <»f Arad 

tunity of this order. he cannot afTord to 
make a mistake 

In the Old City David Best builds with 
great respect for his predecessors, hop- 
ing that his work on the slopes of Armon 
Hanaziv vill inspire similar respect two 
centuries from now It is not enough to 
plan a district and then leave its subse 
quent fale to chance. An architect must 
try fo create the niachinery to preserve 
the form and the meaning of his vision, 
by making a physical environment 
whi' h itself becomes a part of the pro- 
cess of learninp 

In Armon Iitu.a.n Ihe lenuiikably 
fortunate di.xovery of the remains of an 
old aquaduct t raversing the site and 
entering a tunnel under tlie main rldye 
which ftirms the waters'ned betueen the 
Mediterranean and ih" Judean deserf, 
has inspired an imporianf fealiue of the 
Overall design. In Bibiital times it car 
ried water from Solomon s Pools to the 
walled city of Jerusalem 

The entire alignment has been pre 
served so that it will be possible to walk 
along its length and through the tunnel 
to emerge on the norlhern slopes and 
see the breathtaking view of the Temf^le 
Mount. This feature will endow the site 
witli an aura of history and an ima^e 
as dramalic as any city in the world. 

By grasping the importance ot hisloiy 
as an essential feature in the urban de 
\elopment of Israel, this young anhitec t 
from Liverpool has already succeeded in 
making a real contribution to the arclii 
tectura! landsc ape ol Ins acioi>!eci hoie 
hind 



:Mys, 



-.'t-ai-'i it., 'iT' - 



¥ y-'v»yy',vi' 



'i-.s^ .flWfc^i''i'^i' •;i'.v. 



Brinard Kops 
Scll/c Down Simon Katz 

"Wx- >t aiul.iloiM expiuils an- fiurv < lioii^ls fuiiMv** 
Iraiici- Kiiiu. Sniniay I ihnfopli, 

' I lik«- SiuMHi K.jI/ Ihe l»(»«»k in fa^i and funns and ne\»i 
hcatllc^-. aiul ( h.i\( a tcsidnal .sali^^fui Iiom ih»! 
Simon K.«l/ uiH iu\er seil!«- doun." 
Imi(>('I \linM*a\. itnainial Itiuis. 

*'Sfnliniciil.«l ImiI wiili (»I<ih\ of iIk old Kop^ t Inil/pah " 
I>:i\hI Hriiciliclii». l)(ii!\ liLgraftti 



tkerS» 



is. 



KUTti 



A 



UdSSR 



MOSKAU 

Staatliches Pnscbkinmuseum 
Ausstellung: tzKropäische Bildnisniakrei 
November - Deinem her i(jj2 

Bekannte Werke der Leningrader Rrcmitage 
und des Puschkin-Museums dokumentierten 
die psychologischen Absichten der europä- 
ischen Bildnismaler vom 15. bis zum 20. Jahr- 
hundert. Aus europäischen Sammlungen wur- 
den unter anderem die »Dame mit dem Herme- 
lin« von Leonardo (Krakau, Nationalmu- 
seum), das »Knabenbildnis« von Pinturicchio 
(Dresden, (Gemäldegalerie) und das »Bildnis 
des Miguel de Lardizabal« von Cioya (Prag, 
Nationalgalerie) gezeigt. 

Die Moskauer Ausstellung unterließ eine Kon- 
frontation westlicher und (istlicher Bildnis- 
vorstellungen. Statt dessen unternahm sie den 
erfolgreichen und fruchtbaren Versuch, russi- 
sche Porträts vom 17. bis zum 20. Jahrhundert 
in die gesamteuropäische Entwicklung einzu- 
gliedern. Die russischen Maler Rokotow und 
Borowikowskij überraschten durch ihre intime 
Darstellungsweisc, Fedotow unti Rjepin durch 
ihre psvchologischen Ditferenzierungen. 
Aus den russischen Provinzmuseen wurden 
auch Fachleuten nahezu unbekannte Ciemälde 
ausgestellt. Aus Smolensk stammten zwei der 
Spanischen Schule des späten 16. Jahrhunderts 
zugeschriebene (iegcnstücke, aus Kiew ein 
»Bildnis der Infantin Marguerita«, im Katalog 
als Velasquez bezeichnet, aus Lwow das 1512 
datierte Bildnis eines Astronomen von Marco 
Basaiti. 

Das Puschkin-Museum präsentierte seine Neu- 
erwerbungen: das 152X datierte »Bildnis eines 
jungen Mannes« von Bernardo Licinio (ver- 
öffentlicht in : Arte Vcneta X X I), einen nieder- 
ländischen AltarHügel »Zwei Stifter in Land- 
schaft« vom Anfang des 16. Jahrhunderts und 
ein signiertes Selbstbildnis von Zuluoga. 

l ictor Antonoiv 



USA und Kanada 



During the pre-Christmas 1972 season ((^cto- 
ber to January) there were few of the mam- 
moth shows of earlier years before stringent 
cconomy measures were imposed upon mu- 
scums, galleries and universitics. Instead, there 
were many small but highly interesting cxhibi- 
tions, usually based on the particular institu- 
tion's own holdings. While the phvsicallv largc 
shows gcncrally traveled over the countrv, the 
small ones were confined to the places where 
they originated. 



BALTIMORi:, ^L\R^'LAND 

Walters Art C aller y 

lixhibitioii: Merchahts and Mandarins: The Mn- 

f/iil hijliience of China and Liirope 

Merchants and Mandarins: The Mutual Inllii- 
encc of China and Hurope, at the VC'alters Art 
(iallery, presented the ("hinese craftsmen's 
efforts to make objects to suit l'uropean taste, 
and also the luiropean artists' adaptions of the 
Oriental wares as well as their own fanciful 
recreations of Oriental motifs, otherwise 
known as chinoiseries. Pre- 1 yth Century (^hina, 

^1- -U .,.,.- n.. --.^.w, ^,^ .^Uo W/.^C'fr,«^.-, ,,.,..-1.1 

was eager to exploit the iuiropean market. At 
the same time. European craftsmen created 
wares that demonstrate Western misconcep- 
tions of the Oriental aesthetics. In the show, 
paintings, tapestries, metalwork and lacquers 
were included, though the emphasis was on 
porcelains. A special feature was a recently 
acquired, brightly colored theatrical painting 
bv Duplessis, portraying thrcc actors, two of 
them in quasi-(, hinese dress, which cxempli- 
fies the tremendous impact of the Last-West 
trade on lairopean culture. 

Museum of Art 

Bxhibition: The Cidt of Arabia 

The (Alk of Arabia, in the same city's Museum 
of Art, dealt w ith the influence of Napolcon's 
Lgvptian campaigns on I rench civilization. 
Although Baron (iros, an ofticial painter to 
Napoleon, never visited the Middle Last, he 
could paint vivid scenes of the general's con- 



quests there by relying on campaign reports, 
Souvenirs brought back by F^rench soldiers, 
and available documentary prints. Luilike him, 
Delacroix actually knew part of the Arab 
World -North Africa, which he visited as an 
attache to a IVench diplomat, negotiating a 
treaty of friendship with the Sultan of \h)- 
rocco. Works by these two, and by Cicricault, 
(^hasscriau, Decamps and other Romanticists 
were included in this revealing show, which 
also extended to related works bv American 
and British artists. 

bi:rki:ll\\ calii orma 

ihiiversity Art Museum of Berkeley 
Exhibition: Ferdinand Modle r ( see illustration) 

The work of Ferdinand Hodler was intro- 
duced to America in a major international loan 
show that originated at the Lniversity Art 
Museum of Berkeley. Surprisinglv, his luiro- 
pean fame- which declined somewhat after 
1914 never crossed the Atlantic, and the 
artist is not represented in any major American 
museums. hi the principal essav, bv Peter Selz, 
in the substantial catalogue, it is pointed out 
that the Swiss painted a large number of self- 
portraits. They all mirror selfdoubt, echo 
inner and outer troubles. 'Fhese pictures are, 
perhaps, more meaningful to us than his laiul- 
scapes and svmbol-burdened tigure composi- 
tions. hl his tinal tive years IL)dler painted 
twcntv-three selfportraits that clearly reveal 
his intense thinking and feeling with the vigor 
and honestv of a \'an (iogh, w ho, like him, 
was born in 1H53. (('atalogue) 



Ferdinand Hodler, 
I lead of a Solcher, 
ca. 191 5-1 917. 

Chicago^ l'he .Art Institute 
of Chicago^ Helen Birch 
Bartleet Memorial. 
Bxhibition : Berkeley , 
University .\rt Museum., 
I'erdinand Flodler. 




200 



A 



Ox4 




^AfA.'^J^Jk^^ 




Iricdrich Wasmann, Porrrait of F. A. Zimmermann, pcncil, charcoal and 
chalk, hcighrcncd wirb white. Zürich^ Cnllirtion Dr. Peter Xathcui. 
E\hibitio)i: C^ambridge^ Massachusetts., Busch- Reisinger-Miiseiin/, Ccrniaii 
Master Drawings of the Xhieteenth C.eiit/iry. 



Ilduard Julius Bendemann, Porrrait of FViedrich Overbeck, Black chalk. 
Kiel, Stijtmiii Pow/f/erii. tixhihitioii: C.awhridoc, Massachusetts, B/isch- 
Rei sin{>j.'r- Museum , Cierman Master Drairini^^s ol the Xiiieteenth Century. 



CAMBRlDCJi:, MASSACHUSETTS 

Busch- Rei Singer- Museum 

Exhihitinn: Ger man Master Drawings of the 

Xhieteenth Century ( see illnstrations) 

Gcrman Master Drawings of the Ninctccnth 
Century, which opened at the Busch-Reisin- 
gcr-Museum in (Cambridge, Massachusetts, 
was Seen at New ^'ork's Metropolitan Mu- 
seum of Art, and will be traveling in the 
United States in the earlv part of 1973. This 
show ')f nearlv one hundred draw ings and 
watercolors reached from Joseph Anton Koch 
(who was actually an Austrian) to l.ovis 
Corinth. The great merit of the exhibition was 
that it did not concentrate on the five or six 
artists known to everv historian, but included 
many who are virtually and unjustlv for- 
gotten. In the catalogue, John David l'armer, 
until recently director of the Busch-Reisinger, 
concedes that there was "an academic direc- 
tion in Cerman art at the end of the Century 
which was unfortunately destined to lead onlv 
into a cul-de-sac, despite an oftenpresent great 
skill.'' But he also believes that (ierman art of 
the period deserves to be more fullv studied 
anti understood than has been done so far. 



DA^ rOX, OHIO 

Dayton Art Institute 
Exhibition: Jean-Lef»! Cieröme 

Jean-Leon Cicröme, who was not included in 
the Baltimore show, had a memoria! exhibi- 
tion entirelv to himself at the Daxton Art 
Institute which, despite the relative smallness 
of the city it serves, often presents remarkable 
shows. (leröme, who spent much time in 
ligvpt, loved to paint the world of Islam; the 
catalogue contains an essay bv Richard l>ting- 
hausen on the Middle Mastern subjects in the 
work of Cicröme (the other texts are b\ Bruce 
H. l'A'ans, who organized the show, and by 
Cierald M. Ackermann), (icröme, who be- 
came notorious for his hostility to Impres- 
sit)nism and, after his death in 1904, wasdow 11- 
graded as a sentimental and eroticist Illustra- 
tor, w as much better in his best works than is 
commonlv acknowledged. As Mr. Ackerman 
writes, some of his pictures are "triutnphs 
both of research and the imagination." (ierö- 
me's "accurate reconstructions of rhc past" 
must not be dismissed lightlv because of the 
vagaries oftaste. I'he current re-evaluation of 
much "academic" lYench art brings wirb it an 



upgrading of Cicröme and others whose pic- 
tures were "appreciated bv an audience w hich 
was scientifically-minded," but thev have also 
enough wit, poetry and skill to satisfy us 
today. 

M NX \OKK 

JXeiv Cnltiiral Center 

Exhibition: Ottoccnto Bainting in .American Col- 

lections 

\i)x\\ ccnturx Italian artists are also profiting 
from the current revisions of judgments, as 
was demonstratetl b\ the exhibition, Otto- 
cento I^ainting in American (^ollections, at the 
New ^'ork ('ultural ('enter. lor a long time it 
was thought that the Italian genius petered 
out w ith the Tiepolos and was not revixed 
until the lutiuists. l^xcept for Boldini and 
Segantini, hardlv anv Ottoccnto painters were 
mentioned in books or art history courses. 
^'ct the period from 1S04, the date of Dome- 
nico Tiepolo's death, to the first I uturist 
group manifesto in 1909 was anything but 
sterile for Itah. The Macchiaoli movement 
macchia means spot in particular involved 
manv gifted painters, among them their leader, 



20 1 



(liovaiini I attori. ^ et, as Aimic-Paulc Quinsac 
pointsour in her iiitroduction to thccataloguc, 
this i;rc)up oF rcalisric paintcrs wcrc not, as is 
ohcii claimcd, Prc-Imprcssionists: " Thcy havc 
a stron.u; scnsc of form, w hilc Imprcssionism 
dcstroxs thc form to capturc thc li.^ht." 



Wlldcnstci)! Gallery 

Exhihition: Faces from fhc World nf I Mprcssioiiis/// 

aiid Post-lnipressiouism ( scc illitstraiioii) 

Faccs from thc World of Imprcssionism and 
l^ost-Imprcssionism at New ^'ork's V\ ilden- 
stcin (iallcrx dcmonstratcd that both Monet's 
groLip and thc mcn who turncd away from 
Imprcssionism wcrc cxccllcnt portraitists and 
rigurc paintcrs, in addition to bcin<ithc w orld's 
fincst makcrs of landscapcs. Thcrc wcrc sevcral 
sclf-portraits (b\' Ba/illc, Bonnard, ("czannc, 
Cjaui^uin and Manct) in thc show , as well as 
thc faccs of somc important pcrsonalitics con- 
nected with thc art world, such as thc no\eIist 
limile Zola, thc coliector V^ictor ("hocquet, thc 
critic Antonin IVoust, and tlie dcalcr Am- 
broisc Vollard. Photographv liberated thc 
artists from being rec|uiretl to depict thc sitters 
with tinicky accuracv, and, as Anne Poulet 
w rites in her introduction to the cataloguc, 
"a far more personal and excitint^ portraiture 
cmcrjicd, one w hich expresses the personalitv 
ot the artist as much as that of his subject." 

Alfrt'd W'cn/cr 

MON'l'RI-AL, CANADA 

J /je Man f real Muse um of Fnie Ar/s 
A/tsstellinio: Masterpieces of Far Fast cm Art 
2. Februar - S. . \pril 

Ausgestellt sind 150 ausgesuchte Objekte chi- 
nesischer Kunst aus der hervorragenden 
Sammlung des Royal Ontario Museum in 
Toronto und 102 japanische Kimstwcrkc aus 
der Art CJallcry of (ireatcr Victoria. 1 ür Pla- 
nung und nurchführunu i^f I^r. l^si()-^'en 



I Paul (x'zannc, Anthony \'alabrcgue, 
ca. 1H74 1S75. Priralc C.ollcctioii. 
Exhihition: Xeir )'ork, W'ildeiisteiii Caller)\ 
Faccs frow thc World 0/ ////prcssionisw aiid 
Post-lniprcssioni.uf/. 



2 Domenico Piola, (^ouplc with X'iolin 
(Study for lunctte in fresco, Palazzo Rosso, 
(jcnoa), drawing, Philadelphia^ Philadelphia 
MnscHtfi of Art. Fzxhihition: Worccstcr, 
Massachusetts^ Art M/isc/tw, Cciiocsc ßarocfiic 
Dran'inos. 





202 



Shih vom Royal Ontario Museum verantwort- 
lich. Der ('anada (x)uncil stellte die finanziel- 
len Mittel für einen Katalog beider Sammlun- 
gen zur Verfügung. Die Sammlung chinesi- 
scher Kunst verdankt das Royal Ontario Mu- 
seum vt)rnehmlich seinem ersten Direktor 
Dr. (Charles T. (^urrely, der nach dem lösten 
Weltkrieg mit Hilfe von zwei hervorragenden 
Kennern, George Oofts und dem anglikani- 
schen Bischof der Hainan Provinz William C. 
White, direkt in (^hina einkaufte. Schließlich 
gelangte noch die Sammlung des kanadischen 
Missionars Dr. james M. Menzies nach To- 
ronto. 

Die japanische Sammlung der Art Gallery of 
Greater Victoria geht auf eine 1961 erfolgte 
Stiftung von Mrs. Isabel Pollard zur Erinne- 
rung an den Sammler Fred PoUard zurück. 

EST. 

OTTAWA, CANADA 

National Gallery nf Canada 

Exhihition: French Master Drawings of the ijtb 

and j 8 th Centnries in North American Collections 

The exposition was organized by the Art 
Ciallerv of Ontario, which sent it on a tour 
that covered Canada and the L'nited States. 



The 157 drawings were selected by Pierre 
Rosenberg, curator in the Department of 
Paintings in the Louvre, who also w rote the 
catalogue. The public was given a chance to 
view seldom exhibited works by Watteau, 
David, Poussin, Grenze, Fragonard, Boucher 
and by less familiär F>ench masters. 

PHILADFLPHIA 

Philadelphia Mnsenni of Art 

Exhihition: Old Master Dranunos of Christ 

Chnrch, Oxford 

Old Master Drawings of (Christ (]hurch, Ox- 
ford, was Seen at the Philadelphia Museum of 
Art aftcropeningatWashington's National Gal- 
lery of Art (the scheduled 1973 stops were: 
Pierpont Morgan Library, New York, and the 
art museums of Clevcland and St. Louis). 
Though a considerable number of Americans 
visit Oxford evcry year, only the most know- 
ledgeable seek out the inconspicuous picture 
gallery of (Christ Church, and not all of these 
know of the collection of drawings installed 
therc only recently (though the College has 
been proud owner of these treasures for two 
hundred and eight years). It was a rare oppor- 
tunitv for Americans to view one hundred 



master drawings, including three of Oxtord's 
four authenticatcd Leonardo drawings, one of 
the two Raphaels, two of the four Michelange- 
los. The fully illustrated catalogue, in which 
entries and illustrations were arranged alpha- 
betically by artists within two major divisions 
-the Italian School and the five non-Italian 
Schools-was authored by James Byam Shaw . 

WX:)RCi:STFR, \rASSACHUSETTS 

Art Mnsenm 

Exhihition: Genoese Baroqne Drawings 

(see illustration) 

The art museum of this not very exciting city, 
one hour's drive west of Boston, is celebrated 
for its innovative shows. 

Genoese Baroque Drawings featured works 
by more than thirty i7th and i8th Century 
artists, among them Giovanni Battista Bacic- 
cio, LucaCambiaso and Alessandro Magnasco, 
as well as lesser-known draughtsmen. ^'et 
several artists born elsewhcre who worked in 
Genoa and helped to create the distinctive 
Genoese Baroque drawing style -among them 
Van Dvck, Roos, Procaccini and (xrano- 
were also represented. The catalogue is by 
Marv Newcome. Alfred Werner 



Buchbesprechungen 



john Bechrith: Ivory Carvings in early tnedieval England. 16H .S., 2jo Abbil- 
dungen, I Farbtafel. 1 larvey Miller & Medcalf, London 1972. 

Die Publikation dieses (Corpus ist ein entscheidend wichtiges Supple- 
ment zu der fundamentalen Edition der mittelalterlichen iüfenbein- 
skulpturen durch Adolph (ioldschmidt (19 14- 1926), Zuletzt hat \L H. 
Longhurst 1926 eine bis zum frühen 19. Jahrhundert reichende Mono- 
graphie über »Lnglish ivories« veröffentlicht. Seitdem haben sich für 
die Mittelalterforschung so viele neue Aspekte ergeben, daß der Bearbei- 
tung des Themas durch Beckwith eine sehr große Aktualität zukommt. 
Sein systematischer Katalog umfaßt die Objekte vom 7. bis zum 12. 
lahrhundert, darunter wichtige Stücke, die bisher wissenschaftlich noch 
nicht gewürdigt wurden. Für jedes Objekt hat Beckwith alle Sachan- 
gaben, Lntersuchungsbefunde, Traditionen und Forschungen erschöp- 
fend mitgeteilt und kritisch interpretiert. Dies gilt auch von der Ikono- 
graphie der Darstellungsinhalte. Außer originalgroßen Reproduktionen 
sind zahlreiche faszinierende Vergrölkrungen vor allem von Ausschnit- 
ten abgebildet, die für die stilistische Diagnose äußerst aufschlußreich 
sind. 

Im Text hat Beckwith mit größter Konzentrierthcit auf der (Jrundlage 
der ausgebreiteten Ereignisse der politischen und der kirchlichen Cie- 
schichte eine großartige Analyse der Kontraste und der Verflochtenhei- 
ten insularer t'berlieferungen und kontinentaler Stilbewegungen unter- 
nommen, eine Evidenz jener Lirsachen und Kräfte, die zur Ausbildung 
und Blüte dieser spezifisch angelsächsischen bzw. englischen Kunst 
geführt haben. Diese Wahrnehmungen und L'berlegungen von Beck- 
with dienen der Einkreisung der höchst eigenartigen Phänomene der 
Produktionen in Walroßzahn und in Idfenbein, 

Signifikant sind die (berschriften, die Beckwith den einzelnen Kapiteln 
seiner Darstellung gegeben hat: »The Heroic Age of the Seventh and 
L'ighth (xnturics« - »Lhe Tenth-Cx-ntury Monastic Reform and 



its Aftermath« »The l-nglish (;enius in the Iwelfth Century«. 
Für die Lokalisierungen dieser Skulpturen in diHerenten klösterlichen 
Werkstätten sind die formalen Affinitäten zu den stilistischen j-igentüm- 
lichkeiten der Buchmalerei entscheidend. Die (Gruppen dieser Produk- 
tionen verdichten sich zu »Schulen«. YÄu individueller Komplex wird 
in den durch das Patronat des Bischofs Henry of Blois in Winchester 
entstandenen Werken sichtbar. Wann beginnt die L;manzipierung der 
»Manufakturen« von solchen kirchlichen Konventionen.'' 
Naturlich sind manche Lokalisierungen problematisch. Dies wird deut- 
lich, wenn man die 1 • rgebnisse der f^orschungen von Beckwith mit den 
Aussagen von Hanns Swarzenski konfrontiert, der sich in seinem Buch 
»Monuments of Romanesque Art, The Art of Church Treasures in 
North-Western Lurope« (London 19^3 bzw. 1967) eindringlich um die 
L>uierung der charakteristischen Svmptome der in i'ngland entstande- 
nen Werke bemüht hat, 

i:s ist kennzeichnend, daß gewisse Vorlagen (z. B. der Ltrecht-Psalter) 
sehr lange nachgewirkt haben. Die Abkehr vom Abstrakten führte in 
der Spätphase dieser Produktion zu einer höchst sensiblen Differenzie- 
rung der I'ormgebung. Ich zitiere als Beispiel das Relief-Fragment der 
Darstellung einer »Ruhe auf der Flucht«, Schule von Canterbury um 
1180 (Beckwith cat. 100) im Metropolitan Museum of Art. 
Unter den von Beckwith publizierten, erst neuerdings bekanntgewor- 
denen Objekten sind das Fragment eines Lötfels mit Kopf-(iriff im 
Winchester Museum (Ende des 10. Jahrhunderts) und ein kleines Kreu- 
zigungsrelief (um 1000) in Privatbesitz Brüssel künstlerisch besonders 
eindrucksvoll. Wissenschaftlich am meisten erregend ist zweifellos das 
sog. »Bury St Edmunds Cross« im Metropolitan Museum und die mög- 
liche Zugehörigkeit des sehr beschädigten Corpus eines Crucifixus im 
Kunstindustrimuseet Oslo. Trotz der »doubts and reservations about 
the style, date and relationship«, die geltend gemacht wurden, halt 
Beckwith ilie Zuschreibung für »almost certain«. L.r macht X'orschläge 



20 ß 



^ew-^rk : 



CT ^«CDu: 



"f73 



x^Cö ± cum cö 

du Ghetto 



PAR ALFRED WERNER. Au kndemain de la premiere guerre mondiale, des fils d'emigrants re- 
tournaient dans le « Iower east side » et plantaient leurs chevalets dans les ruelies miserables 
et colorees de leur enfance. Ce fut le debut d'un art juif aujourd'hui partie integrante du patri- 
moine americain et un temoignage sur un vieux quartier juif aujourd'hui disparu. 

passants, et leurs gestes exaltes, leur Visionnairhs du sublime 
air de vivants. 

II y avait tres peu de Juifs chez les Qui pouvait penser, il y a quelques 

peintres americains avant 1900. Par ^'^aines d'annees, que l'art americain 

contreen 1913, dans unegrande expo- devrait un jour beaucoup aux immi- 

sition d'art « revolutionnaire » on grants du Iower east side ? En 1961, 

trouvait beaucoup de jeunes artistes •' est vrai, un critique du « New- York 

juifs. Si les fils et les filles des bouti- Post » avait laisse echapper cette pro- 

quiers, des tailleurs, des colporteurs, phetie lumineuse : « Des rues mise- 

des garyons de course du ghetto, ont rables de TEast Side New-Yorkais, 

pu se lancer dans une carriere que sortira un jour un grand artiste, un 

leurs parents et, ä plus forte raison, grand genie... » Trois ans plus tard, 

leurs grand-parents n'auraient ja- un tout jeune journaliste, Maxwell 



C'est dans le « Iower east side », le 
ghetto juif de New-York, que sont 
nes la plupart des nombreux artis- 
tes americains d'origine juive — du 
moins ceux qui ont depasse la cin- 
quantaine. Fils d'emigrants ou emi- 
grants eux-memes, presque tous ont 
quitte le quartier de leur enfance 
bien avant leurs vingt ans pour etu- 
dier et « faire carriere ». Beaucoup 
ont tente de rejeter le judaisme qui, 
pour eux, symbolisait la pauvrete, la 
superstition et Thorizon etroit d'une 
famille dominee par le pere. 
Le pauvre decor de leur jeunesse, bien 
peu eurent le goüt d'y revenir. Ils se 
contenterent d'y faire un pelerinage 
spirituel en nous donnant des (cuvres 
« ä sujet juif » : un vieillard de jadis, 
barbu, type, qui ressemblait plus ä leur 
grand-pere qu'ä leur pere. Car le pere 
s'etait le plus souvent transforme en 
employe anonyme, sans barbe ni 
« payes » ; il n'avait plus dejuifqu'un 
fort accent yiddish, le Souvenir de 
quelques prieres et bien sür une 
tendresse indefectible pour le bortsch 
ou la carpe farcie... 

RhMBRANDT A NEW YORK 

Abraham Walkowitz et Max Weber 
avaient redecouvert le sujet juif bien 
avant que la mode s'en empare. La 
oü d'autres n'avaient peryu que le sor- 
dide, ils ont cherche la beaute, et ils 
Tont trouvee partout dans le « Iower 
east side » de Manhattan : dans les 
echoppes de misere oij Ton travaille 
pour quelques sous, dans les restau- 
rants kasher, dans les theätres yiddish, 
et sur tous ces visages qui auraient 
pu inspirer un Rembrandt. Dans leurs 
CEuvres ces artistes reproduisaient la 
violence interieure que portaient ces 

LE « LOWER EAST SIDE - AVANT LA GUERRE. 



maisosereverpoureux,cefut surtout 
gräce ä Tecole des beaux-arts de 1' Al- 
liance, fondee ä Broadway en 1889. 
Les jeunes Juifs se seraient sentis mal 
ä l'aise parmi les etudiants « goim » 
et bourgeois de TAcademie Nationale 
de Dessin ou de Tlnstitut Pratt de 
Brooklyn. Les eleves de TAlIiance 
representent toutes les ecoles, tous les 
courants qui ont marque le demi- 
siecle, du Realisme aux experiences 
les plus audacieuses de TArt Abstrait. 
Que seraient devenus tous ces talents 
sans les encouragements de TEcole, 
et la soupe populaire destinee aux plus 
pauvres ? 

Pourtant, parmi les jeunes du ghetto 
qu'on pensait doues, certains hesite- 
rent devant les incertitudes d'une car- 
riere artistique. Quelques collection- 
neurs de New-York m'ont avoue 
qu'apres avoir flirte jadis avec Part, 
ils s'etaient lances dans des activites 
plus lucratives : le droit, les affaires, 
les professions liberales. La cinquan- 
taine atteinte et Taisance materielle 
enfin conquise, ils sont revenus ä leurs 
premieres amours en achetant les Oeu- 
vres de ces peintres nes comme eux, 
dans le ghetto, qui ne s'etaient pas lais- 
ses abattre par la perspective de lon- 
gues annees de lutte et de misere. 



Anderson ecrivait dans le Journal 
« Le Globe », aujourd'hui disparu : 
« Meme si TEcoIe du ghetto ne pro- 
duisait que des reuvres classiques, 
nous devrions dejä y preter atten- 
tion, mais ses artistes egalent et me- 
me surpassent les meilleurs represen- 
tants des ecoles traditionnelles. Alors 
qu'on nous pardonne notre enthou- 
siasme, mais Timmigrant en sait evi- 
demment davantage sur Tart que 
nous ne Tavions suppose. » Mais s? 
on lui avait demande des noms, An- 
derson aurait ete bien en peine de 
repondre. Epstein avait eu en Angle- 
terre son petit « succes de scandale », 
mais sa reputation n'avait pas atteint 
New-York, oü il etait ne d'immigrants 
polonais en 1880. 

Seuls quelques marchands de tableaux 
d'avant-garde et leurs clients connais- 
saient les premiers diplömes de TAI- 
liance. Alfred Stieglitz, dont les pa- 
rents etaient des Juifs allemands, ex- 
posait dans sa petite galerie, au 291 
de la Cinquieme Avenue, des («uvres 
qu'aucune des grandes galeries pros- 
peres n'osait ni ne voulait prendre. II 
faut ici encore evoquer Epstein bien 
qu'il ait, ä 22 ans, choisi PEurope et 
n'ait par la suite revu TAmerique que 



59 / 
/ 






^ew-^rk : 

^esT^eintres 

du Ghetto 






^^ 1..;^ — u „,j .4' I i- 

CM IV71II, <iu iia.'>aiu u uii i^ici 



sejour. 

C'est un non-Juif, Hiitchins Hapgood, 
joLirnaliste remarqiiable, qui revela 
Epstein en le chargeant d'illustrer un 
ouvrage sur les proletaires Jiiifs de 
New- York : « L'esprit du ghetto ». 
Hapgood note a propos des dessins 
d' Epstein : « Ils ont du caractere et 
leur realisme va droit au c(tur. Epstein 
dit le ghetto tei qu'il le voit mais il 
fait sentir, sous la noire fa^^ade de la 
realite, la beaute melancolique de Tes- 
prit. » Les premieres peinturesd'Eps- 
tein et tous ses dessins des annees 
1900, ont disparu. II reste ä peine une 
cinquantaine d'assez mauvaises 
reproductions dans le livre d' Hap- 
good. Nous possedons encore, heu- 
reusement, les innombrablcs esquis- 
ses ä la plume d' Abraham Walkowitz : 
les eternels etudiants des yechivot 
dans leur caftan traditionnel, les jeu- 
nes ouvriers energiques, les hassidim 
et les liberaux, les justes et les 
pecheurs, les artisans pauvres et les 
riches marchands, les sages et les fous. 
Le crayon leger de Walkowitz court 
droit ä l'essentiel. II souligne cet ail- 
leurs eloquent oü se meuvent des 
etres qui, malgre leur Silhouette par- 
fois grotesque, atteignent en definitive 
le sublime. 

Jai c ()mmf:nce en roulant 

DU TABAC... 

Max Weber, comme Walkowitz, est 
ne dans la Russie tsariste. A Brooklyn, 
sa famille vivait dans un secteur ä ma- 
joritejuive.C'estce quartier grouillant 
de vie mais aussi ce qu'il avait vu ä 
Lower Manhattan qui Tont inspire. La 
c'etait toute la Russie debarquee a 
New-York avec les exiles qui fuyaient 
les Pogromes. Une peinture ä l'huile, 
particulierement belle, « Les Talmu- 
distes », aujourd'hui propriete du 
Jewish Museum de New-York, retlete 
une des experiences juives du jeune 
Weber : « J'avais hate de peindre ce 
tableau apres un pelerinage a Tune des 
plus vieilles synagogues de 1 east si- 
de. Un groupe de vieux juifs cherchait 
la sagesse dans les textes talmudi- 
ques. C'etait d'une etrange beaute. Ils 



60 




LE RABBIN DE MAX WEBER : TOUTE LA RUSSIE DEBARQUEE A NEW YORK... 



commentaient le Talmud avec pas- 
sion. avec extase, ou au contraire dans 
la plus partaite serenite. Avoir vu cette 
assemblee ficvreuse, pour qui Tunique 
et eternellc question etait l'interpreta- 
tion morale et le contenu religieux de 
la grande Loi juive — la Torah — ce 
tut pour moi une experience inou- 
bliable. » 

Jacob — qui devait devenir Monsieur 
Jacob — est ne ä Hester Street. Quand 
ses parents demenagerent dans un 
quartier plus bourgeois, l'adolescent 
rcfiisa de les suivre. Ils hausserent les 
epaules : « Meshuggah ! (fou). Mais 
ils l'autoriserent ä demeurer dans la 
vieille maison delabree. L'endroit oü 
il vivait ressemblait plus a un atelier 
qu'ä une chambre : un lit de fer, un 
poele minuscule et un chevalet. Cela 
lui suffisait. II etait heureux car il 
pouvait travailler, travailler, travail- 
ler ! 

Maurice Stern, ne en Russie dcbarque 
encore enfant en Amerique. On a 
public ses Souvenirs en 1965, sous le 
titre « Ombre et lumiere ». On y 



trou ve la aussi la peinture d'une enfan- 
ce d'emigre dans le Nouveau Monde : 
« J'ai commence en roulant du tabac 
dans l'arriere-boutique d'un magasin 
de cigares dans la Huitieme Avenue. 
L'annee suivante, je coulais un bronze 
dans une manufacture de Varick 
Street, specialisee dans la fabrication 
de ces cavaliers espagnols si populai- 
res sur les cheminees victoriennes. 
J'essayais de parfaire la Silhouette de 
ces cavaliers. cela m'enthousiasmait. 

Un UNIVERS DISPARU 

Le sculpteur Jo Davidson ne s'est, lui, 
jamais senti concerne par le folklore 
du« lower east side ». Ce sont sesbus- 
tes qui le rendirent celebre. Parmi les 
personnalites qui poserent pour lui : 
Rabindranath Tagore, Joseph Conrad, 
D.H. Lawrence, Charlie Chaplin, 
James Joyce. Dans ses memoires il 
evoque ainsi son enfance au ghetto : 
« Je me souviens des grandes salles 
sombres, des pieces surpeuplees oü 
planait une odeur aigre, et des murs 







iw***-a«M 



..^t 



Ä-i.^ 



*"*%/ 



i 


j 


^^^ 


^1 


Ml ^ 


1 



MES AMIS " DE RAPHAEL SOYER : DE LONGUES ANNEES DE LUTTE ET DE MISERE. 




nus, decolores. Je me souviens aussi 
des demenagements : nous demena- 
gions Sans arret. Et puis illuminant 
tous ces Souvenirs, la chaleur et Ta- 
mour dont m'entouraient ma mere et 
mes süeurs. » La famille etait pauvre. 
Jo devait gagner sa vie. II fut d'abord 
apprenti chez un peintre en bätiment. 



1. 



\i/. 



Union, employe de bureau dans un 
quotidien, le « Public Opinion » et 
enfin commissionnaire dans une li- 
brairie. Durant les loisirs que lui 




MANHATTAN » DE MOISE SOYER LE TEMPS DU GHETTO EST BIEN MORT... 



LA JEUNE FILLE AU BALAI DE JACQUES ZUEKER 

laissaient ces petits emplois mal payes 
il s'effor9ait d'acquerir des bribes 
de Peducation artistique ä l'Alliance. 
Les ceuvres de tous ces artistes refle- 
tentununiversdisparu. Dansle« Iower 
east side », il n'y a plus que quelques 
vieux Juifs et deux ou trois restaurants 
kasher dans la Deuxieme Avenue. 
L'espagnol des Porto-Ricains a 
remplace le son guttural du yiddish. 
Le temps du ghetto est bien mort et 
TEcole de TAlliance n'est plus qu'un 
Souvenir. Une autre conception de 
Testhetisme s'est faite jour en meme 
temps qu'evoluaient les structures so- 
ciales. Mais ce qui est ne hier dans 
les ruelles bourbeuses de Teast side, 
le New-York metallise d'aujourd'hui 
ne doit pas Toublier. L'art juif du 
« coin des immigres » fait desormais 
Partie de Tart americain. II a gagne 
sa place sur les cimaises des galeries, 
en meme temps que les enfants des 
immigrants gagnaient leur place au so- 
leil dans les vertes banlieues du reve 

americain... 

A.W. 



61 



It^ 



Killers Of Men— Of Art 



ALFRED WERNER 



Less than a decade ago, angry voices were 
raised in Jerusalem at a iarge group show of 
contemporary Israeli art, selected by an Ameri- 
can expert. Many of the laymen and certainly 
most of the artists left out feit that the majority 
of the works chosen were just crazy. But Pre- 
mier Levi Eshkol could not be persuaded to 
intervene. Opening the exhibition at the Beza- 
lel National Museum, he made a sincere effort 
to be unbiased and impartial. He pointedly 
observed in his opening speech : "Fortunately 
we are not in a country in which the Prime 
Minister thinks he must be an expert on all 
subjects." 

This may have been a reference to Musso- 
lini's Italy, Hitler's Germany, and Stalin's Russia, 
where the dictator did claim to be "an expert 
on all subjects," and where, worse yet, it was 
he who decided what the Citizens were to read, 
to see, to think, and what, under penalty of 
the law, was forbidden to them. The most evil 
of these megalomaniacs was, of course, Hitler, 
who became Germany's chancellor four decades 
ago. Forty years is a long time in the life of 
a person, and even in that of a nation. Yet 
the damage wrought by the Hitlerites cannot 
be repaired, and the Visual arts were among 
the many victims. 

As if to keep alive the memory of these 
events, La Boetie, a gallery in Manhattan, staged 
an exhibition called "Degenerate Art" — the 
title was borrowed from a mammoth show in 
Munich, which at the peak of Hitler's power, 
sought to make horrible examples of works by 
such progressive Germans as Dix, Heckel, Kirch- 
ner and Klee, and by such equally bold foreign- 
ers as Chagall and Picasso whose aesthetics 
were taboo in Nazi Germany. The story of 
the Nazis' persecution of modern art and artists 
is an old one, yet to most people under fifty 
the catastrophe, born in the heart of Europe 
and spread to all countries that feil under the 
Nazi juggernaut, is now known only in the 
most general terms. 

This long and complicated story of Hitler's 
rape of art and artists cannot be told withm 
one Short article. But I can at least testify 
how deeply shocked all liberal spirits in my 
native Austria were upon learning of the above- 
mentioned Munich show of 1937, a preparation, 
as it were, for the immment mass destruction 



of "undesirable" pictures. It must be said to 
the credit of the Austrians ihai about ihat 
time several pictures by Kokoschka were held 
up to public ridicule at Munich, Austria's rightist 
government sponsored a comprehensive one- 
man show of this "degenerate" artist in a 
museum in Vienna. 

I had neither the means nor the desire to 
travel to Munich (two years later I had to 
pass through it, on my way to the nearby 
Dachau concentration camp). But a spate of 
scholarly books, issued in the 1950's and 1960's 
in both Hast and West Germany, subsequently 
enabled me to reconstruct the Munich lunacy. 
It faithfully mirrored the "aesthetics" of Hitler 
whom the Vienna Academy of Eine Arts had 
once rejected for total lack of talent. While 
lulers or statesmen with developed artistic sen- 
sitivity are rare — the few that spring to mind 
are America's Thomas Jefferson, England's 
Prince Albert, and, in France, Georges Clemen- 
ceau — on the whole, democratically-minded 
heads of State usually know their limitations 
and do not try to impose their taste — or 
lack of it — on others. 

Apart from having no artistic talent, Hitler 
had only the most superficial knowledge of 
art history; he preferred sentimental romanti- 
cism in paintmg and sculpture, and, in archi- 
tecture, flaccid imitations of Greek temples. 
His associate, Goering, who posed as a con- 
noisseur and even as a patron of the arts, clung 
to the safe, trustworthy art of the past. He 
was even taken m by a clever faker. For a 
painting, purported to be by the 17th Century 
Dutch artist, Vermeer, but actually concocted 
by his 20th Century compatriot, Van Meergeren, 
Goering paid an enormous sum (after World 
War II both the collector and the forger were 
on trial: Goering in Nuremberg, and Van 
Meergeren in Amsterdam). 

Insensitivity to all manifestations of genuine 
art is no crime Der se. With all respect for the 
decency and for the wise leadership of Franklin 
D. Roosevelt any astute visitor to his estate at 
Hyde Park, New York, must realize that the 
late President loved and surrounded himself 
with what must be characterized as "camp". 
Yet Roosevelt made no attempt to bar from 
the Federal Art Project — that during the 
depression of the 1930s kept thousands of crea- 



18 



live nien troni starvation — artists with icJeolo- 
gies, aesthetic and political, different from his 
own. At the dedication of New York's Museum 
of Modern Art building in 1939. he eloquently 
condemned the "Gleichschaltung" in Germany : 
"The arts cannot thrive except where men 
are free to be themselves and to be in Charge 

ardours . . . What we call liberty in politics 

results in freedom in the arts. Crush indivi- 

duality in the arts and you crush art as well. " 

Hitler, however, opened his battle against 

modern art with dire threats against all indivi- 

duals in the art world holding views contrary 

to his, and unwilling to recant and submit to 

his principles of "sanity" and patriotism. With- 

in a few months after his Usurpation of power, 

all museum airectors and critics who had en- 

couraged experiment and innovation were fired, 

to be replaced by quasi-intellectuals who, long 

before 1933, had started to flood Germany with 

poisonous Pamphlets against ".lewish" and 

"Bolshevist" art. 

Progressive artists were barred from exhibit- 
ing their works (the term used was "Ausstel- 
lungsvernot"). Some were even forbidden to 
work altogether (in that case, the term was 
"Arbeitsverbot"). These were spied on by the 
Gestapo who made surprise Visits to their 
ateliers to look for traces of forbidden activity. 
Jews, of course, were immediately banished 
from the realm of art regardless of aesthetic 
viewpoint. The sufferings of the aged Max 
Liebermann who, although erstwhile president 
of the Prussian Academy, was ostracized by 
the Nazis, have been described often. The 
great-hearted. noble Kaethe Kollowitz, non- 
Jewish, but herseif branded "degenerate", had 
the courage to visit her ailing colleague whom 
she found "broken by persecution and isolation." 
She was one of the four prominent non-Jews 
— three artists and a critic — who attended 
Liebermann's burial in the Jewish cemetery. 

All of the Jewish artists tried to flee abroad 
(many were eventually caught in their hide- 
outs in Italy or France, and suffered the fate 
of the Six Million martyrs). Quite a few non- 
Jewish artists voluntarily left the Vaterland. 
Others retreated to small villages where they 
could hope to work unmolested. Some man- 
aged to live on their savings. or with the help 
of a few loyal patrons. Others found work 
vaguely related to their skills. 

Except for the few who had committed them- 
selves politically by membership in leftist organ- 
izations, all non-Jewish artists were free to 
change their aesthetics and, by doing so. to 
placate the Hitlerites. In such cases they were 
forgiven their trespasses, and were even re- 




clmlcü 
hition 
ui this 
"Guide 



The Ol/, THt FiNtH OK SNb'Fi \ /)y Marc L'lui^all, 
was one nf the 59 Chagalls confiscated hy the 
Nazis from German puhhc collections. It was one 
of the four pictures hy the artist that were in- 

in the infanious "Degenerate Art" exhi- 
(Miinich 1937). It was also reproduced 

infkunmatory paniphlet that served as a 
through this exhihition. The picture — 
which exists in scveral versions — is now owned 
hy the Oeftenthche Kunstsammlung, Hasel. 
Switzerland. 



warded, if they so desired, with commissions 
to paint flattering portraits of Nazi leaders or 
to decorate the numerous party headquarters 
and other new buildings (Hitler had an "edifice 
complex" to match his megalomania). Yet, to 
my knowledge, the only artist of quality to 
cooperate with the Nazis was the sculptor, 
Georg Kolbe. Flattered by (ioering's attention 
he abandoned his Expressionist past, and cheer- 
fully produced physically impressive, but aes- 
thetically insignificant, statues of impeccable 
nude "Arvan" males. 

What was the "aesthetics" that set German 
art back by fifty or more years? In Mein Kampf 
Hitler had declared that all modern art was 
"Spiritual lunacy" produced by "intellectual 
degenerates or cunning deceivers." As head 
of the State he threatened that those artists 
who painted skies green or trees purple were 
to be categorized as lunatics ready for "eugeni- 
cal" treatment. Echoing these sentiments. one 



19 



of his minions waniecl the nation that anyone 
who found aesthetic pleasure in Expressionism 
was not a German, and that distortions were 
evidence that the painter or sculptor was radi- 
cally deformed. The Fuehrer favoured artists 
whose works successfully combined sentimen- 
tality and hero-worship in flawless technical 
perfection. Typical of these was a large paint- 
ing that portrayed Hitler as a medieval knight, 
and was reproduced all over the Third Reich. 
Artistic lechery was also welcomed by the Nazi 
hierarchy. It was provided by the Reich's art 
tsar, Professor Adolph Ziegler, producer of 
realistically painted nudes so obviously porno- 
graphic that, in whispers, they were referred 
to as "masturbation pieces." 




The bronze, Head, by Ernst Barlach, is idcmtical 
with the head of the World War I memorial, "The 
Floating Angel", made for the cathedral in Gues- 
trow\ Germany, hat removed and destroyed by 
the Nazis. The head hears a sträng resemhlance 
to the feutures of Barlach' s colleague and friend, 
Kaethe Kollwitz, another victim of Nazism. Al- 
together, 381 works by Barlach were confiscated 
by the Nazis from German public collections, and 
many of them were exposed to jeers at the afore- 
mentioneü "Degenerate Art" exhibition. A cast 
of this bronze Head was donated to New York's 
Museum of Modern Art bv the Jewish philan- 
thropist, Edward M. M. Warburg. 



Admittedly, much of the German art Hitler 
loathed was not really pleasing, in the populär 
sense of the term. This is another way of saying 
that the makers of this art — most of them 
classified under the loose term "Expressionists" 

— refused to confine themselves to charming 
subjects, like mothers hugging babies, or shep- 
herds watching flocks, but reacted sympathetic- 
ally to the misery of their fellow-men .:jnd 
wanted to arouse the same compassion in their 
public. By the way, contrary to common belief, 
the vast majority of these anti-Nazi artists 
were "Aryans"; of the few Jews prominently 
active in Germany up to the Nazi period who 
were also representative of the new spirit in 
art, only Yankel Adler, Otto Fraundlich, Rudolf 
Levy, Moyse Kogan, Ludwig Meidner and Gert 
Wollheim come to mind. Nonetheless, in the 
catalogue sold at the "Degenerate Art" show 
of Munich, the words "Jew" and "Jewish" 
turn up as pejoratives on virtually every page. 
The rise and triumph of all Expressionist and 
related art in pre-Hitler Germany is presented 
there as a conspiracy by Jewish patrons und 
critics. In his speech dedicating Munich's 
House of German Art — built to show the art 
he endorsed, in contrast to the "degenerate 
art" exposed a few blocks away — Hitler thun- 
dered : 

"The Jews understood, especially through 
exploitation of their olace in the press, with 
help from the so-called critics, not onlv how 
to confuse step by step the natural conceptions 
about the essence and the lessons of art as 
well as it purposes, but moreover to destroy 
the common healthy perceptions in these mat- 
ters." 

The date was 1937. Within four years the 
Nazis had "purged" their museums, dismissed 
all progressive museum personnel and critics, 
reduced to the Status of panah all artists who 
stayed on as "inner immigrants". Confiscated 
works of art were sold in Switzerland for 
sorely nedeed foreign currencies or, if unsalable, 
simply destroyed. Subsequently, in all con- 
quered countries — especially, of course, in 
France — all Jewish-owned art collections were 
looted, and Jewish artists despatched to death 
camps. 

All of this is an "old story." But it is well 
worth recalling. For there are still — or again 

— countries in which the arts are not free. And 
from Hitler's Rape of Art several profitable 
lessons can be learned. One of them is that 
individuals who promptly condemn everything 
that looks Strange, ugly, and even absurd to 
eyes unprepared for new sights, are likely to 
be proved wrong by the next batch of gallery- 
goers, ten or even five years later. Yet the 



20 



,£■ 



lessons of the 1933 to 1945 period must not 
mislead us into thinking that everything in the 
arts that is radically new is necessarily valid. 
Within the "Degenerate Art" show there were, 
undoubtedly, a few items that were unsuccess- 
ful »by any yardstick of criticism, especially 
works by ungifted and unserious imitators of 
the truly great modernists. 



\^1 ILICS 



aic 



uOuiiu 



Lu iiiaKc eiiuib in juug- 

ment, one way or another. Individual artists 
have often been overpraised or underestimated. 
Charlatans and impostors are no more rare 
among artists than among members of other 
professions. There have always been gallery 
owners, museum directors and patrons of the 
arts who lacked depth of conviction, who were 
timid, gullible or cynical, and who, for a variety 
of reasons, either quickly endorsed or — a more 
frequent occurrence — speedily dismissed every 
novelty. 

A wise and honest art lover will at least 
hesitate before either openly denouncing every 
new and difficult work of art as a piece ot 
fakery, or enthusiastically embracing everything 



new simply for its novelty. Whatcver jucJg- 
ment he may eventually reach. after havin^g 
considered all aspects, one thing he will not 
do: demand that a work of art which see?Tis 
to him lacking any merit, be destroyed, or that 
its maker be punished. Time is the wisest 
judge and eliminator. The lapse of four decades 
is enough time to teach us that virtually every- 
thing upheld by the Nazis has proven to be 
worthless, while almost everything they removed 
from the museums has, after 1945, gone back 
to the places of honour from which they had 
been taken. Hitler, who has proven to be evil 
in everything he did, has been found wrong 
as an arbiter of the arts. But Roosevelt's words 
should keep on ringing in our ears : 

"The arts cannot thrive except where men are 
free.: Crush individuality in the arts and 
you crush art as well." 



The author, Dr. Werner, has written books on 
Barlach, Chagall, Modigliani, Pascin and other 
artists condemned hy the Nazis. 



People And Events 



CULMUS 



Soviet Jews and American Negroes 

At his Stockholm press Conference, Alexei 
Nikolayevich Kosygin, Prime Minister of the 
Soviet Union, resented questions about tho 
treatment of Soviet Jews, saying indignantly 
that this was an internal Soviet affair. Now, 
this is Strange. Russians have been criticising 
the treatment of the Negroes in America for 
years. Only the other day, a Soviet newspaper 
— and they are all government mouthpieces, 
of course — wrote that the American Negroes 
had not made much progress since Lincoln. 
Soviet statesmen have also time and again 
brought up in argument the predicament of 
American Negroes. 

Mr. Kosygin did much better in Paris. He 
accepted questions about Soviet Jews, and said 
that those who want to join their relations in 
Israel were entitled to do so. What has hap- 
pened to him between Paris and Stockholm? 
The mental process of the Prime Minister of 
one of the super powers is a matter of great 
interest to all of us. 



I wish he had come to London, if only for the 
Chance of attending his press Conference and 
making this simple point — in Russian. 

London and Jerusalem 

As I have just said, we are all entitled to 
criticise each other, even across borders. Israelis 
have definite opinions as to how London should 
be planned, and Englishmen have definite 
opinions as to how Jerusalem should be planned. 
The religious stake of Christians, and Moslems, 
in Jerusalem gives them no planning rights 
whatsoever but the fact that we are all fellow- 
citizens of a small planet does. 

However, I am puzzled about people who 
had permitted a building in front of St. Paul's 
without a murmur now crying blue murder about 
a high rise block of flats on the outskirts of 
Jerusalem. What is more, the building in front 
of St. Paul's is an office block; it does not 
even help to solve the problem of the home- 
less in the metropolis , . . 



21 



■\^'.| ^'t 



The Imperial Jews are dead 

A new Board of Deputies will be elected 
during May and June. The outgoing Board 
has left behind it a recommendation for affili- 
ation to the World Jewish Congress. They 
don't call it affiliation, for some stränge rea- 
son, but it amounts to the same : the Board 
of Deputies is being dragged screaming out 
of isolation. 

It always surprised me that they wanted to 
hang on to their old Status. Some of my best 
friends are leaders of the Board. But, in all 
friendship, what was «here to hang on to? 
No money, no political influenae, no authority 
in Anglo-Jewish education. What was there to 
hang on to? Unless it was a faith in the 
efficacy of delegations to Government depart- 
ment. 

It is of course important to have a represen- 
tative body that speaks for all British Jews. 
But since the importance of the Board is only 
on the Jewish level, it might as well join the 
rest of the Jews, now that there is no longer 
an empire, and therefore no more imperial Jews. 



After Beirut 

The reaction to the Beirut exploit in the 
World press was a veritable breakthrough. I 
am not dealing here with the Operation as 
such, only with the reactions. Reactions East 
and West, North and South, show that at last 
the World has accepted the notion of strong 
Jews who are able and willing to hit back 
when attacked. It took twenty üwe years. But 
now we have made it. No one is surprised 
any longer that Jews have a brilliant army and 
airforce, that they are capable of riddling an 
enemy with bullets without flinching; that they 
do not apologise for using attack as a means 
of defence. 

Even the Soviet press, which condemned the 
Beirut exploit without qualification, and dis- 
played a great deal of synthetic anger in the 
process, was not surprised that Jews could 
accomplish such a feat. It was, on the con- 
trary, füll of foreboding about what the Jews 
might do next. 

Now we shall perhaps be able to negotiate 
as to how to end the war in the Midie East. 

Since the Jews are no longer expendable, 
and the Arabs have oil, the time has come 
for the two sides to negotiate for peace . . . 

There is an old Hebrew saying — Psalms! 
— that the dead cannoc praise the Lord. Nor 
can they negotiate for peace, which is also a 



22 



way of praising the Lord, if we heed the 
prophets. 

Praise of a Young Man 

In Jewish tradition, it is heroic to reach* the 
age of eighty. Joseph Leftwich has done it 
not long ago, and we marked the occasion 
suitably. But now we have a festive booklet, 




published by the Federation of Jewish Relief 
Organisations, the Cultural Department of the 
World Jewish Congress, and the Association 
of Jewish Writers and Journalists in England. 
The contributors ränge from Zalman Shazar to 
Yehudi Menuhin, from the Chief Rabbi to 
Abraham Sutzkever, from Sir Jack Lyons to 
Professor Hyman Levy. The list of Jewish 
writers contributmg to this volume reads like 
the index of Zalman Reisin's Lexicon. Let me 
quote Shazar — a fine writer in his own write (as 
John Lennon would say) : "Do not get worried 
about eighty. The Hassidim say that, because 
the numerical value of eighty is "Yamecha", 
(your days), eighty can be extended more and 
more. There is still a long way to go. You 
represent the saying, 'his eye hath not dimmed, 
nor his zest diminished'." 

One other Quotation, this time from S. J 
Goldsmith, who succeeded "Lefty" as editor of 
the Jewish Telegraphic Agency by four re- 
moves : Leftwich was number two; Goldsmith 
is number six. He writes: 

"Like the presidents of the United States, 



r 



i 




y 



CldOI 



.M; l.^; V ;^y 



Aun 



/ r, 







lA 



REMEMBERING THE HOLOCAUST 

Shlomo Grodzensky 



THE DAY AFTER ISRAEL'S 25th 
ANNIVERSARY '«-«^ c«^*'*«« 



MYRA KELLY AND THE LOWER 

LAST SIDE Mark F. Goldberg 



AGENDA FOR 1973-98 



Misha Louvish 



BOOK REVIEWS 



Graenum Berger^ Judah Pilch^ 
David Breslau, Alain J. Rawick 



ARDON: CIPHER AND SYMBOL 



Alfred Werner 



June, 1973 



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10 



Jewish Frontier 



Ardon: Cipher and Symbol 



By ALFRED WERNER 



I 



N 1933, the year Max Bronstein fled to Palestine 
from Nazi GeiTnaiiy, along with other Jewish- 
boni artists, "raicbliiiiaii ml was in its aaoiCS- 
cence, if not in its infancy. The painters — there 
were hardly any sculptors around — were, on the 
whole, the equivalents of America's RegionaUsts 
(such as Benton, Curry, Wood and their follow- 
ers). They busied themselves with the unique and 
characteristic sights of the country: the austere 
beautv of {erusalem; the winding, narrow streets 
of Old Safed; the brown-skinned Bedouins; the 
Arab cafes were old men in dirty garments eter- 
nally pufFed on their water pipes; the colorful 
oriental immigrants; the Mosque and the Citadel 
of Acre; the Arab villages, with their httle blue or 
pink dice-shaped houses; the orange and ohve 
groves; the liills of GaUlee and the waters of Lake 
Kinereth. Other painters found fascination in the 
sun-tanned faces of sabra girls; the husky pioneers; 
the World of chicken coops, cow sheds and veg- 
etable gardens; the donkeys and camels; the watch 
towers, tractors and silos of the Settlements. 

This choice of subject matter was quite in- 
evitable. Most of the artists lived on the land, and 
some even did the necessary chores in kibbutzim 
which allowcd them some spare time to devote to 
their artistic vocations. Besides, these pioneer- 
artists may have feit that, by painting the land 
and the Yishtiv, they underscored, so to speak, 
their legal and moral right to what was still a Brit- 
ish protectorate. Their sujets diverged widely from 
those of Ecole de Paris artists such as Chagall, 
Manc-Katz or Ryback, in whose images the 
"Gniene Felder," largely inaccessible to the East 
European Jew, play no roles or, at most insignifi- 
cant ones. By the same token, in the works of the 
"Palestinians,'* there is surprisingly little reference 
to the worlrl of the Diaspora, the Talmud, or even 
the Bible. In a sense, their approaches paralleled 
those of a later group of intellectuals who call 
them'elves Canaanites and who consciously and 
e\^en miHtantly avoid the usually depressing 
episodes of Jewish existence as a minority among 
unsvmnatl^etic and often hostile Christians. 

Stvli^^t'cnllv and technicallv, these Palestinian 
painters lagcred behind their European co-religion- 
ists an^l confreres; the Parisians were Post-Impres- 
sioni^ts or Cubists; the Jewish painters in post- 
World Wnr T Germany were either Expressionists 
or we^e related to Dadaists, Constnictionists, or 
the m asters of the Bauhaus. Thoucjh Impression- 
ism was finished as a movement before 1900, it 
was, by and large, the weltanschaung of the men 



of the first, second and even third Aliyah, at least 
in the sense that these painters concemed them- 



odvv^o Willi ^^ vv^i y vitiV nie, liau. llU ICCUUläC LU Ull- 

usual subject matter, and painted swiftly and di- 
rectly from nature en plein air. 

This was the kind of painting — honest, sincere 
and straightforward that Max Bronstein, who was 
soon to adopt the name of Mordecai Ardon, en- 
countered when he settled in Jerusalem. In the 
1920's he had studied at the aforementioned 
BauhmiSy Weimar's progressive, yet higlily con- 
troversial, school of modern design which deviated 
radically from the prevailing teaching methods. 
Hans M. Wingler, in his monumental book, The 
Bauhaus (The M.I.T. Press, 1969), reproduces a 
work by the Student Bronstein. The whereabouts 
are unknowm; the caption reads: 

"Composition of various materials, such as 
wood, woven cane, and string, Rhythmical form. 
In this exercise the complementaiy effects of the 
various materials were to be especially taken into 
cons iderat ion." 

So revolutionary was the aesthetics of the Bau- 
haus — one of the earliest targets of the Nazis — 
that this assemblage could have been included in 
the Whitney Museum's Biennial of 1973 without 
looking a bit "old-fashioned" despite the passage of 
fortv-odd years. It is easy to imagine the furor it 
would have aroused, had it miraculously tunied 
up in the old Bezalel Museum (but Professor 
Schatz would never have accepted it). Unques- 
tionably, it would be instnictive to compare the 
creations of Bronstein (ca. 1920 to 1933) with 
those of Ardon. What, for instance, were the 
works he submitted to the Berlin shows in which 
he participated, among them one staged by the 
radical November-Gruppe? Yet most of the artist's 
early works seem to have peiished (some of them, 
apparently, were destroyed by the Nazis as 
samples of "degenerate" art). Even the compre- 
hcnsive retrospective show of 1963, which toured 
four Israeli museums contained only two works 
from Ardon's German period, a drawing, Midnight, 
and an oil. Man Leaning on his Elbow (alas, this 
writer never saw them ) . 

One thing is certain: as a Bauhaus graduate, 
neither Bronstein nor Ardon ever endorsed the 
notion that art was — imitation of nature. In the 
Palestine of 1933, Ardon saw himself surrounded 
by nature-imitators who did not know, or did not 
care to know that there was more to the world than 
met the ordinary eye. Whether or not he was in- 
fluenced by the Statements of those writers and 



June, 1973 



11 



artists who prepared the way for 20th Century 
art, his paintings in the past four decades cor- 
respond to what the French poet, Baudelaire — 
who had defined art as "the creation of evocative 
magic" — had demanded: that a good picture be 
"a faitliful äquivalent of the dream which had 
begotten it." Ardon started out as an anti-Im- 

T>v<3ccir»i-iicf liVo fV»o -oiriTi/^kor l^<=>rlr»n \x7nn r^ritim'vpri 

Monet and his associatcs for being too submissive 
before natura. He might have agreed witli another 
rebel, Gauguin, who wamed that in painting, as 
in music, one "must search for Suggestion rather 
than for description." 

Oddly, the Impressionists, whether in France 
or, for that matter, in Israel, in the last analysis 
were the final heirs of the Renaissance tradition 
which conceived art as an exact copy of the ex- 
ternal appearance of tliings. By contrast, even the 
earliest extant Ardons, like the Palestinian land- 
scapes of the 1930's, though retaining salient topo- 
graphical details, forecast the anti-realistic, anti- 
materialistic, mctaphysical trend of the mature, 
the established Ardon. 

Unquestionably, Ardon's *liberation" was due, 
to a large degree, to his studies at the Bauhaus, 
whose most outstanding masters were Kandinsky 
and Klee. Like everybody at this Academy, the 
young Immigrant from Galicia had read Kan- 
dinsky 's essay, Concerning the Spiritual in Art, 
with the pivotal lines: 

"A work of art is born of the artist in a mysteri- 
ous and secret way. Detached from him it acquires 
autonomous life, becomes an entity. Nor is its 
existence casual and inconsequent; it has a definite 
and purposeful strength, alike in its material and 
Spiritual atmosphere ;and from this internal stand- 
point alone can one judge whether it is a good 
work of art or bad. . . ." 

I have mentioned, and will continue to refer to, 
Kandinsky — who has been called "the Giotto of 
cur time" because he found at least one idiom 
to give expression to an era in which the concept 
of matter has lost much of its former solidity — 
since his influence on Ardon cannot be stressed 
enough. Kandinsky, it is true, went further than 
his disciple — gradually divesting his work of sub- 
ject matter, the Russian eventually arrived at a 
non-representational, non-figurative style of paint- 
painting that aims "to express mystery through 
mystery" by a subtle balancing of meaningless 
color shapes, by abstract forms that might be 
called the outer covers of inner intentions. 

Ardon never went as far as Kandinsky, even 
though agreeing with him that the genuine artist 
always invents rather than re-reproduces. He was 
closer to the aesthetics of Paul Klee, with whom 
he was on as friendly terms as the teacher-pupil 
relationship would then allow.Klee's part in Bron- 



stein's education was largely confined to talking 
with the neophyte during strolls in the park at 
Weimar, and lending him the notes of his Bau- 
haus lectures. Klee was more of a guru than a 
teacher; gratefully recalling the highly informal 
"instruction" he received from him, Ardon still 
quotcs Klee's definition of art as making visible 
tliR invisiblp rather than renderi!i<T the visible. To 
the Student, this Statement seemed neither ambigu- 
ous nor puzzling — what eise should art do for us 
than make us see the hidden? 

Nevertheless, even in the most "abstract" of 
Klee's pictures, where descriptive references to 
human anatomy or to natural phenomena are re- 
duced to a bare minimum, therc is usually enough 
to let US guess the "subject matter." Inspired by 
the master, Ardon, too, borrows from the world 
of tangible objects certain ciphers in which to 
express the mai*vels of his interior world. Like the 
Swiss, the Israeli does not aim to perpetuate on 
canvas the images registered on the retina but 
does aim to delve deeply into the unconscious 
mind, bringing up from that abyss all the joys, all 
anxieties of the soul. To appreciate Ardon, one 
must understand him as a creator of new things, 
as a contributor to a cosmos which forever gives 
birth to new stars; as a producer of arbitrary 
images brought forth from a world of exuberant 
fantasy, of myth, of memory-residues that are his 
alone and that would perish with him, had be not 
succeeded in freeing them for his own gratifica- 
tion and for the enrichment of his fellow-men. 

It is safe to say that, of all Israeli aiiists of his 
generation, Ardon has achieved the grcatest rec- 
ognition intemationally — his works can be found 
in museums of Paris, London, Biaissels, Amster- 
dam, Rome, Munich, New York and other great 
cities — on account of his ability to operate simul- 
taneously on two levels, to exploit two sources of 
Cognition. Logical knowledge, as we all know, is 
acquired through the intellect; intuitive knowl- 
edge, through imagination. To Ardon, both ave- 
nues are open, whereas most other mcn are able 
to operate only by image or by concept. Schools 
insist upon the acquisition of dry facts at the ex- 
pense of developing the pupiFs intuitive faculty 
(unlike Ardon during the many years he taught 
at Jenisalem's Bezalel Academy). Our socicty pro- 
duces, and encourages, the man who lives by 
logics rather than insight. Hence the usual be- 
wildennent of the uninitiated individual who first 
encounters a show of Ardons, but hence also the 
joy experienced by the cognoscenti, confronted 
with the works by this magician, whose colors 
often recall stained glass Windows or mosaic 
work; who uses his medium (oil pigments), his 
tools (brushes) to reach the core of matter, to 
express the hidden mystery within the shell of 



12 



the visible, and who seeks to attain the super- 
reality, compounded of dream, of hallucination. 

Ardon somehow Stands oiitside groupings for 
whom teiTns like Abstract Expressionists or Tach- 
istes have been coined. He does stand alone, be- 
cause all these associations refer to technique, 
to execution, whereas for Ardon content is as im- 
nortant as form. In fact. for him the two are in- 
separable and are one. For him, form is not the 
clothing that covers a person, but the skin that 
cannot function when separated from muscles, 
blood and bones. By the same token, his eflfort is 
not confined to the placing of color blobs on sheets 
of canvas — though this is the action a visitor 
would see, were he allowed to enter the earlier 
where the artist is working. Ardon is engaged in 
flights into worlds as yet undiscovered and un- 
suspected, comments on joumeys he had under- 
taken into an mmiapped realm with the intention 
of bridging the gap between the outside world 
and the world within. Indeed, his works are often 
like day-dreams oecasioned by some provocation 
from reality, but they are also the produets of 
a man who knows much and sees deeply into him- 
self and into the problems of his fellow-men. 
They are, one might say, the discoveries of a 
pioneer who, more perhaps than anyone of his 
compatriots, penetrates the wall of extemal real- 
ity. He can lead us into the land that is his regulär 
habitat, the land between waking and dreaming. 

A dreamer — who is also a painter of ideas. He 
does not mind — as so many of his colleagues do — 
adapting ideas and concepts from literature, espe- 
cially from the Bible, the Talmud, the Cabalah. 
Like a writer, he uses Symbols ( though he frowns 
upon the term symbol, for being to definite, to 
static). Should I have said "metaphors" rather 
than "symbols"? For while a symbol — especially 
when it is conventional or traditional, such as a 
clenched fist to suggest defiance — permits quick 
readability, it also dulls the mind through inevita- 
ble repetition. A metaphor, on the other band, 
seeks to suggest, to denote one idea by another 
through analogies that are often so subtle as to 
require the behilder's concentrated attention. 
Visually, he communicates through metaphors; 
they are slightly obscure, sufficiently ambigous to 
be suggestive, to spur the imagination, to speak 
to the heart, in short: to arouse men from spiritual 
lethargy. 

Ardon's works teil no stories. They contain 
little that is predictable. For him, a symbol, or a 
metaphor, is a catalyst, generating a reaction in 
the psyche, like a word that must be leamed by 
heart, through repeated usage to become, rather 
than to be, a sign for a bit of reahty. Mallarme 
wrote conceming the mystery of language: "To 
name an object is to suppress three-quarters of the 
enjoyment to be fond in the poem, which consists 



Jewish Frontieb 

in the pleasure of discovering things little by 
little." This holds true of Ardon's paintings as well. 
We do not walk through his exhibitions; we stand, 
awe-stmck, confused, before each of his pictures[ 
until its intended meaning reveals itself to us 
slowly, "little by Httle." 

And what about this meaning? It is not didactic, 

very intense, very personal, are living organisms, 
friends, or, perhaps, even angels to ease the pain 
of man s existence. They are also his disciples to 
whom he has imparted his wisdom: that ethics 
and aesthetics — Gutsein und Schoensein — are one. 

His work does not invite the conventional crit- 
ical approach, with its emphasis on sources of 
artistic inspiration — Kandinsky and Klee were his 
idols rather than his modeis — or on the historical 
niche assigned to a painter. For his pictures some- 
how transcend the boundaries of both Central 
Europe, where he was initiated into the world of 
art, and the land of Israel, which, for the past 
forty years, has been the source of his spiritual 
nurture. There is something timeless, ageless, race- 
less about these paintings that defies Classification, 
discourages styUstic exegetics. Any cool, methodi- 
cal, abstract attitude on the appreciator's part 
might block the view of the miraculous garden 
which this artist has created on Biblical soil by 
planting flowers, shrubs and trees from every 
clime, blending them with what has grown 
naturally out of the stony hills around Jerusalem. 

For, though a philosopher and a moral teacher, 
he is, above anything eise, a painterl After all, 
though he has made many a verbal Statement, his 
proper language is that of color, form, texture, 
structure. Through his pictorial works he employs 
a method resembling Socrates* way of speeding 
the maturation of a growing mind. "I want to cause 
amazement," he once explained. "I want the person 
looking at my pictures to feel that something is 
welling up in him. The really great artists in every 
field were successful in arousing this feeling." He 
went on: "I want something to happen to the 
Viewer. Indeed, into each of my paintings I put 
my whole life, my way of a life-time, and this is 
what I want the beholder to feel." 

Thus his work is — Maximal Art. It requires us 
to plunge into his landscapes of the soul and to 
dwell there for as long as we can tolerate the 
celestial isolation. The superficial need not apply 
for admission. For Ardon*s pictures, bom of com- 
mitment, demand an onlooker who is engage. 
There are no vademecums for the hurried tourist, 
no "Greetings from Israel," despite titles like 
Homage to Jerusalem, Bethlehem, or Desert of the 
Negev. Though the pictures are never completely 
non-figiu*ative, the recognizable human forms, the 
veiled references to parchments, wells, ladders, 
moons, rocks, snakes are landmarks only to those 



June, 1973 



13 



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Jewisii Frontier 



who have already made the decision to enibark 
on the uncharted journey into a Promised Land, 
into a Canaan whose Baedekers are the Ca]:)alah, 
or the writings of Kierkegaard, Dostoievsky, Kafka. 
An uncharted journey — without the help of 
biography. To be sure, the desire to leam about 
the life of a maker of a picture is legitimate. It is 



V 









*. ^ X.'^y JL A v^ I >■ %_>■ V^ J 



the "inner meaning" of a comphcatcd and complex 
work of art. Yet Arden's biography offers Httle 
more than hints to help towards the understand- 
ing of his pictures. Indeed, his story is "imevent- 
ful," unless one is incHned to think that the mak- 
ing of a picture ex nihilo is a far more drama- 
tic event than anything a sensational novelist 
might invent. It is a tale without trumpets, and 
one which we know only in bare outhne, since 
Ardon lacks the autobiographical thirst, and, in 
his sparse writings, as well as in his replies to 
Interviewers, always leads them away from his 
physical person to the metaphysics of his crea- 
tivity. 

Ilis birthday — July 13, 1896 — is not certain. 
The eider Bronstein, a watchmaker, was a devout 
Hassidic Jew. Was the Galician town of Tuchow 
less drab than Soutine's Smilovitchi, or, for that 
matter, any of the shtetls from which arose, in 
reaction to an oppressive milieu, the dozens of 
Jewish men who were to make marks for them- 
selves in the annals of modern art? There was 
nothing even remotely related to art in the Jewish 
section of Tuchow. The youngster's first aware- 
ness of art occurred through a chance glimpse of 
a Rembrandt portrait of an old Jew, reproduced 
in the once much-read German-Jewish magazine, 
Ost und West. Little eise is known about Mor- 
decai's youth until his arrival, via Berlin, at Wei- 
mar, aged twenty-four, but his development may 
not have been dissimilar to the ways Ghetto boys, 
from Mark Antokolski onward, were moving 
ahead, towards the Light, in defiance of external 
pressure and inner uncertainty. 

In a letter, Ardon reported two significant re- 
collections. One was a story, told by his father, 
about Iliram, King of Tyre, who, in competition 
with God, Creator of the Universe, roamed out 
into the ocean at midnight: 

"And there, in the very midst of Tohuvabohu, 
he conjures up four pillars, and he rams them 
down right into the Heart of the Ocean. Then Hi- 
ram rows home. Ilis face is lit up. He Orders a 
lavish meal — dancers — harps and flutists — every- 
thing shimmers and glistens — only to be outshone 
by Hiram: he has created a Worldl'* 

In contrast to this legend of triumph and glory is 
the second — a tnie incident reflects the creative 
man's other source of inspiration. During the first 
World War, bombs were flying into the little town 
of Tuchow: 



"Suddenly a shell buried horse and wagon in a 

deep crater. For six months — day in, day out 

I saw the horses' legs sticking out, their hooves 
pointing to the skies. I cannot get away from 
these horses, they haunt me into my old days . . ." 

I have mentioned his Lernjahre in Weimar. His 
next stop was Munich, where he studied at the 

A r»Qrir>T-nir nnrlo-r- A/Tav- T^ /^ r^ ■»-.-» i-»»- ^^-vl^K«.,^ * ,, -1 j-1 

of The Materials of the Artist. From 1929 to 1933 
he taught at the Kunstschule Itten, a school estab- 
lished in Berlin by one of his former Weimar In- 
structors, Johannes Itten. The rest is widely known 
— Ardon's activity in the land of Israel — his con- 
nection, first as a teacher and then as the director 
of the Bezalel School of Arts and Grafts (1935- 
1952), his Service as an advisor to LsraeFs Ministiy 
of Education and Culture, and his triumphs in 
Rome and Venice, Amsterdam and Brüssels, Paris 
and Munich, London and New York. 

It wasn't an easy victoryl It took Ardon several 
years to become acclimated to Eretz Yisrael. But, 
in his own words, he eventually succeeded in cary- 
ing on a dialogue with all the new things that sur- 
rounded him: "From this dialogue I create forms, 
living forms." Yet even as a newcomer he refused 
to practice the sort of photographic reportage 
that prevailed in the Holy Land at least up to the 
establishment of the Jewish State. In Mount of 
Olives, for instance, there is little more than a Sug- 
gestion of the wall surrounding Jemsalem; what 
the artist gave us there, and in Bethlehem, and 
otlier pictures of the 1930's and 1940's, was a magic 
Vision, symphonies in which mysterious colors 
applied in thick layers are comparable to the notes 
in music. As though it were impossible for a mere 
pedestrian to do justice to these heroic vistas, 
Ardon saw them from high altitudes and, as one 
critic commented, made "the terrestrial surface 
evaporate in a multitude of color variations." 

Indeed, surveying Ardon's oeuvre, one cannot 
help noticing that, despite his familiarity with all 
the major cities in the Western world, one place 
is dominant in his thinking and feeling: Jerusalem, 
with its sun-scorched, rocky surroundings. As a 
supematural image, it had appeared in the dreams 
of the young Polish Jew: "In my youth I had to 
pray and I recalled Israel and Jerusalem every 
day, but it was not reality for me." He became one 
with his Aliyah: "I could feel the roots beneatli 
my feet." 

He first entered it long before it became a 
divided city, and the day it was unified was one of 
the happiest days of his life. For to him that city, 
where mankind's greatest spiritual struggles were 
fought, is the equivalent of its antithesis, Athens, 
and, because of its importance to a very large 
Segment of humanit)', a ray of hope for many who 
grope in darkness. Hence it was necessary for him 
to learn to use his colors to create Yerushalatjim 



June, 1973 



15 



shel Mahala, the Heavenly Jerusalem, as distin- 
giiished from the one the casual visitor sees, Yeru- 
shalayiin shel Mata, that is, its earthly counterpart. 
To be sure, his Jerusalem is not a nationalist, or 
racialist, concept; for him it exists "everywhere and 
wherever Man erects a ladder to Heaven. . . ." 

Even "younger" places in Israel, Ardon feels, 
have an atmosphere that can be caught neither 
through realistic portrayal, nor through obvious 
symbolism. He is one of the few Israeli painters 
who have done justice to the heritage of our fore- 
fathers. Referring to a picture of the town of Sa- 
fed, he declared: 

"There is something, I hope, of Cabbalism in 
the painting, something of the centuries-old depth 
of the city and the history of the Jew." 

Ardon continues to be obsessed with the mys- 
teries of Galilee, and especially with the austere 
and disquieting beauty of the hills around Jerusa- 
lem, with the menacing rocks of the Negev and 
the subtle blue of the Jiidean nights. However, the 
beloved soil and sky serve only as points of depar- 
ture into a stränge realm where the material world, 
so to speak, disintegrates and is recomposed into 
more meaningful if more abstruse and recondite, 
patterns, at once mystic and high revelatory. 

This is not another way of saying that Ardon 
has separated himself from the peculiar treasure 
that is his country. The very opposite is true: 
Ardon has fully identified with Israel, though his 
is not the world of the halutzim and kibbutzim 
that other men of his generation have painted over 
and over. His Israel is the Bible, the Ilaggadah, 
the Kabbalah turned into bleak Negev mountains, 
the joyous spring flora of Galilee, red sunsets, 
bluish moons. Curiously, Ardon, digging into the 
hard soil of the old land, becomes submerged in an 
earlier civilization. Tammuz, for instance, refers to 
a heathen cult very similar to that of Adonis, one 
which, to the dismay of the Prophets, had pene- 
trated into tlie kingdom of Judah. Women par- 
ticipated in this spring fertility rite: "I envied all 
those who were present, who took part . . . espe- 
cially one with dark, almond-shaped eyes, who 
bewitched me . . . how intoxicating her dance 
was. . . ." 

In the picture, a symphony of blue and white, 
the God is a bluish figure, whose body is a stringed 
instrument. A crescent moon is over his left Should- 
er; surrountling him are interlocking geometric 
figures as well as countless white dots. What does 
all this mean, what does it add up to? We are 
not being given an illustration for a chapter in 
The Golden Bough; instead, we are brought from 
our everyday reality into an archetypal heaven. 

Ardon's most famous picture is the triptych, 
Missa Dura. It is a very large work that grimly re- 
calls the barbarity of the Nazi period, without sink- 
ing to the level of a poster, a cartoon. It demon- 



strates that Ardon has forgotten neither the dead 
horses of his native Tuchow, nor what had been 
reported to him about the cries of the victims of 
Auschwitz and Dachau, Bergen-Belsen and Mai- 
danek. Here, all the experiences of totahtarianism 
are distilled and sublimated. It is one of the very 
few^imperishable works of art pointing up the 
mthless inhumanity of Fascism, on a par with such 
celebrated works as Picasso's Guernica, or Zad- 
kine's sculpture, The Destrotjed City. 

To sum up, Ardon is the inventor of new hier- 
glyphs, all enigmatic enough to make us shudder, 
yet all sufficiently readable to make us want to ex- 
plore them. Abroad, he is perhaps the most widely 
appreciatcd of all Israeli artists, and for very good 
reasons: his innovations are genuine, not gim- 
micky, and his novelty is based on the humanism 
of all the great masters who have sought to render 
the sources of light, that earthly liglit which the 
Hassid has to set free and tiy to unite with heaven- 
ly light. 

Ardon once said that it was his task to find 
seder olam, the order of the world, in contrast to 
the chaos. He has, indeed, gone far in discharging 
this most ardous and dcmanding self-imposed Ob- 
ligation. Among the Hving, it will be difficult to 
find another working in a similar mood of intense 
excitement and with a similar fecling of respon- 
sibility that make his countless thick brushstroke 
throb with the moral fervor of the prophets of old. 

How much Israelis are also aware of his impor- 
tance and significance for their country was high- 
lighted five years ago, at the 34th Venice Biennale 
when the entire Israel Pavilion was devoted to him. 
In the catalogue to the show, the Israeli commis- 
sioner for the Biennale, Avraham Ronen, empha- 
sized "the predominance of poetical imagination 
over purely rational construction." Ronen pointed 
out that the pictures demonstrated how mysticism 
could very well go along with intellectualism, and 
that this very blending of poetiy and wisdom con- 
tributed much to the particular attractiveness of 
Ardon's work. 

His most recent show — it was on display at 
London's distinguished Malborough Gallcry from 
April 5 to May 5 — comprised thirty-seven pictures, 
all but one done between 1960 and 1972, and many 
of them very large. They did not markedly change 
our idea of what "Ardon" is all about, but they 
deepened it. In his own preface — reproduced in 
the catalogue in his individualistic, yet clear 
calligraphy — Ardon superbly sums them up as 
"scenarios of silent suffering . . . of yearnings and 
rebellions . . . of visions and dreams of color ..." 
If posterity will have the final say on their ultimate 
merits, the present viewer can risk saying that 
they stand out among all pictures made in Israel 
or, for that matter, in any part of the globe. 



16 



Jewish Frontier 



The Day After Israels 25th Anniversary 



By ISRAEL GOLDSTEIN 



LOOKING TOWARD ISRAEL 
OF THE YEAR 2,000 



TliG 5t]i of I^^sr Isrscl's Ind^^cndcncc P?-^ 
which this year corresponds with May 7th, was the 
*'terminus ad quem" for the celebration of Israelis 
25th anniversary. For Jews in Israel, for Jews the 
World over, and for great numbers of non-Jews, 
the celebration has served as an occasion for 
reminiscences of the dramatic birtli of Medinat 
Yisrael, and on the years and generations of gesta- 
tions which preceded. It is doubtful if the mood 
of celebration gave sufRcient pause for sober 
evaluation of faults and shortcomings in the make- 
up and in the policies of the newbom Jewish 
State. Such critical evaluations might possibly 
have maiTcd the festive atmosphere. There is, how- 
ever, no excuse for withholding the critical ap- 
proach, as soon as the semi-Jubilee is behind us 
and Israel and its well-wishers the world over 
enter upon the 26th year of Israel's statehood. 
What are the dangers, what are the stonn signals 
which lurk in its path? 

PHYSICAL SECURITY 

There is no need to dwell on the problem of 
IsraeFs military security. It can be relied upon 
to maintain a military posture which will deter 
serious aggressive adventures by its hostile neigh- 
bors. There is reason to look forward in the near 
ränge, to a continuation of America's present po- 
licy toward Israel. The questions of how soon the 
present cease-fire between Israel and its Arab 
neighbors can make way for a peace arrangement, 
and what territorial adjustments will need to be 
made, cannot be ventured at this stage. 

AUYAH PROSPECTS 

As for the prospects of Aliyah in the years 
ahead, there is reason to expect that the present 
rate of approximately 70,000 a year, of whom 
35,000 come from the USSR, is likely to continue. 
If the emigration tax on university graduates will 
be aboHshed, and the emigration policy of USSR 
will be liberalized, Aliyah from Russia could be 
easily doubicd. Medinat Yisrael, with the help of 
Jewish people throughout the world, will strain 
every effort toabsorb them. Aliyah from the Unit- 
ed States could easily amount to 10,000 a year and 
could reach twice that number. Thus, it does not 
strain the imagination to anticipate an Aliyah 
which might be in excess of 100,000 a year over 
the next period. Thus, the Jewish population of 



Medinat Yisrael, which today numbers over three 
millions, could, as a result of emigration and na- 
tural increases, reach the figure of over six millions 
by the year 2,000. Its Arab population which to- 
day numbers about 400,000, could approximate 
one million by the year 2,000. 

COMMERCE - INDUSTRY - AGRICULTURE 

In commerce and industry, the prospects are 
for IsraeFs steady growth, as methods of produc- 
tion and distribution become more efficient. The 
problem of labor's growing demands for an in- 
creasing share in the profits of industry, will un- 
doubtedly be feit in Israel, as in other countries, 
and even more, because of the strong position of 
labor in Israel. Yet, it should be said that in Is- 
rael both labor and capital have shown in the past 
a dimension of concem for the national well-being 
which is over and above the dictates of class inter- 
est; and this restraint may be expected to operate 
again as a somewhat mitigating factor. 

One of the economic-social problems with which 
those responsible for planning IsraeFs future will 
have to concem themselves, will be that of main- 
taining at least the present ratio of the agricultural 
economy to the industrial and commercial econ- 
omy. Within the agricultural economy, it will be 
necessary to maintain in undiminished degree the 
kibbutz and the moshav forms of agriculture for 
their unique social values. 

ECOLOGICAL PROBLEMS 

Ecological problems will have to receive in- 
creasing amounts of attention by the government. 
The not insignicant deterioration which has 
affected natural resources in little Israel, from Ti- 
berias to Eilat, and pollution which has already 
invaded the air of Haifa and Tel Aviv, and which 
treatens more menacingly in the future, are danger 
Signals which, if unhceded, can do irrepairable 
damage to public health and to a viahle future. 
Unless taken in band and vigorously pursued by 
governmental authorities, the prospects for Israel 
in the year 2,000 are grim and grimy. 

EDUCATIONAL AND MORAL CHALLENGE 

The greatest challenge before the Israel of 
tomorrow is in the cliaracter of its evolving So- 
ciety — its educational Standards and its moral 
quality. While the facilities and the availabilitv of 
higher edncation has increased manifold in the 
last decade, and will continue to increase in the 



/ ^ 



the other Soutine 



i^^ 



Alfred Werner 



". . . it is only in this transfiguration 
that art keeps alive the pain and the 
horror and the despair, keeps them alive 
as beautifui, satisfying for eternity. Thus 
a catharsis, a purification really occurs in 
art which pacifies the fury of rebellion 
and indictment and which turns the 
negative into the affirmative. . . " 

Herbert Marcuse 



The 'sixties saw among the Enghsh- 
speaking nations a considerablc revival of 
interest in the work of the painter Chaim 
Soutine (1893-1943). \n 1963, an Arts 
Council exhibition was devoted to him at 
London's Täte Gallery (ow^ncr of the 
important canvas, The Koad up the Hill, 
c. 1924). lu the United States, Soutine 
shows were staged by the Perls Galleries, 
New York, and by the Los Angeles County 
Museum of Art (in a mammoth show of 
90 works). A cofFee table book, with 
reminiscences by Soutine's loyal friend 
and collector, Marcellin Castaing and an 
essay by the critic, Jean Leymarie, was 
published in English translation, and 
smaller books appeared: by Andrew 
Forge (who leancd heavily on the Täte 
Gallery show) and by Maurice Tuchman 
(actually, the hard-cover cdition of the 
Los Angeles County Museum catalogue). 

Why this sudden avalanchc of interest? 
For onc thing, Soutine was the only 
important pre-world war II reprcsentative 
of the Ecole de Paris who had not yet bccn 
given his due. For another, many pcople, 
in reaction against the excessive intel- 
lectualism prcvailing in the arts were 
relieved to be confronted with an utterly 
naive master who, as a friend recallcd, 
without any prcliminary drawing, 'flung 
the colors onto the canvas like poisonous 
butterflies,' and whose work is clearly the 
result of inner necessity, the uamipcded 
expression of raw emotion. 

As a matter of fact. British appreciation 
ot Soutine came later than American 
curiosity about him. Oils by Soutine were 
already shown by galleries in New York 
in the late 1930's, and thcy aroused 
excitement in several young artists who 
might be called American Expressionists, 
such as Darrel Austin, Hyman Bloom, 




top to bottom: 

Chaim Soutine The Pastry Cook c. 1927 

Cnaim Soütfn5 Pemme en Feug» 1922 
Bakwin Collection, New York 



Jack Levine and Abraham Rattner (Barbara 
Rose links the 'smeared impasto and 
writhing, melting forms' in the 'fantastic 
visions in brilliant, visceral forms' by 
Bloom to the Russian-French artist). 
Posthumously, Soutine had his first 
triumph in the United States when a large 
Segment of his work was revealed in the 
memorial show at the Museum of Modern 
Art in 1950. Among those who came and 
were captivated by his oils was another 
batch of young men, soon to bc dubbcd 

'Action Paintcrs.' Their fascination with 
the Soutines, especially the early 'wild' 
ones is indisputable. Yet the assumption, 
occasionally read in print, that these 
Action Painters, or Abstract Expressionists, 
had been influenced by Soutine is hardly 
tenable. 

For by 1950, Pollock, De Kooning and 
their collcagucs had long formed their own 
styles and techniques. They nodded 
approvingly, for they sharcd with the late 
artist the samc kind of spontaneity, the 
same intoxication with texturc and color 
of pigmcnt heavily applied. One of them, 
Jack Tworkov, spokc for them all. In an 
Art News essay of 1950 he hailed Soutine's 
work for its 'impcnetrability to logical 
analysis,' for *that quality of surfacc which 
appears as if it had happencd rathcr thanas 
made.' He likcd 'the way his (Soutine's) 
painting moves toward the cdgcs in 
centrifugal waves filling it to the brim; 
his completcly impulsive usc of pigment 
in a material, generally thick, slow 
flowing, viscous, with a sensual attitude 
toward it, as if it were the primordial 
material, with deep and vibratory color, 
the abscnce of any efFacing of the tracks 
bearing the imprint of the energy passing 
over the surface.' 

Tworkov was enthusiastic: *The com- 
-bined dfect is of all a füll, packcd, dcnse 
picture of enormous seriousness and 
grandcur, lacking all cmbcllishmcnt of any 
concession to dccoration'. Yet he also 
knew that, gestures notwithstanding, 
Soutine was fundamentally a Realist, a 
traditionalist. Eighteen years later, in 
a PostScript appendcd to the Los Angeles 
Museum catalogue, Tworkov dcclared: 



24 



'I pcrsonally know of no abstract ex- 
prcssionist painters whose work showcd a 
Soutine iiifluence.' Unquestionably, hc was 
right in asserting that, on the othcr haiid, 
'Abstract Exprcssionism influenced a deeper 
appreciation of Soutine.' 

Such 'deeper appreciation' was very 
much needed in the United States whcre, 
up to the MOMA show, affirmative 
intercst in Soutnie had bcen hmited to the 
avant-garde. Even so astute a dcaler and 
author as Samuel M. Kootz wrote, in 
1932: "The mystic" quahty so glowhigly 
recognized in Soutine today is merely 
rotten painting. He paints in thick layers, 
throwing on paint hke ä drunken man. 
There is no appreciation of form, no 
clear defmition of vakics, no architcctural 
quahtics that would denotc orderly 
thinking,' Kootz, who was subsequently 
to promote Hans Hofmann, was no 
reactionary. But Thomas Cravcn, whose 
books on art were bcst-sellers in America 
before World War II, certainly was, and 
he spokc for many of his compatriots whcn 
hc assertcd that Soutine was 'the antithcsis 
of art' 

The Nazis would have gladly agrecd 
with Craven that Soutine's figures were 
'beyond the bounds of reason', while his 
landscapes 'might be the slag heaps of 
hell.' No Soutincs were inckidcd in the 
'Degenerate Art' exhibition of Munich, 

1938, simply because therc were none in 
German niuseums to be confiscated. 
Othcrwisc, hc would have had his place 
of 'honor' there along with Kirchner, 
Macke, Marc and others who had dared to 
paint skies green or trees purple and were 
thcrcfore, in Hitlcr's words, lunatics ready 
for 'eugenical' treatment. 

Ironically, Soutine, so far as he was 
interested in politics at all, was a man of 
the right rather than the Icft (hc is reported 
to have read admiringly Charles Maurras' 
cditorials in L'Action Francaisc, and to have 
been a believer in social inequality, despite 
his birth in a wretched Russian ghetto, and 
despite his own years of struggle as an 
improvidcnt immigrant in Paris). Acsthet- 
ically, too, he was a conservative, who 
stood apart from all the trends and schools 
that sprang up in France betwecn 191 3 and 

1939. Hc adored and cmulated Corot and 
Courbct, but among his own contempor- 
arics rcspected none but Rouault. He 
profcssed not to like Van Gogh (though, 
without the pioneering by Vincent, and 
by his admirers, the Fauves, Soutine 
might not have feit as free to express his 
anxieties in volcanic eruptions of color). 
Yet no two men were as similar at least in 




top to bottom: 

Chaim Soutine Dead Fowl 1926 Art Institute 
of Chicago 

Chaim Soutine Carcass of Beef c. 1926 
Minneapolis I nstute of Arts 



their working habits. Whatever other 
diffcrcnccs therc were bctween the two - 
the wcll-cducated middle-class Dutchman 
and the uncouth proletarian Russian Jew 

- for both the agitated movement of 
pigmcnt on canvas was the means with 
which thcy fought bouts of depression. 

There are more paradoxes. It is not 
surprising that Soutine loved Rembrandr 

- the Dutch master's Slaughtered Ox 
inspircd Soutine's many vcrsions of 
Carcass ofBecf. But it is astonishing that of 
all the pictures in the Louvre he treasured 
most Fouquet's portrait or Henri VII, as 
it is so tightly, so precisely paintcd, with 
an elaborate finish of all details, that it 
constitutcs the very opposite of Soutine's 
loose and frantic procedure. Perhaps he 
liked it so much also because it is part of the 
French hcritage - for Soutine, who never 
lost his forcign accent, nor his manners of a 
moujik, was a fanatic Francophile, who 
tried so hard to spcak correctly as to 
bccomc incomprehensible. . . . 

He was an Expressionist in the broad 
sense of the term - but he would have had 
no sympathy with the manifestoes or 
programs of Bmecke, Neue Kuemtlervere- 
iniguhg, Blauer Reiter, or Sturm, had he 
ever known them. In some ways, he 
recalls Le Douamer. Like Henri Rousseau, 
he was a respecter of theclassical tradition 
- luckily for us, both of them were 
temperamentally unable to bccome en- 
slavcd by it. Rousseau most carefully 
observed nature, and advised others to do 
so, yet his works came out quite 'un- 
naturalistically.' By the same token, 
Soutine would have been 'lost' without 
nature. He made countless painting 
expeditions into the meadows and hills 
around the Pyrences' village of Ceret. Yet 
anyonc who ever visited there, as this 
writer has, would fmd it impossible to 
recognise, with any certainty, any of the 
features in pr around this smiling town in 
Soutine's turbulent oils of the Ceret 
period (around 1920). 

He might just as well have painted the 
pictures from beginning to end in his 
studio ! Houses, hills, trees can be discerned 
with the greatest difficulty only, while 
many details altogether defy definition. 
One recalls that a Picasso, dated 191 1, was 
thought by its owner to be a landscape, 
because the artist had writtcn 'Ceret' on 
the back - it is now called Accordionist. 
What Alfred H. Barr wrote concerning 
Picasso about 'the mysterious tension 
between the painted image and "reality",* 
might well be applied to Soutine. 

Certainly, some of the colours, such as 



25 



thc stridcnt rcds and oranges, could only 
havc thcir origins in thc artist's unhappy 
State of inind. Thc tcrrain sccms to bc 
shakcn hy an carthquakc. In coniparison, 
Van Gogh's kitc landscapcs - in which 
cvcrthing niovcs, cvcrything secms to 
writhc, to coil - seem ahnost static. 
Modighani, thought rccognising thc grcat 
talcnt of his fricnd, quipped about thc 
Ccrct pictiircs which hc comparcd with 
ms own uiiig - or nqiior-niüucca halluci- 
nations, 'Evcrything danccs around mc, 
as in a landscapc by Soutinc' A more 
profound Observation was madc regarding 
a Ccrct picturc by thc Washington 
collcctor, Duncan PhilHps, in thc middlc 
of World War II: that Soutinc had 
paintcd this 'cataclysmic uphcaval as if 
hc had a prcnionition of our world's 
agony ot total war.' 

Strangcly, as Soutinc grcw oldcr, 
bccamc niorc succcssful, and Icaning 
towards Classicism, hc took such an intcnsc 
dislikc to thcsc carly picturcs that hc 
bought back all hc could find, to dcstroy 
thcm in a grcat rage. Indccd, hc ncver 
rcturncd to this kind of ncar-abstract 
painting (as he did not to his very carly, 
darkish still lifcs, in which inaniniatc 
objccts are clumsily arranged on a table, 
whcre a quivering iron fork looks like thc 
grasping, cmaciated band of a starved 
garret artist). Yet in his 'classical' pcriod 
he ncver came close to thc 'photogr.^ihic' 
iniagcs of thc Iniprcssionists - recent 
rcscarch has establishcd hovv painstakingly 
thcir picturcs rendered thc ditfcrcnt vistas. 
Still, thc landscapcs hc paintcd aftcr Ccrct 
in thc 'twcntics and 'thirtics are at least 
rclatively cahn and quiet. 

They are devoid of thc spasnis that 
turned cvcrything topsy-turvy. Thc agro- 
phübia is gone; now cvcry objcct has 
plcnty of Space for itsclf, is surroundcd by 
air, exposed to strong daylight. The 
objccts are still seen as if through a 
distorting Icns, but they sit squarely on thc 
ground. If, in thc picturcs done around 
i9?.o, therc is hardly any sky visiblc, and 
thc wholc canvas is filled to thc cdges 
with bands of color, thc landscapcs of thc 
'niaturc' Soutinc strangcly rccall thc rulcs 
hc had Icarned at thc Beaux-Arts Acadcmy 
of Vilna - tornuilations overthrown by 
Fauves, Cubists, Futurists and thc rest. 

But vvhilc thcre is something like a 
rcturn to 'Renaissance' conccpts in coni- 
pi^situMi, it vvould bc filsc to assume that 
thcre IS a Icsscning of Expressionist 
fervor. I:\en Ins ninst 'cjuict' picturcs 
convc\- tlic tue (^t tcrvcnr cniotions. Even 
thc supposcdly dcad chickcn, luing froni 



a hook on thc ceiling or thc wall oftcn 
appcar to bc engaged in some hystcrically 
wild dance, as though thc artist had 
wished to present thc crcature as a synibol 
of cruelty and torture. 1 hc 'dcad' fish on 
a platc seem to bc moving with fearful 
intcnsity - thcir cycs popping as if in 
response to violence - as though trying to 
escape froin a predator. 

Similarly, thc rows of trees hc paintcd 
in his last tlircc or four years, as a 'non- 
aryan' hiding in difiercnt villages in 
Central France, though not uprooted like 
thosc of thc Ccrct pcriod, are shakcn by 
storins, tossed by hurricanes whose 
whistling one can almost hear, thcir 
branches wildly piercing thc inoody dark 
sky. They are, mdubitably, true rcHcctions 
of thecontinuiiig uphcaval in thc artist. Yet 
one detail inust not bc ovcrlooked: thc 
tiny figurcs in thc foreground. They are 
iniportant not only becausc thcir smallncss 
accentuates thc treinendous hcii^ht of thc 
trees, but also becausc they rcprcscnt young 
schoolchildrcn, Walking band in band. 
Thc loncly artist, who had no wife, had 
few attaehments to wt)inen, secms to havc 
had a tender feeling for little childrcn. 
As Monroe Whceler wiote m thc in- 
troduction to thc MOMA catalo^uc: 

'IVrhaps m that twilight of his lifc, in 
that eclipse in thc lifc of his adopted 
country, childrcn two by two in brother- 
hood or friendship niay havc scenicd to 
hiin an image of thc condition of all 
human beings on carth, more acccptable 
than any other ideal furnished to his 
mind by patriotism, or rcligion, or 
romantic lovc' 

Mr. Whceler ovcrestimates Soutine's 
capacity to conceive philosophical ideas. 
But it is true th.it thc usual misanthropy 
is absein fr(^in Ins uttcrly warm and 
sympathetic rcndering of infuits. Bv 
contrast, hate, and espccially self-hatred, 
dominates his portrayal of adults. Of all 
sclf-p(^rtraits cver paintcd, Soutine's rcveal 
thc least .niKnint of sclf-cstcem - in fict, 
iionc. Distate \nv Ins crippled body 
iiivariably led roulousc-Lautrec to make 
fun ol hiniself. Yet hc iic\cr vvent as fir 
as Soutinc in self-denigratuui. In thc 
sclf-portrait that is now in thc Miiscc iFArt 
Aloihriic ilv Li I 'illc de Paris, Soutinc who, 
judging by piMtraits paintcd by Modigli.mi, 
and by surviving photos, had no rcpulsivc 
k'aturcs, portraycd hiinscU as a rcvolting 
monster, somewh.it likc thc .mti-Scmitic 
Cartoons th.it illustr.ited (jünlcitcr Strcichcr's 
iU")torioiis /)(■/■ Sfitcniicr. I hc lu^se is 
cnoniKHis .iiul tlchM'iucd. I hc protniding 
l(.)wcr li[\ paintcd in stixMig red, is as 



slack as in picturcs of idiots. The evcs are 
small and piggish; thc cars stand out froin 
■ thc head likc wings; thc Shoulders are 
hunched. If thc Ducrer sclf-p(>rtrait in thc 
Mihi ich Pindhotlich presents thc artist as a 
• God-likc figurc, here thc paintcr has 
detcrioratcd to thc Status of a cretin ! 

Yet it was probably this uneinbcllishcd 

immediacy, this anti-beauty concept, this 

'painting with thc guts' that madc Soutinc 

so admirablc to thc Abstract Exprcssionists 

of thc 1950's, who tried to do thc samc. 

It is possible that De Koonine, when 

painting his serics of inonstrous women, 

had Soutine's rcndcrings of femalcs far 

back in thc rccessesof his mind. At any rate, 

Soutine's prcfcrrcd fcm.ilc sitters were old 

and decayed, with unhealthy skins, with 

arthritically deformed hands. Sevcral 

picturcs carry thc title, Thc ALulii-oiiiüii. 

True, Soutine's (mIs usu.iII\- rccci\cd thcir 

titlcs Ironi dcalcrs. Yet, u hcthcr or not 

thc sitters were rc.illy ins.inc, tlic picturcs 

do, indccd, suggcst iinfortun.itc crc.itiircs, 

abnormally intcnsc, tigluK- containcd, 

morbidly withdrawn. 

Ycs, tlic)' are .ill sclf-portraits, thcsc 
rcndcrings ol owlish women, of loose- 
jointed homely b.ikcrs .ind hotcl cmplovces 
and waiters with grotcsqiicly twistcd faces, 
.md cvcn ot c.u-c.isscs (4 bccf - thcre is 
hot red color dnpping .ill ovcr thciii. His 
work IS aiuthin«^ but charmine. It is 
bound to irrit.itc lovcrs o{ Imprcssionism. 
Hut it looks otld .md out of place also in 
niiiscums .nul gallcrics tli.it feature Op 
Art, Minini.il Art, C\Miceptiial Art. 

It is ccrt.iinly 'un-P.irisian'. Indccd, to 
thc Irencli hc rcm.iincd an iiiiplcasant 
cnigm.i. What hc crc.itcd, a hoclic might 
apprcci.itc, but h.udly a culturcd French- 
in.in ! For one critic spokc of 'thc vampirc, 
thc p.iintcr tipsy with blood', another 
comparcd him to 'a passing tornado,' to 
'a scorchiim A//>7n//.' Likc other Outsiders, 
such .is Marcel (iromaire, and Francis 
(inibcr, likc Jc.m DiibuHct - who boldly 
dcclarcd hc prctcrrcd üit hnit to Ics arts 
culturcis - hc rcmained an ctcrnal step-child. 
Thrcc decades had to pass aftcr his quiet 
funcr.il in Montparnassc Cemetery beforc 
any adcquatc memorial exhibition was to 
bc givcn in France to this 'paintcr of 
anguish,' as Bcrn.ird Dorival has callcd 
him. It is bcing hcld in April and May at thc 
Oiiiinyi'ric des Tiiilcrics. Thc rcvicws are 
likcly to t'ivc a hint as to how In doiice 
I'miicc can, or cannot, propcrly react to thc 
ortcrings of a hysterical stranger, whose 
work to sotnc is a slap in thc face of 
traditional culturc, but to others is the 
cry of an aching hcart. 



26 







Chaim Soutine Still Life with Ray-Fish 

1924 Oll on canvas 31 x 39lin. Perls 
Galleries, New York 



^||l^:-fe^ ■■ t 





Gianfranco Pardi Architettura 1972 
painted aluminium 93 x 1 72 x 80cm 
Studio Marconi, Milan 



)iit 



''■*■' *^*^ 



.1 



ÜEf BooUs 





Wagon Scene, bv William Aiken Walker, IH8H, oii 14 x 24, colleclion Jav P. Altmaver 
Mobile. Fmm the book William Aiken Walker. Southern Genre Painter. reviewed behnv. 



William Aiken Walker, Southern Genre 
Painter, by August P. Trovaioli and 
Roulhac B. Toledano, 142 pp., II % x 8%, 
over 120 b/w illus.. 27 color plates, chro- 
nology, index. Louisiana State Univer- 
sity Press, Baton Rouge 70803, $15 

Born in Charleston in 1838 from a Prot- 
estant Irish father and his second wife, 
Mary Elizabeth Aiken, of South Caro- 
lina, William Aiken Walker was a 
through-and-through Southerner, 

brought up in a largely rural atmos- 
phere. Although interested in all aspects 
of cultural life-he was a singer, com- 
poser, story-teller, and poet, as well as a 
painter- Walker dedicated his art to the 
rural South as subject for 70 years. 

He was undoubtedly influenced by 
John Frederick Herring, a populär Brit- 
ish artist whose horse and barnyard 
scenes were widely known in America 
through engravings. William enlisted in 
the Southern Army in 1861, was 
wounded at Richmond, and was trans- 
ferred to Charleston. where his diver- 
sified gifts made him socially populär. 
Among his successful creations was a 
deck of Cards in which the kings were de- 
tailed likenesses of Jefferson Davis, 
General Beauregard, Stonewall Jackson! 
and Robert E. Lee. Whether he was stay- 
ing in Baltimore. New Orlean.s, or Charles- 
ton, he managed to earn money with his 
paintings. which he sold at exhibitions, 
at the finest hoteis. as souvenirs. or at 
church lotteries. 

His first painting, at age twelve, was of 
a Negro on the Charleston docks; his fi- 
nal work was a Negro tenant's shack in 
North Carolina. In between he painted 

10 



hundreds of pictures of the customs. tra- 
ditions. activities, and garments of black 
people. The white man was almost to- 
tally excluded from his Output. 

Most of the paintings were small: 6 x 
12, 7 X 10, or so; the larger ones were 
about 18 X 30 pr 25 x 40. Some were re- 
produced in lithographs by Currier and 
ives. Rectangular or circular. these small 
or medium-sized pictures had so much 
subject matter and were so painstakingly 
detailed that they were practically min- 
iatures. One 9 x 12'/2 oil on board depicts 
a dilapidated shack with six figures. a 
dog, chickens, an outhouse. and a long 
fence with the wash hanging on it. 

The book delves into the life of the 
artist and the historical events around 
him. It is interesting to see that Walker 
was not concerned with depicting the so- 
cialites among whom he spent much of 
his time. In addition to black genre 
themes, however, he also painted still 
lifes and many landscapes in a totally 
naturalistic manner. and he appears to 
have loved Florida. He had a real flair 
for composition, and his small oils are 
often charming. 

Although Walker died in 1921 at age 
83, and the second half of his career 
coincided with the spread of Impression- 
ism and other modern forms of art, his 
work never changed. it continued to re- 
present a long-past era. There was never 
the slightest social consciousness in his 
work-not even the topicalness, the 
journalistic immediacy so prevalent in 
the genre paintings of the North. 

"Genre" refers to works of art depict- 
ing an everyday story. Enjoyed in an- 



cient Rome (we see genre pictures on the 
walls of Pompeii and Herculaneum), 
genre was introduced into Western art 
by the Reformation in the 16th Century. 
Puritanic Protestants objected to mytho- 
logical, biblical. and historical subjects, 
but they accepted genre pictures that 
could be understood by simple people. 
Genre was naturally populär in 
predominantly Protestant America. 
Walker\s little pictures, like all genuine 
Americana, have increased in value in- 
ternationally as well as nationally. 

The authors of this album-like book 
have done careful research on an artist 
who has unquestionably contributed 
more to American culture in general 
than to American art in particular. r.f. 

Artistry of the Mentally III, by Hans 
Prin/horn. translated by Eric von 
Brockdorff. xxii + 274 pp.. many illus. in 
color and black/white, 10'/2 x 7'/4, 
Springer- Verlag. $19.80 
Outsider Art, by Roger Cardinal. 192 
pp., many illus. in color and black/ 
white. 10 X 7'A, Praeger. $15 

That great arti.sts may be afflicted with a 
trace of insanity has been known 
throughout the millenia. No objective 
person has ever contested the words of 

the Roman philosopher Seneca: "There 

is no great genius without a touch of de- 
mentia." But while biographers have 
never faiied to point out instances of 
"crazy" behavior and thinking in the 
lives of the famous ones. it was left to a 
German scientist to examine very seri- 
ously works by inmates of a.sylums which 
were never considered worth showing in 
a museum or even in a gallery. Hans 
Prinzhorn { 1886- 1933) was on the staffof 
the Psychiatric Clinic at Heidelberg. 
There he found a collection of paintings 
and drawings by mental patients. He en- 
larged the collection until. by the time he 
published his book. Bildnerei der Geis- 
leskranken (1922). it comprised 5000 
piecesculled from institutions in five dif- 
ferent countries. 

One is grateful for this first English 
translation. but cannot help observing 
that its English title is inaccurate: Dr. 
Prinzhorn deliberately avoided Kunst 
(artistry) and used. instead. the less pre- 
tentious term Bildnerei, or picture-mak- 
ing. Yet, while he ditferentiated between 
the creations of practicing, professional 
artists and the products of utterly un- 
trained psychotics (mostly schizophren- 
ics), he nonethele.ss did not dismiss the 
latter as curiosities. but looked at ihem 
without bias and subjected them to thor- 
ough analysis. 

Some of the works reproduced here 
clearly show talent, and a few are even 
remarkably beautifui in a rather bizarre 
way. But Professor Prinzhorn was not 
concerned whether they were or were 
not great art. He appreciated these works 

Continued overleaj 

American Artist 



*3( 



by mentally ill people as "the eruptions 
of a universal human creative urge, 
counteracting the autistic tendencies 
towards Isolation." He himself did not 
draw the conclusion that art could be 
used as a vehicle of occupationai ther- 
apy. Yet he laid the foundation for all fu- 
ture use of "art" as an outlet. permitting 
physicians to probe deeper into the 
minds of so-called madmen. As James L. 
Foy writes in the introduction to the 
Engiish edition, the book "celebrates the 
resourcefulness and the creativity of 
some of our wretched, anguished broth- 
ers, whom society is even now too willing 
to ignore or discard." 

Four of Prinzhorn's Schizophrenie art- 
ists are to be found among the 29 men 
and women whose works are examined 
in Outsider Art. The 25 others are, for the 
most part. merely "peculiar" in the sense 
that their life styles were in many ways 
different from those of the ordinary Citi- 
zen. They were all untrained and quite 
removed from any artistic environment 
(though at least one. Friedrich Schroe- 
der-Sonnenstern, was discovered and 
promoted by German commercial gal- 
leries; his utterly fantastic art is de- 
scribed here as "one of scandal and deri- 
sive caricature that assaults the social 
prejudices and sexual taboos"). 

Most of these 29 were conspicuously 
nonconformist, and some came into seri- 
ous conflict with society. A few, however, 
lived and worked quietly. Clarence 



Schmidt built himself a labyrinthine 
multi-level house and garden, crammed 
with found objects, on a hillside in the 
Catskills. His work of many years was 
later destroyed by arson. Simon Rodia 
was luckier; the amazing towers he made 
of cement and broken pottery at Watts, a 
poverty-stricken section of Los Angeles, 
were preserved by being declared a Cul- 
ture Heritage Monument, thanks to the 
eflbrts of a committee of concerned Citi- 
zens. 

Both books are well documented and, 
though on a high scholarly level, within 
the grasp of any earnest layman. a.w. 

Tincraft, by Lucy Sargent, 200 pp., 1 1 x 
8'/2, many b/w photographs and dia- 
grams, 8 pp. of color, Simon & Schuster, 
$9.95 

Here's a new craft that will help the ecol- 
ogy. Empty cans, a disgrace when you 
see them all over our cities, towns, and 
roads, become valuable craft supplies, 
recycled into decorations for your home 
and garden, if you happen to have one, 
and for jewelry and unique gifts. Few 
tools are needed— shears, pliers, snips, 
epoxy— besides a knowledge of how to 
remove rims, how to polish cans, how to 
trace and apply designs on them, how to 
painl or bronze them. A simple method 
ofsoldering is described, too. 

Beginning with modest projects, such 
as a Paul Revere lantern, mobiles, and 
animal tigures, Lucy Sargent guides you. 



Step by Step, through a really astonishing 
number of decorative articles for every 
imaginable purpose. You can create ev- 
erlasting flowers, mirror frames, candle- 
holders, key rings, baskets, ashtrays, 
Cookie Cutters, earrings, and chimes, not 
to mention glittering Christmas Orna- 
ments. 

You'U find that the metal can lends it- 
self to great possibilities, especially be- 
cause its cut sections bend or sniral beau- 
tifuUy and add interest to your basic 
design. Floral and butterfly patterns 
seem to be the easiest, but you might also 
weave baskets and make intricate Con- 
tainers out of former sardine cans. Deco- 
rations can be applied with brush or 
quick-drying marking pens in many coi- 
ors. 

Sconces are among the cleverest ob- 
jects in the book. Once the main shapes 
are cut and bent, it's easy to add relief 
decorations with an awl, the handle of a 
brush, a manicure file, etc. 

The book contains many jewelry de- 
signs, and you'll be amazed to see that 
even dresses can be made of empty cans; 
but the author admits these aren't for 
everyday wear. Anyway, the sky's the 
limit, but do watch out for sharp edges 
on the metal. r.f. 

Paul Signac, by Fran(,oise Cachin. 25 
color plates, 100 black/white illus., 142 
pp., 1 1 x 10, New York Graphic Society, 
Greenwich. Gönn.. $17.50 



This book explores in depth, through both text 
and reproductions, the richness and diversity 
of his work. __=^— .:- 

The Art oj /^^idvcw Wyeth 



WttHKm 



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dited by Wanda M. Corn. Contributions by Brian 
O'Doherty, Richard Meryman, E. P. Richardson and 
Wanda M. Corn. With 110 color plates, many of works 
never reproduced in color before, and 52 black and 
white reproductions. These süperb reproductions of 
Wyeth's temperas, watercolors and drawings revcal the 
füll scope of his art. The text is an authoritative discus- 
sion of Wyeth as artist and man. 176 pp. 12x9 ins. 
At Your Bookstore, or use the coupon to order now. 



MONEY-BACK GUARANTEE 



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Sirs: Please send me copy(ies) of THE ART OF ANDREW WYETH edited 

by Wanda M. Corn at $19.95 per copy. My fJ check D money order is en- 
closed. If not completely satisfied, I may return the book(s) within 10 days 
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Ameriean Artist 



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In contrast to ihe many books on 
Georges Seural, who died at the age of 
• 32 and thus left few pictures. ihis is the 
first volume in tinglish on Seural's friend 
and disciple Paul Signac. w ho had a long 
and prosperous life- his dales are 1863 to 
1935 and whose Output was consider- 
able. The author is Signac^ grand- 
daughler and a curator at the Musee Na- 
tional d'Art Moderne in Paris. 

Undoubtedly. credit for having intro- 

duced Neo-imnres^ii^ni^m (:\\<n knnun 

as Divisionism or Pointillism) uoes to the 
great and original Seurat. who devel- 
oped the Pointillism painting technique. 
applying pure eolor in tiny dols. But Si- 
gnac was the movement's theoretician. 
His ireatise Froni Delacroix to Neo-Im- 
pressionism is a must for every art histo- 
rian. He also was a sicnerous host to the 
young revolutionary painters meeting 
weekly at his studio. Above all. he was 
the Creator ofnumerous (ine oils and wa- 
tercolors. niostly landscapes depicting 
the Seine and the coasts of Normandy. 
Brittany. and the French Riviera. He 
kwed large hoats and mv iied his friends 
on sailing trips. His life was cheerful and 
untroubled. the very opposite ofthat led 
by his dose friend Van Ciogh. who com- 
plained to hmi. "1 am left with a vast 
amount o[^ inward despair." 

Madame C'achin describes her grand- 
father as "one o\' the last I9th Century 
presences. Iniked by his optimism and 
his positivist faith in the future of techni- 



cal and human progress to the great 
hopes of romanticism." She gives us here 
a solid study of the work of a master 
whose importance is not always suf- 
ficiently recognized. 

The pictorial section juxtaposes paint- 
ings o{ the same. or similar. subjects by 
Monet and Signac, Guillemin and Si- 
gnac. Van Gogh and Signac. and it re- 
produces Signac's paintings of the Har- 
bor of Saint-Tropez along with contem- 
norarv nhc^toppMnh*; Alfr^o^»fhf»r «r. 
enjoyable and instructive book. a.w . 

Bosch, by Carl Linfert. 136 pp., 13 x 10. 
63 black/white illus., 48 in color, Harry 
N. Abrams. $18.50 

Bosch has been dead for over 450 years, 
but discussion about his startling pic- 
tures has not yet come to an end; it prob- 
ably never will. Was he a heretic, aftil- 
iated with unpopulär Christian sects. 
who skillfully concealed in his paintings 
messages to be recognized only by the 
initiated? Was he a precursor of modern 
Surrealism. whose iconography is to be 
interpreled as free expressions of the un- 
conscious? 

The author of this latest book on the 
remarkable Flemish Master wams us 
against view ing him in the context of our 
own cenlur\. Though Bosch was not a 
typical unquestioning believer in the or- 
thodox C'hristianity of the Late Middle 
Ages. he was not dissenting. either. 
While he introduced many changes. he 



was faithful to tradition both in the reli- 
gious and the artistic sense-and cer- 
tainly not a precocious Freudian! 

Linfert does not claim to be able to 
solve all the riddles posed by Bosch and 
his work. Yet in his introduclion. and es- 
pecially in the commentaries facing the 
illustrations. he calls attention to details 
that would be overlooked by the casual 
Viewer, and leads us to give more time 
and effort to works that cannot possibly 
<'C üncicrstüud ai a giance-'these weird 
Puzzles set down with such utter real- 
ism/' as he calls them. Carefully, the au- 
thor analyzes all the pictures. h'lled with 
Strange men. wiih devils, with peculiar 
animals-oils painted on panel in a me- 
ticulously realistic manner. though the 
scenes are entirely fantastic in concep- 
tion. Bosch concerned himself with 
themes from the world of the New Testa- 
ment, yet he treated Christian visions as 
real and. by the same token. transformed 
Netherlandish reality into the stuffof vi- 
sions. As Linfert put it. his Flemish real- 
ism "led him to invent a whole new 
World of meaningful signs so much the 
more ettective because oi their inherent 
tendency to deform reality." 

Jheronimus (Hieronymus) Bosch was 
born in the middle o( the 15th Century 
and died in 1516; he seems to have spenl 
most of his life in s'Hertogenbosch. a 
small town in Brabanl. Yet in this pro- 
vincial place he managed to bring forth 
the most amazina. thouiiht-nrovoking 



NEW IN 



THE DOCUMENTS OF 20TH-CENTURY ART 

Robert Motherwell, General Editor Bernard Karpel, Documentary Editor 




FUNCTIONS OF 
PAINTING 
by Fernand Leger 
Translated by 
Alexandra Anderson 
Edited and 
Introduced by 
Edward T. Fry 

in these lucid essays, 

many unavailable be- 

fore in English, the 

cubist master reveals 

his concern for the 

social context of art, 

from architecture to 
the circus. 

16 pagesof halftones. 

$10.00 clothbound: $4.50 paperbound 

The Documents of 20th-Century Art already 
published: 

Dialogues with Marcel Duchamp by Pierre 

Cabanne 

$7.50 clothbound; $3.25 paperbound 

My Galleries and Painters by Daniel-Henry 
Kahnweiler with Francis Cremieux 
$8.50 clothbound; $4.25 paperbound 

Apollinaire on Art: Essays and Reviews 
1902-1918, edited by LeRoy C. Breunig 
$1 7.50 clothbound; $5.95 paperbound 

Henry Moore on Sculpture, edited by Philip 

James 

$5.95 paperbound 




FUTURIST 

MANIFESTOS 
Edited by 
Umbro Apollonio 

As writers, the 
Futurists were fiery, 
explosive, and witty; 
as artists, they were 
Innovators whose im- 
portance is only now 
being recognized. 
This long-awaited 
anthology of their 
writings includes un- 
usual documentary 
illustrations and a bibliography. 8 pages in 
color, 124 black-and-white illustrations. 
$12.50 clothbound; $6.50 paperbound 

Arp on Arp: Poems, Essays, Memories by Jean 

Arp, edited by Marcel Jean 

$17.50 clothbound; $5.95 paperbound 

Picasso on Art: A Selection of Views by Dore 
Ashton 

$8.95 clothbound; $3.50 paperbound 
My Life in Sculpture by Jacques Lipchitz 
with H. Harvard Arnason 
$10.00 clothbound; $4.95 paperbound 

A new catalogue of Viking art books will be 
availabie in the early fall. Send us your name and 
address now if you'd iike a free copy. 

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July 1973 



13 



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interpretations of thc hauntcd world oi' 
Gothic twilight. whcrc paradisc is as 
frightcninii as hell and whcre pcoplc 
miiiiilc vviih nionsiers. 

Mosi of ihc pictLircs. exccllenlly re- 
produccd in füll color. come from ihe 
collcctions in thc Prado and othcr Euro- 
pean muscums. but thrcc Amcrican- 
ovvncd vvorks arc also includcd: Thc 
Adonition oj ihc Ma^i and Ecce Homo, in 
thc Philadelphia Museum o[' Art. and 
Deaih und ihc MIser. in Washinjiton"s 
National Cjallery of Art. 

The translation from the (ierman 
reads well, and ihere is an ample bibli- 
ography. a.w. 

The Ceramics and Sculptures of Chagall. 

by Charles Sorlier, with a preface by 
Andre Malraux, translated from the 
French by Howard Brabyn. 250 pp., 13 x 
10, 122 color plate.s. 98 black/white 
illus., Editions Andre Sauret. Monaco, 
distributed by Crown Publishers, $39.50 

As an artist grows older and becomes a 
monument, he rtnds it ea.sy to .seil at good 
prices whatever leaves his studio and is 
tempted to lake the easy way, eventually 
succumbing to the inevitable deteriora- 
tion and slackening of Standards. Marc 
Chagall sought escape from this trap by 
turning to other media, such as lith- 
ography, etching, and, in 1950, ceramics 
and sculpture. 
The current book presents excelleni 



% 



reproductions of the ca. 200 three-di- 
mensional works C hagall created in the 
last twenty years. During this time, set- 
tled in the South of France, he began to 
explore the plastic po.ssibilities of clay 
and stone, in.stead of being content to 
just adapt his süperb technique of paint- 
ing to the new material. As a ceramist he 
did not confine himself to decoraling 
dishes and vessels fashioned by profes- 
sional potters. but. instead. he shaped 
the clay with his own hands. Thus he had 
absolutely free rein. As Charles Sorlier 
puls it in his all too brief introduction, 
"There is no intermediary between the 
arti.st's band and his raw material." 

The reliefs in marble and other stone, 
carved from large blocks, have a truly 
archaic, if static, quality about them. But 
being by necessity devoid of color. ihey 
are not as attractive as the pots, oval 
plates. bulging ve.ssels. and glazed ce- 
ramic tiles upon which Chagall lavished 
his chromatic splendors (among these 
items is a dinner service of 79 pieces, 
pre.sented by Chagall to his daughter Ida 
on the occasion of her marriage to the art 
historian Franz Meyer). In his preface 
Andre Malraux Singles out the Master's 
greatest talent by .saying. "Chagall has 
established a dialogue with colt)r com- 
parable to that established by the Vene- 
tians about 1550." 

Some of the works are inspired by 
Bible themes; of special importance is 



the large ceramic mural of the Red Sca 
passage that Chagall made for the bap- 
tistry of a new. modern church at A.s.sy in * 
the French Alps. On the whole. however, 
themes and figures well-known from the 
Master's painling repertoire prevail: 
strangely shaped. amusmg animals: bou- 
quets of flowers; full-breasted young fe- 
males. draped or undraped; episodes 
from the fables of La Fontaine; endless 
rows of lovers; mothers holdins babies; 
and landmarks of Paris. (Strangely. the 
artist's native town. Vitebsk. and^ Fast ^ 
European Jewish types are absent.) 

One can almost see the aged artist 
lovingly caressing the moist clay with his 
knowledgeable hands, coaxing it into 
forms that were Coming to life beneath 
his fingers, to be immortali/.ed in the 
heat of a kiln. While many of the pieces 
could. of course, be used like other table- 
ware, it is not likely that they will serve 
their owners for casual. everyday pur- 
po.ses. Many of these objects have highly 
exuberant and tlamboyant handleslind 
spouts that limit their adaplabilitv to 
utilitarian ends. though thev enhance the 
vitality and poetry of the pieces. 

Chagall may no longer be the very 
imaginative and daring painter he was 
around 1920. But asa sculptorand. espe- 
cially, as a ceramicist. he underuent a 
process of rejuvenation that resulted in 
lovable objects that carry the stamp of 
his Personality and originality and. quite 



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American Artist 



frequently. his enchanting sense of hu- 
I mor. A.W. 

Approaches to Drawing. by Leo Walms- 
ley, 80 pp., 8'/2 x 6^4, fully illustrated in 
b/w and 16 pictures in color. Van Nos- 
trand Reinhold, $5.95 

When we consider the incised drawings 
of prehistoric man and his outlines of 
animals on the walls of his cave, when 
we iook at the pictograms of many an- 
cient civilizations and the present-day al- 
phabets, and when we watch children 
draw or doodle as soon as they can hold a 
pencil or crayon, we must come to the 
conclusion that drawing is a basic activ- 
ity of the human race. 

Of course, there\s quite a difference 
between doodles. pictograms, and what 
we call drawings in the fine arts. Such 
drawings go tar beyond instinctive lines 
to careful Observation and aesthetic pur- 
poses. As Walmsley says. drawing is talk- 
ing with shapes, or making shapes and 
forms; it is the use of textures and, ac- 
tually, drawing is seeing. The average 
person looks, but doesn't really see, 
whereas an artist has to learn to see and 
to delineate what he sees. Drawings can 
show almost anything, without adding 
words. They can show not only tangible, 
visible objects, but ideas and even feel- 
ings and emotions as well. 

The Word "drawing" is employed here 
in the widest sense. Not pencil, crayon. 
and pen-and-ink alone, but drawing 
with brushes, pastel, and thread. Draw- 
ing can consist of outlines. or it can be 
shaded; it can be done with rollers, 
feathers, a toothbrush. a sponge. and so 
on. It can show mere shapes. or intricate 
textures and decorations; it can be realis- 
tic. abstract, pure design. or any mixture 
of the various possibilities. 

Walmsley explains the importance of 
proportions, which can easily be meas- 
ured with the eyes, rather than rulers. He 
points out the advantage of observing an 
object from the most characteristic 
angle. Many of the illustrations were 
made by youngsters who had been prac- 
ticing for some time. The author believes 
that the best way to understand and to 
improve drawing is to keep on doing it. 
He also believes that all human beings 
can draw. r k 

C The IJfeand Art of Henn Fusely. bv Pe- 
ter Tomory. 13 color platcs. 254 monoch- 
rome ill.. 255 pp.. 1 1 ' 2 x 8' 2. Pracger. S25 

It is not surprising thal a first-rale. seri- 
ous study of Henrv luselv the Swiss- 
born Johann Heinrich Fuessli should 
have to wait as long as this tMie. bv a 
curatorof ihc Rinulimi Museum at Sara- 
sota. Florida. Kor Fuselv. whose dates 
were 1741 to 1825. was underratcd and 
even ncülcclcd duriiiii much oi the last 
centurv. ihouiih his firsi bioiiraphcr had 
hailed him as "a most exiraordinarv and 
accomplished person." He largelv owcs 
his rcdiscovery in our times to ihc Sur- 

July 1973 




JOHN C. PELLEW in the SmOkieS. lake oils, watercolor or acryl 
ics and join this well known artist in September. Fly or drive your own car. 

EDGAR A. WHITNEY in Bermuda, join this exciting watercoiorist 

for a week or two of painting in Winslow Homer's paradise. September is ideal. 

JOHN PIKE in Yugoslavia and Greece. in September you n 

have the opportunity to see step-by-step demonstrations in most picturesque 
surroundings. Watch and learn, then paint, paint, paint. 

GEORGE CHEREPOV in New England or Mexico. Take 

your oils for a week or two of painting in New England in September, or, instead, 
join the artist in Guanajuato and Patzcuaro, Mexico, in November. 

HERB OLSEN in Spain, MorOCCO. October is when you can join 
this great instructor for a week of painting on the island of Majorca. The second 
part of the Workshop is spent in a small mountain village in Morocco. 

PAUL STRISIK in Jamaica. in November, oil painters and water 
colorists alike will meet for a week or two to paint the "Island in the sun." 

TOM HILL in Guatemala. A week of painting is planned in Antigua, 
while the second week is spent at famous lake Atitlan. Paint markets and colorful 
costumes. 

Just fill in the coupon below to get all details about these and future Painting 
Holidays. Enjoy the relaxed association with fellow artists . . . see new and inspir- 
ing scenery. . .and, above all, improve your artistic ability. Whether you're a 
beginner or an advanced Student, working in oils, acrylics, or watercolor, there's 
bound to be a holiday planned just for you. (Even your non-painting wife or 
husband will enjoy these Workshops since many other activities are available for 
them while you're painting.) 



r 



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I Painting Holidays, c o American Artist 

One Astor Plaza, New York, New York 10036 

Name 



Address 



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State 



Zip 



Information please on: 



15 



f^ 



realists, who were fascinated by his 
story-telling, macabre. and often ex- 
tremely erotic piclures. and who saw in 
him an important forerunner of their 
theory and practice. 

Peter Tomory. wiih greal love and at- 
tention to detail, traces the career of this 
remarkable native of Zürich who, after a 
brief career as a parson, emigrated to 
England, attracted by its tradition of 
freedom and delighted by the impor- 
tnnce of the theatre in London. Scenes 
from Shakespeare's plays became the 
main source of his artistic inspiration. 
though his other favorites were Milton. 
Dante, and the Nibelungenlied. In Eng- 
land he made a living as a translator, was 
encouraged by Reynolds to develop into 
a painter. and rose to high position in the 
country's artistic life. The very antithesis 
to the classical Reynolds, he was in- 
fluenced by and, in turn, himself in- 
fluenced, his friend William Blake. 

Fusely's most famous picture is The 
Nighiniare, of which he made several 
versions. The first version shows a beau- 
tiful young woman sleeping, her thinly 
veiled body supine on a lavishly draped 
couch. A subhuman monster crouches 
on her abdomen, w hile a horse-like ani- 
mal Stares ominously at the scene. 

Nightmarish is, indeed, most of his 
work, anticipating as it does the Roman- 
ticists' renditionsof frighteningcreatures 
in nocturnal settings, with exaggerated 



contrasts of light and shadow. Though a 
"professor oC painting," Fusely was not 
perfect in the execution of his large pic- 
tures. But, as the book's illustrations 
demonstrate, he was a remarkably good 
draftsman. Readers in the "cool" 1970's 
may not be as upset as were his contem- 
poraries by his fantastic imagery, with its 
bold stylizations and even distortions, 
but they will not be bored. Tomory's 
book is on an admirable scholarly level 

vo.u, Mpul I. iiv^iii jij vuiuv^ aa an itisixji y , 

offers marvelous glimpses into the social, 
political. and literary life of England un- 
der George III. a.w. 

Watercolorists at Work, by Susan E. 
Meyer and Norman Kent, 160 pp., 11 x 
8'/4, 1 13 color plates and many b/w illus., 
index, Watson-Guptill, $15 

A few years ago, Norman Kent invited a 
number of his friends and colleagues to 
contribute to a book on watercolor. He 
died before the book could be finished. 
Fortunately, Susen E. Meyer, who also 
succeeded Kent as editor of American 
Artist and who had worked with Kent 
on an earlier book, WO Watercolor Tech- 
niques, feit committed to assemble and 
organize the pictures, data, and text, and 
the result is an unusual book. 

Instead of finding the Standard list of 
materials, tools, and methods of one 
Single artist, you meet 25 well-known 
watercolorists who show you, step by 



Step, how they execute a painting in wa 
tercolor. Reading and looking at this 
book is like watching separate demon- 
strations by all these artists. Some of 
them paint pretty scenery; others create 
dramatic or imaginative pictures. You 
see figures, cities, trees, stone quarries, 
old houses, Castles, seascapes, and boats 
as well as storms and fantasies. 

One page on each artist teils about his 
materials and equipment, his preference 
111 suujccis, his meihod of workmg, his 
way, literally, of looking at things. You 
learn that not every aquarellist is dead 
set against the use of white paint, pro- 
vided that it's a permanent white, nor 
against the use of erasers and razor 
blades. One uses an electric hair dryer to 
hasten the drying, while another tries to 
keep his paints quite wet. The palettes- 
that is, the colors-also vary considera- 
bly, although every artist employs cer- 
tain basic colors. Preferences in paper 
are also remarkably different. Some 
work on thin, smooth paper rather than 
on the customary heavy and rough sur- 
faces. 

Certain artists make careful pencil 
layouts; others have a bolder approach, 
On-the-spot sketches, often including 
notations, are generally necessary, but 
snapshots are commonly used for fine 
details. Professional artists work and re- 
work their compositions-not like begin- 

ConiinueJ on page 62 



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ManMIaHi C«f •ra«Ma am lli Im fruiiwi 



American Artist 






A 



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1^2. 



i ^< 



In THi I AI I Ol 196K. a painling. The Tuileries (iardens: Auiumn Mornin^. was 
sold al auction by Parke-Bernet, New York, for thc rather rcspcctablc sum of 
$260.000. a rccord price for a Pissarro. Yct ihc maker of this picture. thc 
French Impressionist Camille Pissarro (1830-1903). nevcr in his long career 
achieved more than a modicum of financial security for himself and his family 
of eight, despite his tireless efllbrts. At 57, a leading figure within the Impres- 
sionist group. and admired by all advanced critics. he wrote a letter to his son 
Luden, living in London, explaining why he had not sent a letter earlier: 

"I lacked the three cents postage." 

While his economic Situation improved in the next few years, as late as Sep- 
tember 1903 he still complained to Lucien that he was ''hardly besieged by de- 
mands" for his pictures. Several weeks later he passed away. Still, though he 
had never been nearly as successful as his associates Monet and Renoir, he had 
been a happy man. To Lucien, who was not only a son, but also a good friend 
and a fellow artist, he had written, "Painting, art in general, enchants me. It is 
my life. What eLse matters!" And to the sympathetic critic. Octave Mirbeau, 
"For me all sorrows, all bitterness and griefs are forgotten and even cease to 
exist. in thejoy of work." 

Who was Pissarro? His life was rather "uneventful." compared to more dra- 
matic experiences of his colleagues. such as Gauguin and Van Gogh. He was 
born on St. Thomas, one of thc Virgin Islands that was then a Danish colony. 
(Unable lo acquire French citizenship, Pissarro remained a subject of the Dan- 
ish king to the end.) His parents were Sefardim. descendants of Jewish families 
that had been expelied from thc Iberian Peninsula towards the end of thc 15th 
Century. With his large nose and his long flow ing beard he lookcd like an im- 
age of an Old Testament prophet, yet by and large there was nothing to distin- 
guish him from a man of Gallic stock. His wife. who was originally his mother's 
maid, was a native of a village in Burgundy. Having received a French cduca- 
tion from the start, he regarded himself a Citizen of the world. with no particu- 
lar religious, racial, or national lies. 

This French education began in a boarding schoo! at Passy near Paris. After 
returning to St. Thomas, the teenager worked for a while as a clerk in the pater- 
nal dry-goods storc. But in his spare time he sketched ceasclessly, fascinatcd by 
the exotic life and near-tropical nature around him. In the Company of a some- 
what older Danish painter. Pissarro went to Caracas to ''break thc bond" that 
tied him to a "bourgeois existence." While waiting in Venezuela for permission 
to return to Paris for a solid art education, he produced many fine watercolors. 
The request granted. Pissarro hastened to France, never to .see the West Indies 
again. 

The years from 1855. when he enrolled at the Ecolc des Beaux-Arts, to his 
death in Paris 48 years later can be summed up in one word: work. There was 
one involuntary interruption: the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1871 drove 
him into exile in London. The sojourn there was fruitfui inasmuch as it en- 
abled him to di.scover and admire the paintings of Constable and Turner. 
When, after the war, he returned to his home at Louveciennes near Pari.s, he 
was dismayed to find that all of the more than 200 paintings he had left there 
had been destroyed. Prussian soldiers had turned thc painter's residence into a 
slaughterhouse and used the canvases as mats in the muddy uarden. 

The British landscapists werc not thc only masters to exert an intlucnce upon 
Pi.ssarro. He tried to learn from everyone to whom he feit a kinship. He took his 
guidance from Corot and Courbet, blending the former's subtlety of atmos- 
pheric effect with the strength and solidity of the latter. He came undcr the 
spcll o\' Manet. As a middle-aged man he even experimcnted with Seurat's 
mcthod of painting with tiny dots of color (pointillism). Yet he always man- 
agcd to retain his own identity, never becoming an imitator or plagiarist. 

In 1874 he was one of the leaders of the group of indepcndenl painters 
whom hostile critics dubbed Impressionists. The general outlines of the story 
ot Imprcssionism are too well known to require bcing told herc. The rcvolu- 
tionary practice of painting outdoors, rather than in the relative darkness of an 
atelier; of using pure, bright colors, corresponding to the spectrum of sunlight; 

July 1973 




Camille 

Pissarro: 

Humble 

and 

Colossal 



BY ALFRED WERNER 

"Whoever is in a hurry will 
not stop for me," Pissarro said. 
One of the greatest leaders of 
the Impressionist movement 
was Camille Pissarro, yet during 
his lifetime he was offen 
misunderstood and for a 
long time impoverished. 



Dpposiw pus^c: l\)rirait o\' Mnic. .lulic Pis- 
sarro, (v/. /.W. oii /\'iii Palüts. Paris. Cour- 
tcsv Plioioi^rd/y/üc (iirauJon. In this skcich 
WC can scc how Pissarro work cd lron\ 
hromilv inüicuicd forms to /)iorc suhilc nioJ- 
clifii^ aihl snuillcr hrush str()kcs. 



21 










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Ahovc: The Road of Rocquencourt. 1H7I, 
oil, 20' 4 X 30. Private collcclion. After he 
studied the work of Consiuhle and Turner, 
Pissarro's palette hecame hrighterand more 
suhtle. Note his Jeveloping use of shadow 
as an aspect of light. 



Rii^ht. The Mill of Knocke. Belgium. mid 
90\ oil. Collect ion Mr. & Mrs. Simon Jag- 
lom. Tvpical ofthi.s period, thehrush strokes 
get smaller. ahnost pointilli.st. 

Opposite page: Jallais Hill. F'onioise. 1867, 
oil, 34 '/4 .\ 45 '/4. Court es V The Metropolitan 
Museum (f Art, hequesi of William Church 
Oshorn, 1^51. Anearlv "plein-air" paintim;. 
Note how the hroad hrush strokes and care- 
ful design contribute to painting's solidity. 



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American Artist 








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of applying these pigments, unmixed, 
with small strokes to the canvas; of the 
quick recording of ephemeral "impres- 
sions" of a scene . . . these and other 
characteristics united Pissarro, Monet, 
Renoir, Sisley, Cassatt, Morisot, and 
others into an association that stood out- 
side the conservative Academy and the 
painters who exhibited in the official Sa- 
lon. 

But it would be fallacious to think that 
the more than 50 artists who participated 
in all, or some, of the eight Impressionist 
group shows were completely agreed 
upon one single aesthetic creed. Degas, 
though he took part in all but one of 
these shows, differed with Monet on sev- 
eral issues. Cezanne, Seurat. and Signac 
were to become known in art history as 
"Post-Impressionists." Pissarro, of 
course. was an ardent Impressionist— 
with a difference. Like Monet (who was 



10 years his junior), Pissarro also strove 
for what he considered to be a scien- 
tifically accurate representation of na- 
ture. Yet, as has been pointed out. he 
sought to transform the first impression 
of nature into a unity of pictorial effect 
so that he eventually became more de- 
tached from nature than Monet ever 
was. Though his intellect led him to be- 
lieve that by the application of "science" 
(certain 19th Century optical theories) he 
could actually capture the fleeting scene, 
his strong temperament prevented him 
from ever becoming the prisoner of ab- 
stract principles. 

Monet was far more of a radical Im- 
pressionist. He pushed his technique so 
far that he eventually dissolved every- 
thing into dazzling atmospheric vibra- 
tions, re-creating the layers of air be- 
tween the subject and himself until all 
feeling of its solidity had vanished. Pis- 



sarro, more builder than destroyer. did 
not quite trust the fugitive effects that 
were Monet's specialty. Though he 
joined in the battlecry ''Salvation is in 
natiirey he approached his motifs-espe- 
cially the quid villages and fields of the 
Ilc de France at all hours o^ the day. and 
in all seasons-with as much feeling as 
with what he believed to be dispassion- 
ate contemplation. rcndering them in 
solidly constructed. architectural forms. 
He did not tarn per with nature; he 
might. occasionally. slightly change the 
perspective, broaden a street. or rear- 
range the flux of people or vehicles. But 
on my visits to Pontoise. Louveciennes, 
and other towns near Paris, made 70 and 
more years after the artist had painted 
there. I could recognize many oi^ the 
Sites, known to nie from his piclures in 
American and French museums. He ar- 
rived at what Clive Bell was to call *'sig- 



July 1973 



23 



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Cardplaycrs .n Gal.pan. ca. IH53.5>, pcncll, 10 x jr... CoUeaion Banco Central de Vene- 
zuela. An early .sketch showin^ Pissarro's interest in evervciav people and activities His 
drawin^ is direci, hi.s- lines simple, and his forms slron^. 



^ 



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Studio of Pissarro and His Collcaguc Melb> c in Caracas, ca. IH52-54, .sepia and pencil J^s v 
2 JA C otleciion Banco Central de Venezuela. A tvpical 1 9(li cenlurv studio equipped with plas- 



ter casts 



24 



■//// plas- 



nificant form" mainly by secking and 
finding an angle ihat would otfer the de- 
sired design, rather than by drastically 
altering aspectsofnature. Unlike his dis- 
ciple Cezanne, he was usually content 
with the subject just as it was. 

At thesame time, Pissarro was not sat- 
isfied to be a retina registering fleeting 
impressions. a mere recorder of the ef- 
fects of light. He refused, without neces- 
sarily being aware that he was refusing, 
to submit to the dictates of nature. The 

/Mitlint^c '»rt» \/^»r\/ firm I il-»^ r~'i-7.i »-« ^ .» 

Pissarro feit he could eliminate non-es- 
sentials. ignore haphazard relationships 
of forms, and construct his pictures the 
way an architect builds houses. instead 
of yielding to accident. His insistence 
upon Order and Organization, on solid 
forms. logically balanced, led to struc- 
tures that Monet would have rejected as 
hard. Indeed, while he remained loyal to 
his friend Monet, whose virtuosity he ad- 
mired and whom he publicly defended 
against detractors, in his confidential let- 
ters to Lucien he voiced gentle criticism 
of the "disorder" in his associate's work. 
Deep in his artistic soul he knew that it 
was the artist's task not to be a camera 
("only an eye," as Cezanne described 
Monet), but to be an independent Crea- 
tor ofwhatone might. for lack of a more 
precise term, call "beauty." 

It would be absurd, however, to de- 
bate which, of the duumvirate who for 
many years steered the Impressionist 
band lowards success in an utterly inimi- 
cal World, was greater. Monet and Pis- 
sarro pursued the same "truth," but with 
somewhat difTerent means-and ended 
up giving US, not the unatlainable 
"truth." but excitingly hne oils. It is a 
fact. though. that for years Pissarro was 
overshadowed by the younger man. 
(And Monels, by the way, are still fetch- 
ing much higher prices than Pissarros.) 
Monet was. perhaps, overrated in the pe- 
riod when the "Action Painters," the 
"Abstract Expressionists," were in 
vogue, and when critics even went .so far 
as to compare Jackson Pollock's "drip" 
pictures to the smearings old Monet, 
half-blind. produced in his last decade. 
In the 1970s, however, voung artists 
and critics alike may think that Monet, 
great artist though he Was, by de-ma- 
terializingeverythingintochromaticout- 
bursts, unwittingly and unmtentionally 
conlributed to the deplorable tendency 
loobliterate form asan absolutely neces- 
sary dement in art. What the Pliiladel- 
phian collector Dr. Albert C". Barnes ob- 
served in his pivotal book. 1 he Art of 
Paintini^, may strike us in 1973 as valid, 
though it was uttered nearly 50 years ear- 
lier. Barnes daimed that Pissarro \s feel- 
ing for the sensuous quality of color was 
superior to ihat of Monet, and went on to 
say: 

"He [Pissarro] had greater abilily to 
use it m composing the painting, and he 

Continued on pa^e 64 

American Artist 




/ 



i 



^'•-^-.-^''W, 



V.ew of Ponloise, 20'/: x 32 oii 1869-70. Collection Mr and Mrs. Hu^o Dixon. A n unsentimental vien- ofthe countrvside near Paris Pissarro is 
usm^ an Impressionist palette, .smaller hru.sh strokes and the random effect of li^ht, uhich has hecome more important to h!^' '^"''''''"' 



From Camille Pissarro: Letters to His Son Lucien, 
Edited by John Rewald, Pantheon Books, N. Y., 1 943 



May 4, 1883: 

"I am much disturbed by my unpolished and rough execution; I 
should like to develop a smoother technique which, while retaining 
the old fierceness, would be rid of those jarring notes which make 
it difficult to see my canvases clearly except when the light falls in 
front. There lies the difficulty— not to speak of drawing." 

May 21, 1883: 

"I recognjze fully that you do not draw well ... I told you any num- 
ber of times that it is essential to have known forms in the eye and 
in the band. It is only by drawing offen, drawing everything, draw- 
ing incessantly, that one fine day you discover to your surprise that 
you have rendered something in its true character. Don't despair. If 
you could work evenings in the free art schools where there are 
nude modeis, you would make progress . . ." 

JulyS, 1883: 

"Are you drawing?— Don't waste time, try to improve your work, re- 
member the drawings of Holbein you copied, he is the real master. 
Don't strive for skillful line, strive for simplicity, for the essential 
lines which give the physiognomy. Rather incline towards carica- 
ture than towards prettiness." 



May 15, 1891: 

"I am overjoyed to hear that you are beginning a painting in your 
studio. It is by working in the smithy that one becomes a black- 
smith. It is incontestable that work in the studio is just as difficult as 
work outdoors, but it is entirely different from the point of view of 
the requirements, methods. and results. One should not seek in the 
studio what cannot be found there, even as outdoors one should 
strive only for direct and spontaneous sensations." 

June 15, 1883: 

"I mentioned to Degas that you are thinking of taking Legros" 
course in drawing. [Alphonse Legros taught in London in a paint- 
ing academy.J Degas says that there is one way of escaping 
Legros' influence, the method is simply this: it is to reproduce. in 
your own place, from memory, the drawing you make in class. I 
suppose that you begin by making a sketch of the whole figure; 
when you get home you prepare your sketch and try to do again 
from memory what you did from nature. The next day, in class, you 
finish a part of your figure; at home you go on with the work from 
memory. Little by little you finish both studies simuitaneously, then 
you compare them ... the observations you make from memory 
will have far more power and be much more original then those you 
owe to direct contact with nature " 



July 1973 



25 




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selling many stolen works in South 
America-that many are never recov- 
ered. 

As a result, insurance companies have 
clamped down radically on coverage of 
art. An un-insured or very much under- 
insured collection is no Investment if sto- 
len. Moreover, peace of mind is at stake, 
for who wants to invite thugs to break 
into his house? An alternative is to keep 
your art Investment in a safe-deposii 
vault. Thus all visual delight is sacrificed, 
and the whole purpose of art is com- 
pletely violated. 

For most of us, it would still appear 
easier and more gratifying to buy art for 
pleasure rather than profit. 

PISSARRO (from page 24) 

had a finer sense for design in its larger 
aspects. A fine Pissarro, compared with 
the best Monet, impresses us with its 
more powerful and expressive drawing. 
its color of greater variety and finer qual- 
ity pervading the whole canvas. and its 
more forceful, unified composition." 

Pissarro was the most versatile of all 
Impressionists, with the exception of 
Degas (who, despite his close associ- 
ations with Pissarro and Monet, did not 
wish to be called an Impressionist). For, 
apart from numerous oils, Pissarro left 
US an important body of graphic work. 
(Some of his etchings have a richness 
and depth worthy of Rembrandt.) He 
was also the only Impressionist— in the 
strict sense of the term-who used water- 
color with real success. 

While Monet soon abandoned interest 
in the human figure, Pissarro remained a 
figure painter throughout his career. Un- 
like Renoir, who made a fortune as a 
Society portraitist, Pissarro shunned the 
rieh and confined himself to portraits of 
his family, self-portrails, and pictures of 
the simple people he preferred as neigh- 
bors. An implacable enemy of the 
bourgeois society— which was very slow 
in giving recognition to his talents— he 
feit more at home among the rural popu- 
lation than among the sophisticates of 
Paris, and he dressed and acted like a 
peasant. With warmth and sympathy, he 
saw farm workers in coarse garments 
pushing wheelbarrows. digging potatoes, 
tending geese-with backs bowed by la- 
bor and limbs gnarled by rheuma- 
tism. He was able to infuse nature itself 
with his feeling for the humble and ordi- 
nary. It has been said his trees are ple- 
beians, sodifferent from the grand digni- 
taries of Theodore Rousseau's and the 
Barbizon School's canvases. 

As a person, he came as close to 
saintliness as anyone could. He did his 
utmost to be a good provider tor his 
family by indefatigably plodding, can- 
vases under his arm, from dealer to 
dealer, from collector to collector, trying 
to make sales. But why should art pa- 
trons, preoccupied with subject matter. 



buy pictures of country roads, chestnut 
trees, haystacks, or apple pickers. when 
they could get works on historical sub- 
jects or lushly erotic renditions of Venus 
or nymphs? 

Once, a friend tried to help by raffling 
off one of Pissarro's pictures. It was won 
by a servant girl. But when she was 
shown it, she burst into tears and said she 
would rather have a cream cake. So the 
friend kept the picture. and she got the 
cake. 

One can understand Madame Pis- 
sarro's indignation as her husband, who 
might have placed their five sons in 
bankers' or notaries' offices where they 
could begin earning money at once. in- 
stead encouraged them to foUow in his 
own footsteps.(All of them incidentally, 
made names for themselves as artists.) 
Indebted to the butcher. the baker. and 
nearly everyone eise in town, Pissarro, 
in middle age, became so discouraged 
that he considered giving up art and find- 
ing a surer source of income. Luckily 
for us— though not for poor Madame 
Pissarro-he came to realize that he was 
unable to do anything but paint. 

In his old age, a chronic eye infection 
made it impossible for him. ihcplein-air- 
isie, to spend long periods in the open. 
Undaunted, he rented hotel rooms with 
Windows facing the sights he wanted to 
paint. As a matter of fact. the plunging 
views of Parisian boulevards that he 
made when he was around 70 are among 
his finest works. A singular beauty is 
created through architectural combina- 
tions of horizontals, verticals, and diag- 
onals, a scaffold upon which he hung the 
most subtle pigments that ever came off 
a palette. 

He was admirable as a teacher: "He 
could have taught slones how to draw 
correctly." said Mary Cassatt. He was 
"humble" as well as "colossal." said his 
pupil Cezanne. Pissarro was willing to 
take the mentally unstable Van Gogh as 
his lodger; when the horrified Madame 
Pissarro vetoed the plan, he found for 
him a svmpathetic physician in the per- 
.son of Dr. Gachet. And when the Sunday 
painter. Henri Rousseau, first exhibiled 
his work at a group show of the Inäepen- 
chinis, Pissarro, instead of joining the 
Chorus who laughed at the work of this 
naive "customs inspector." pointed out 
merits which hadescaped their attention. 

Museums all over the United States 
own works by Pissarro, largely thanks to 
the etVorts o( Miss Gassatt, who con- 
vinced her wealthy friends back home in 
America that they must buy Pissarros. 
To understand them better. and to ap- 
preciate more fully the man who made 
them, one can turn to the master's writ- 
ings. He was the only one among the Im- 
pressionists to have left us a treasury of 
long and intimate letters. The collection, 
Leiters to His Son Luden (excerpts from 
which appear with this article). carefuUy 
edited by John Rewald (New York. 



64 



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1973 Write: Information and Reference Division, Institute 
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New York City, N Y 10017. 

The Life Bicentennial Pliotography Contest sponsored 
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reflect the theme A Declaration of Interdependence 
Grand prize $25,000, plus $20,000 in additional pnzes All 
photographs must have been taken between July 4. 1971 

^w^M I..K. 4 i n~70 Cr>ir;n<-> »»r«..^^* u— ... I ^..i.l;.l 1 -^ 

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Stacey Foundation Grants: Free cash grants awarded to 
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SCULPTURE-CERAMICStoolssuDDlio. 



PROF ESSION AL (Jmni pui^e 19) 

nearby New York City's burning gar- 
bage dumps. presumably a very "dan- 
gerous" activity in a "sensitive" area! 
The prices he knew during his iifetime 
might reach aboul $1000 for a painting.) 
Swiss dealers and collectors paid $94.000 
for three Charles Sheelers, whose work 
hit a new high record in this sale, and 
$40,000 for a Georgia O'Keeffe. Another 
O'Keeffe oil. Poppies. of 1950. brought 
$120.000. setting a record for a living 
American artist. a record formerly held 
by Andrew Wyeth when one of his paint- 
ings sold for $65.000. 

Dr. Rush. whose doctorate was in 
business administration. presupposes a 
background of connoisseurship: knowl- 
edge about a painting's State, condition, 
repainting. quality, authenticity; about 
the curreni international market for the 
particular type of work. He does give ref- 
erences and tips about obtaining these 
intelligences. and suggests observing and 
latching onto the sure and knowl- 
edgeable bidders at an auction as a 
means of checkingyour judgment. (This 
presumes that you know who they are 
and what are their special fields of 
knowledge.) He assures his readers that 
good profits can be made from purchases 
at as little as $1000 to $2000. 

"But paintings must be bought ex- 
tremely astutely and trends must be 
watched. They won't go up in value for- 
ever." These dopester newsletters are 
doubtless useful for those who have the 
time and interest to study the field con- 
centratedly enough to belong in this rar- 
ified inner circle. 

Neither of these writers mentions cer- 
tain hazards and problems that are con- 
comitant with coUecting. True, if one 
lends an important work of art to a mu- 
seum, or if it is reproduced in a catalog or 
art magazine, the work becomes more 
valuable. But once the name of the col- 
lector appears on a museum label or in a 
caption credit, the collector may become 
an object of interest to an "art theft ring." 
So successful are such thieves— reputedly 



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1943), ought to be read by every artist, 
not only for the advice on technical mat- 
ters the niature master gave to bis son, 
still struggling for a better command of 
his tools, but also, and in particular, for 
their philosophical content. Pissarro 
knew that a tirm point of view, a solid 
aesthetics, was more important than the 
acquisition of mere skill. Though he ad- 
mired Rembrandt, Hals, Vermeer, and 
other great masters of the past, he urged 
Lucien to "seek where they did not seek, 
or rather teel ditterently trom the way 
they did. since different we are, and their 
works are so definitely of their time that 
it would be absurd to follow them." 

In his own period, Pissarro was an em- 
battled modernist. His work has depth 
rather than charm. It is definitely not for 
the bigcrowds. "It is only in the long run 
that I can expect to please," he wrote. 
"The eye of the passerby is too hasty and 
sees only the surface. Whoever is in a 
hurry will not stop for me." 

But those who will take time to look 
will find in his pictures an intui- 
tive sense of plastic design along with a 
profound respect for nature in all its 
manifestations, and an absolute sincer- 
ity. 

NAPPER (/mm pa^e 30) 

as he did with his first drawings for 7 he 
Sunlii^hi Dialoi^ues, he says his work is 
floppy. lacking in discipline. 

He drew the cover a dozen times, but it 
wasn't until he began drawing-in each 
little leaf on the tree that he achieved the 
discipline he was looking for, and the 
drawing became tight and compact. The 
key was thousands of tiny details. Small- 
patterned wallpaper, busy prinl dresses 
and curtains, individually drawn flow- 
ers, shelves filled with knick-knacks. all 
contribute to a feeling of unease, of 
claustrophobia, o( people caught in a 
web oi' fear. 

Napper's illustrations are (aithful ren- 
derings of scenes in The Sunlighi Dia- 
lo^ues as well as, in many cases. actual 
scenes (Batavia Dinitm Room. for ex- 
ample). Yet they are much more. 
Through the use of symbols, he manages 
to teil slories of his own, particularly in 
the lithographs he did later. The black 
ceiling beams in Drivin}^ Kathleen Mad- 
äer resemble a spider web, emphasi/.ing 
the terrible net the characters are caught 
in. The hand held above CTumly's head 
in Over the Lackawanna Railroad could 
have several meanings: a blessing; a sign 
of the devil. in this case the sa- 
tanic Sunlight Man; or horns represent- 
ing his humiliation by the magician. The 
roses in Bovle, Alias Beiison also have a 
meaning of their own. Ihe underwear- 
clad man is a petly ihief who escapes de- 
tection by assuming two difl'erent per- 
sonalities, each of whom own their own 
clothes and cars. As Boyle walks to his al- 
ter ego's car, he seems to be leaving be- 



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Julyl973 



65 



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20 



American Artist 



'Ä^ \t ': 






UdSSR 



MOSKAU 

Staatliches Piischkirimuscum 
Ausstellung: Europäische Bildnismalerei 
November - Det^emher 1972 

Bekannte Werke der L.eningrader Eremitage 
und des Puschkin-Museums dokumentierten 
die psvciiologischen Absichten der europä- 
ischen Biidnismaier vom 15. bis zum 20. Jahr- 
hundert. Aus europäischen Sammlungen wur- 
den unter anderem die »Dame mit dem Herme- 
lin« von Leonardo (Krakau, Nationalmu- 
seum), das »Knabenbildnis« von Pinturicchio 
(Dresden, Gemäldegalerie) und das »Bildnis 
des Miguel de Lardizabal« von Goya (Prag, 
Nationalgalerie) gezeigt. 

Die Moskauer Ausstellung unterließ eine Kon- 
frontation westlicher und östlicher Bildnis- 
vorstellungen. Statt dessen unternahm sie den 
erfolgreichen und fruchtbaren Versuch, russi- 
sche Porträts vom 17. bis zum 20. Jahrhundert 
in die gesamteuropäische Entwicklung einzu- 
gliedern. Die russischen Maler Rokotow und 
Borowikowskij überraschten durch ihre intime 
Darsteilungsweise, Fedotow und Rjepin durch 
ihre psychologischen Differenzierungen. 
Aus den russischen Provinzmuseen wurden 
auch Fachleuten nahezu unbekannte Gemälde 
ausgestellt. Aus Smolensk stammten zwei der 
Spanischen Schule des späten 16. Jahrhunderts 
zugeschriebene Gegenstücke, aus Kiew ein 
»Bildnis der Infantin Marguerita«, im Katalog 
als Velasquez bezeichnet, aus Lwow das 15 12 
datierte Bildnis eines Astronomen von Marco 
Basaiti. 

Das Puschkin-Museum präsentierte seine Neu- 
erwerbungen: das 1528 datierte »Bildnis eines 
jungen Mannes« von Bernardo Licinio (ver- 
öffentlicht in: Arte Veneta XXI), einen nieder- 
ländischen Altarflügel »Zwei Stifter in Land- 
schaft« vom Anfang des 16. Jahrhunderts und 
ein signiertes Selbstbildnis von Zuluoga. 

\ ictor Antonoiv 




USA und Kanada 



During thc pre-Christmas 1972 season (C)cto- 
ber to January) therc were few of the mam- 
moth shows of earlier years before stringent 
economy measures were imposcd upon mu- 
seums, galleries and universities. Instead, there 
were many small but highly interesting exhibi- 
tions, usually based on the particular institu- 
tion's own holdings. While the physically large 
shows generally traveled over the country, thc 
small ones were confined to the places where 
they originated. 



BAl/riMORi:, MARYLAND 

Walters Art G aller y 

Exhihition: Mercbants and Aicindarins: The Mu- 
tual Infliwnce of CJ)i)ia and Europe 

Merchants and Mandarins: Thc Mutual Influ- 
ence of China and Europe, at the Walters Art 
Ciallery, prcsented the Chinese craftsmen's 
efforts to makc objects to suit European taste, 
and also the European artists' adaptions of the 
Oriental wares as well as their own fanciful 
recreations of Oriental motifs, otherwise 

1 -_ _i- : : :_„ n..^ ,,. ..1 ^ r^v.: 

ivinj w 11 «3 ciiiiiuisct tv^a. i iv,-iyiiiv.v_iii.L4iv «^^iiiiia, 

though not really open to the Western world, 
was eager to exploit the European market. At 
the same time. European craftsmen created 
wares that demonstrate Western misconcep- 
tions of the Oriental aesthetics. In the show, 
paintings, tapestries, metalwork and lacquers 
were included, though thc emphasis was on 
porcelains. A special feature was a recently 
acquired, brightly colored theatrical painting 
bv Duplessis, portraying three actors, two of 
them in quasi-(^hinese dress, which exempli- 
fies the tremendous impact of the F^ast-West 
trade on European culture. 

Museum oj Art 

Exhihition: The (.Hit ol .Arahia 

The Cult of Arabia, in the same citv's Museum 
of Art, dealt with the influence of Napoleon's 
F^gvptian campaigns on F>ench civilization. 
Although Baron Gros, an official painter to 
Napoleon, never visited the Middle East, he 
could paint vivid scencs of the general's con- 



quests there by relying on campaign reports, 
Souvenirs brought back by FVench soldiers, 
and available documentary prints. Unlike him, 
Delacroix actually knew part of the Arab 
World -North Africa, which he visited as an 
attachc to a French diplomat, negotiating a 
treaty of friendship with the Sultan of Mo- 
rocco. Works by these two, and by Gcricault, 
C^hasscriau, Decamps and other Romanticists 
were included in this revealing show, which 
also extended to related works by American 
and British artists. 

BI:RKELEY, CALIFORNIA 

IJniversity Art Museum of Berkeley 

Exhihition: Ferdinand Hodler ( see ilhistration) 

The work of Ferdinand Flodler was intro- 
duced to America in a major international loan 
show that originated at the University Art 
Museum of Berkeley. Surprisingly, his fluro- 
pean fame- which declined somewhat after 
1914-never crossed the Atlantic, and the 
artist is not represented in any major American 
museums. In the principal essay, bv Peter Selz, 
in the substantial catalogue, it is pointed out 
that the Swiss painted a large number of self- 
portraits. They all mirror selfdoubt, echo 
inner and outer troubles. These pictures are, 
perhaps, more meaningful to us than his land- 
scapes and symbol-burdened figure composi- 
tions. In his final five years Hodler painted 
twenty-three selfportraits that clearlv reveal 
his intense thinking and feeling with the vigor 
and honesty of a Van (iogh, who, likc him, 
was born in 1S53, (Catalogue) 



Ferdinand Hodler, 
Head of a Soldicr, 
ca. 1915-1917. 
Chicago, The Art Institute 
of Chicago, Helen Birch 
Bartleet Memorial. 
Exhihition : Berkeley, 
University Art Museum, 
Ferdinand Hodler. 




200 




//> ^- '* ' *^*^•/'y/A^rd^ 







Friedrich Wasmann, Portrait ofl". A. Zimmermann, pcMicil, charcoal and 
chalk, heightened with white. Zürich, Colleciinn Dr. Peter Kathan. 
txbihitioii: Cawhridoe, Massachusetts, Busch- Reishiiier- Museum, Cermiii 
Master Drawings of the Xineteeuth C.'eiit/iry. 



Ivduard Julius Bendemann, Portrait of IViedrich Overbeck, black chalk. 
Kiel, Stift/nio Po w wem. Izxhihition: Cambridge, Massachusetts, Bitsch- 
Reisi>iger-Mi(senm, Cernian Master Drairinos of the Xineteeuth Century. 



CAMBRIDGI-, MASSACHUSETTS 

Busch- Reisins^er- Museum 

Exhihitinn: Ger man Master Drauings of the 

Nineteenth Century ( see illustratians) 

Cierman Master Drawings of the Nineteenth 
Century, which opened at the Busch-Reisin- 
ger-Museum in Cambridge, Massachusetts, 
was Seen at New ^'()rk's Metropolitan Mu- 
seum of Art, and will be traveling in the 
United States in the early part of 1973. This 
show of nearly one hundred drawings and 
watercolors rcached from Joseph Anton Koch 
(who was actually an Austrian) to Lovis 
Corinth. The great merit of the exhibition was 
that it did not concentrate on the five or six 
artists knowii to every historian, but included 
many who are virtually and unjustlv for- 
gotten. In the catalogue, John David I-armer, 
until recently director of the Busch-Reisinger, 
concedes that there was "an academic direc- 
tion in CJerman art at the end of the Century 
which was unfortunately dcstined to lead only 
into a cul-de-sac, despite an oftenpresent great 
skill." But he also believes that (ierman art of 
the period deserves to be more fully studied 
and understood than has bcen done so far. 



DAVTON, OHIO 

Dayton Art Institute 
Exhihitinn: Jean- Leon Cernme 

Jean-ixon Cieröme, who was not included in 
the Baltimore show, had a memorial exhibi- 
tion entirely to himself at the Davton Art 
Institute which, despite the relative smallness 
of the city it scrves, often presents remarkable 
shows. Gcrome, who spent much time in 
l>gypt, loved to paint the world of Islam; the 
catalogue contains an essay bv Richard 1 ^tting- 
hausen on the Middle Lastern subjects in the 
work of (Jeröme (the other texts are bv Bruce 
H. I Ivans, who organized the show, and bv 
(Jerald M. Ackermann). Cicröme, who be- 
came notorious for his hostility to Impres- 
sionism and, after his death in 1904, wasdown- 
;raded as a sentimental and eroticist illustra- 



}-i 



tor, was much better in his best works than is 
commonly acknowledged. As \ir. Ackerman 
writes, some of his pictures are "triumphs 
both of research and the Imagination." (Jerö- 
me's "accurate reconstructions of the past" 
must not be dismissed lightly because of the 
vagaries oftaste. The current re-evaluation of 
much "academic" French art brings w ith it an 



upgradiiig of (ieröme and others whose pic- 
tures were "appreciated by an audicncc which 
was scientificallv-minded," but they have also 
enough w it, poetry and skill to satisfy us 
today. 

NliW \C)RK 

New Ciiltural Center 

E.xhihitiou: Ottocenfo Painting in American (jil- 

lections 

i9th ccnturv Italian artists are also profiting 
from rhe current revisions of judgments, as 
was demonstratecl by the exhibition, Otto- 
cento Painting in American ('ollections, at the 
New ^'<)rk (^ultural (xnter. I'or a long time it 
was thought that the Italian genius petered 
out with the Tiepolos and was not rcvived 
until the l'uturists. Fxcept for Boldini and 
Segantini, hardly any Ottocento painters were 
mentioned in books or art historv courses. 
^'et the period from 1804, the date of Dome- 
nico Tiepolo's death, to the tirst I uturist 
group manifesto in 1909 was anything but 
sterile for Italv. The Macchiaoli movement 
macchia means spot in particular involved 
many gifted painters, among them their leader. 



201 



C;i()vanni Fattori. Vct, as Annic-Paulc Quinsac 
points out in her introduction to thc cataloguc, 
this group of rcalistic paintcrs wcrc not, as is 
oftcn claimcd, Prc-Imprcssionists: "Thcy havc 
a strong scnsc of form, whilc Imprcssionism 
dcstrovs thc form to capturc thc light." 



Wilden st ein Gallery 

Exhibiiion: Facesfroni tbe World of hu presslonism 

and Post-lwpressionisM ( sec illnstration) 

Faccs from thc >X'orld of Imprcssionism and 

O/^o*- I .^v-» «-*♦•« c^oJr-^ ♦nie rr» ot Xiowr \'<^>ru- Q \Y/ 1 lrif*t"t- 

stein Gallerv demonstratcd that both \h)nct's 
group and thc men who turned away from 
Imprcssionism wcrc cxccllcnt portraitists and 
tigure paintcrs, in addition to bcing thc world's 
fincst makcrs of landscapcs. Thcrc weresevcral 
sclf-portraits (by Bazillc, Bonnard, Cczanne, 
Gauguin and Manct) in thc show, as well as 
thc faccs of some important personalitics con- 
nected with thc art world, such as thc novclist 
Emile Zola, thc collector Victor Chocquct, thc 
critic Antonin Proust, and thc dcalcr Am- 
broise Vollard. Photography libcrated thc 
artists from bcing required to depict thc sitters 
with finicky accuracy, and, as Anne Foulet 
writes in her introduction to thc cataloguc, 
"a far morc personal and exciting portraiturc 
emerged, one which expresscs thc pcrsonality 
of thc artist as much as that of his subject." 

Alfred Werner 

M()\ IRFAL, CANADA 

'l'be Montreal Museum of Fine Arts 
Ausstellung: Masterpieees of Far Eastern .Art 
2. Februar - 8. April 

Ausgestellt sind 150 ausgesuchte Objekte chi- 
nesischer Kunst aus der hervorragenden 
Sammlung des Royal Ontario Museum in 
Toronto und 102 japanische Kunstwerke aus 
der Art (iallcry of (ireater Victoria. Für Pla- 
nung und Durchführung ist Dr. IIsi()-^'cn 



1 Paul (xzannc, Anthony Valabrcgue, 
ca. 1874-1875. Private Collection. 
Exhihition: New York^ Wildenstein Gallery^ 
Faces from tbe World (>l Impressionism and 
Post-Impressionism. 



2 Domenico Piola, (^ouplc with Violin 
(Study for luncttc in fresco, Palazzo Rosso, 
Gcnoa), drawing. Pbiladelpbia, Pbiladeipbia 
Museum of Art. Exbihition: Worcester^ 
Alassacbusetts, Art Museum^ C renne se Harnque 
Drairinos. 





202 



Shih vom Royal Ontario Museum verantwort- 
lich. Ocr (Kanada (A)uncil stellte die finanziel- 
len Mittel für einen Katalog beider Sammlun- 
gen zur Verfüguni^. Die Sammlung chinesi- 
scher Kunst verdankt das Royal Ontario Mu- 
seum vornehmlich seinem ersten Direktor 
Dr. (Charles T. (Airrely, der nach dem lirsten 
Weltkrieg mit Milfe von zwei hervorragenden 
Kennern, Cieorge Crofts und dem anglikani- 
schen Bischof der Hainan Provinz William C. 
White, direkt in China einkaufte. Schließlich 
gelangte noch die Sammlung des kanadischen 
Missionars Dr. James \I. Mcnzies nach To- 
ronto. 

Die japanische Sammlung der Art Gallery of 
(ireatcr Victoria geht auf eine 1961 erfolgte 
Stiftung von Mrs. Isabel Pollard zur Erinne- 
rung an den Sammler Fred PoUard zurück. 

EST. 

OTTAWA, CANADA 

Sational Gallery oj Clanada 

Exhihition: French Master Dra)rings of ihe lyth 

and 1 8tb (A'uturies in Xnrtb Awerican Collect Ions 

The exposition was organized b\ the Art 
Gallcrv of Ontario, which sent it on a tour 
that covered (Kanada and the United States. 



The 157 drawings were selected b\ Pierre 
Rosenberg, curator in the Department of 
Paintings in the l.ouvre, who also w rote the 
catalogue. 'l'he public was given a chance to 
view seldom exhibited works by Watteau, 
David, Poussin, Grenze, Fragonard, Boucher 
and bv less familiär IVench masters. 

PHIFADI'LPHIA 

Philadelphia Museum of .\rt 

Exhihition: Old Master Drairinos of Christ 

Church, Oxford 

Old Master Drawings of (Christ (^hurch, Ox- 
ford, was Seen at the Philadelphia Museum of 
Art afteropeningatW ashington's National (ial- 
lerv of Art (the scheduled 1973 stops were: 
Pierpont Morgan Library, New \'ork, and the 
art museums of C^icveland and St. Louis). 
Though a considcrable number of Americans 
visit Oxforci everv \ear, onlv the most know- 
Icdgcable scek out the inct)nspicuous picture 
gallerv of C^hrist (>hurch, and not all of thesc 
know of the collection of drawings installed 
there onl\' recentlv (though the College has 
been proud owner of these treasures for two 
hundred and eight \ears). It was a rare oppor- 
tunitv for Americans to view one hundred 



master drawings, including three of Oxford's 
h)ur authenticated Leonardo drawings, one of 
the two Raphaels, two of the four Michelange- 
los. The fuUy illustrated catalogue, in which 
entries and illustrations were arranged alpha- 
betically by artists within two major divisions 
-the Italian School and the five non-ltalian 
Schools-was authored by James Byam Shaw. 

W^ORCFSTFR, MASSACHUSETTS 

Art Museum 

Exhihition: Genoese Baroque Draii'inos 

( See Illustration) 

The art museum of this not very exciring city, 
one hour's drive wcst of Boston, is celebrated 
tor its innovative shows. 

Cienocse Baroque Drawings featured works 
by more than thirty i7th and iHth Century 
artists, among them Giovanni Battista Bacic- 
cio, Luca (^ambiaso and Alcssandro Magnasco, 
as well as lesser-known draughtsmen. Yet 
several artists born elscwhere who worked in 
Cienoa and helped to create the distinctive 
Crcnocse Baroque drawing stvle -among them 
Van Dvck, Roos, Procaccini and Cerano- 
w ere also reprcscnted. The catalogue is by 
Marv Xewcome. Alfred Werner 



Buchbesprechungen 



fohn Beckv'ith: Irory C^iri'inos in early »ledieval Enoland. 16S ,S., 210 Ahhil- 
dioigen, I Farhtafel. Ilarrey Miller &= Medcalf, London i<jy2. 

Die Publikation dieses (Corpus ist ein entscheidend w ichtiges Supple- 
ment zu der fundamentalen Ixlition der mittelalterlichen F.lfenbein- 
skulpturen durch Adolph Goldschmidt (1914 1926). Zuletzt hat ,\l. IL 
Longhurst 1926 eine bis zum frühen 19. Jahrhundert reichende Mono- 
graphie über »Fnglish Ivories« veröffentlicht. Seitdem haben sich für 
die Mittelalterforschung so viele neue Aspekte ergeben, daß der Bearbei- 
tung des Themas durch Beckwith eine sehr große Aktualität zukommt. 
Sein systematischer Katalog umfaßt die Objekte vom 7. bis zum 12. 
Jahrhundert, darunter w ichtige Stücke, die bisher w issenschaftlich noch 
nicht gewürdigt wurden. I-^ür jedes Objekt hat Beckwith alle Sachan- 
gaben, Untersuchungsbefunde, Lraditionen und lorschungen erschöp- 
fend mitgeteilt und kritisch interpretiert. Dies gilt auch von der Ikono- 
graphie der Darstellungsinhalte. Außer originalgroßen Reproduktionen 
sind zahlreiche faszinierende Vergrößerungen vor allem von Ausschnit- 
ten abgebildet, die für die stilistische Diagnose äulk-rst aufschlußreich 
sind. 

Im Text hat Beckwith mit gr()ßter Konzentriertheit auf der (irundlage 
der ausgebreiteten Ereignisse der politischen und der kirchlichen (ie- 
schichte eine großartige Analyse der Kontraste und der Verflochtenhei- 
ten insularer L'berlieferungcn und kontinentaler Stilbew egungen unter- 
nommen, eine Elvidenz jener Ursachen und Kräfte, die zur Ausbildung 
und Blüte dieser spezifisch angelsächsischen bzw. englischen Kunst 
geführt haben. Diese Wahrnehmungen und Überlegungen von Beck- 
with dienen der Ijnkreisung der höchst eigenartigen Phänomene der 
Produktionen in Walrol^zahn und in Idfenbein. 

Signifikant sind die l'berschriften, die Beckw ith i.\cn einzelnen Kapiteln 
seiner Darstellung gegeben hat: »The Heroic Age of the Seventh und 
Eighth Centurics« »The 1 enth-Cx-nturv Monastic Reform and 



its Aftermath« »The Ijiglish Cienius in the Twelfth (Century«. 
I'ür die Lokalisierungen dieser Skulpturen in tlitierenten klösterlichen 
Werkstätten sind die formalen Affinitäten zu den stilistischen Eigentüm- 
lichkeiten der Buchmalerei entscheidend. Die Ciruppen dieser Produk- 
tionen verdichten sich zu »Schulen«. I :in individueller Komplex wird 
in den durch das Patronat des Bischofs I lenrv of Blois in Winchester 
entstandenen Werken sichtbar. Wann beginnt die I ^manzipierung der 
»Manufakturen« von solchen kirchlichen Konventionen? 
Natürlich sind manche Lokalisierungen problematisch. Dies wird deut- 
lich, wenn man die E,rgebnisse der L'orschungcn v(^n Beckwith mit den 
Aussagen von Hanns Swarzenski konfrontiert, der sich in seinem Buch 
»Monuments of Romanesque Art, The Art of (^hurch Treasures in 
North-Western I uirope« (London 1953 '^^-^^ ■ 1967) eindringlich um die 
I .ruierung der charakteristischen Symptome der in England entstande- 
nen ^X'erke bemüht hat. 

Es ist kennzeichnend, daß gewisse Vorlagen (z, B. der Litrecht-Psalter) 
sehr lange nachgewirkt haben. Die Abkehr vom Abstrakten führte in 
der Spätphase dieser Produktion zu einer höchst sensiblen Differenzie- 
rung der i'ormgebung. Ich zitiere als Beispiel das Relief-FVagment der 
Darstellung einer »Ruhe auf der I'lucht«, Schule von (-anterburv um 
I 180 (Beckw ith cat. 100) im Metropolitan Museum of Art. 
Unter den von Beckwith publizierten, erst neuerdings bekanntgewor- 
denen Objekten sind das Fragment eines Lciffels mit Kopf-(iriff im 
Winchester Museum (Linde des 10. Jahrhunderts) und ein kleines Kreu- 
zigungsrelief (um 1000) in Privatbesitz Brüssel künstlerisch besonders 
eindrucksvoll. Wissenschaftlich am meisten erregend ist zweifellos das 
sog. »Burv St Edmunds (]ross« im Metropolitan Museum und die mög- 
liche Zugehörigkeit des sehr beschädigten Corpus eines Crucifixus im 
Kunstindustrimuseet Oslo. Trotz der »doubts and reservations about 
the stvle, date atid reiationship«, die geltend gemacht wurden, halt 
Beckw ith die Zuschreibunt.^ für »almost certain«. L'.r macht N'orschlage 



20 j 



für eine richtigere Rekonstruktion der Adaptierung des Oucifixus an 
dem Kreuz, wodurch diese These glaubhafter wird, hisgesamt können 
wir nur die gro(k> künstlerische und wissenschaftliche Bedeutung 



dieser Publikation unterstreichen. 



ihcodor Müller 



Clemens Weiler: Alexe] jmrieusky Köpfe, Gesichte, Meditafio)ie<i. Ccinz- 
leinenhaudin Croßforniai von 164 Seiten mit ^4 ganzseitigen Farbtajeln, ^wr/ 
Tafeln mit farbigen Kleinabhildungen und 4 Zeichnungen. Dr. Hans Peters 
1 erlag, Hanau 1970. 

Der monumentale Bildband, ein Schaubuch ersten Ranges, lebt ganz 
von den großformatigen farbigen Reproduktionen mit ausgewählten 
»Köpfen« aus dem malerischen Werk Jawlenskys, die durch ihre 
vorzügliche Wiedergabe den Originalen sehr nahekommen und da- 
mit eine Art Dauerausstellung dieser Werke bilden. Die Beschränkung 
auf das Hauptmotiv Jawlenskys, das frontal gemalte Menschenantlitz 
als Spiegel der Seele, gibt dieser Publikation ihre außergewöhnliche 
Ausstrahlungskraft. 

Außer der Einleitung des besten jawlenskv-Kenners, des Wiesbadener 
Museumsdirektors (llemens >X'eiler, enthält die Publikation die voll- 
ständig abgedruckten »Lebenserinnerungen« des Malers sowie die erst 
unlängst wieder aufgefundene Niederschrift Jawlenskys mit dem ver- 
loren geglaubten Werkstattverzeichnis. 1 ergänzt wird die Dokumen- 
tation durch Abdruck von Briefen sowie Zeugnissen von Künstlern, 
Kritikern und Kunsthistorikern. Wenn auch Jawlensky jedem I'hcoreti- 
sieren abgeneigt war, so pflegte er doch immer wieder einsichtsvolle 
»Epigramme« zur Kunst zu prägen, die häufig den Kern der I^inge be- 
rühren. 

Die »Lebenserinnerungen«, im Gesprächston geschrieben, lassen die 
Persönlichkeit des Künstlers, seine originelle russisch geprägte Aus- 
drucksweise so lebendig werden, als ob er dem Leser persönlich gegen- 
überstünde. Die knapp gefaßte Biographie enthält leider keinen Hinweis 
auf die Beteiligung des Malers an der Berliner Ausstellung des »Blauen 
Reiter« von 19 14, tlie nicht fehlen sollte, um den hohen Rang des Künst- 
lers innerhalb des deutschen 1 Expressionismus anzudeuten. 

Arnold Mardersteig 

Albrecht Dürer: -»1 licriun sind begriffen vier bücher von menschlicher Propor- 
tion...« Xürnberg: Hieronymus Andreae. 1J2S Paksimile-. Ausgabe (Dürers 
Proportionslehre) . danz/einen. Tafeln mit i^^A/rm/;r// I Inlzschnittab- 
bildungen. \ 'erlag Walter ( 'hf l ntcrschiwidheim i()6(}. 

Die Anfange von Durers Proportionsstudien gehen auf tlas Jahr 1500 
zurück, als er zimi ersten Mal von tlem venezianischen Maler Jacopo tle 
Barbari erfuhr, da(^ man tlcn Menschen »aus tler maß)« machen könne. 
Dürer begnügte sich nicht mit den .Anregungen, die er anschliel.)end 
von X'itruv und von anderen italienischen Kunsttheoretikern übernahm, 
sondern er versuchte durch unzählige Messungen an menschlichen K()r- 
pern hinter das (ieheimnis der Schönheit zu kommen, die man nach 
seiner Ansicht geradezu in einer POrmel erfassen k()nne. Dürers Vor- 
stellungen werden dabei von Ciedanken Piatos genährt. 1 .r hatte sich 
fast drei |ahrzehnte lang mit diesen Studien beschäftigt und kurz vor 
seinem Tod die von Pirckheimer durchgesehene Reinschrift dem Setzer 
abgeliefert. Das Irscheinen des Werkes erlebte er nicht mehr. 
Dürers Proportionslehre, mit zahlreichen Holzschnitten versehen, galt 
jahrhundertelang als das bedeutsamste Lehrbuch fiir Künstler, (irolk' 
Meister, wie Michelangelo, Rubens oder Poussin, benützten es, und der 
Lehrer des Velasquez hatte 1649 empfohlen, auf das weibliche Aktmodell 
zu verzichten, da Dürers Vorlagen für Studienzwecke voll ausreichend 
seien. Die Proportionsichre wurde nicht nur in deutschen und lateini- 
schen Ausgaben immer wieder aufgelegt, sondern sie erschien in allen 
europäischen Sprachen, sogar portugiesisch. 

I ,s ist höchst erfreulich, daß dieses große Dokumeiit der abendländi- 
schen Cieistcsgeschichte, das so Wesentliches über Dürer selbst aussagt, 
in einem xorzüglichen, scharfen I'aksimiledruck zu mäßigem Preis an- 
geboten wird. Als X'orlage wurde das unberührt erhaltene I .xemplar 
der L.rstausgabe aus der Staatsbibliothek Bamberg benutzt, das auch auf 
der Dürer-Ausstellung in Xürnberg gezeigt w urde. Pran^ Winzinger 



l he Human P'igure by .M brecht Dünr. I he complete Dresden Sketchbook. 
Edited by Walter L. Strauss. y;; Seiten, ijo 'Pafehi. Dover P/d)lications, 
Inc., Xev York. 19 ji. 

Das sogenannte »Dresdener Skizzenbuch Dürers«, das vor allem zahl- 
reiche Läitwürfe zur Proportionslehre enthält, lag bisher nur in der 
seltenen, schwer erreichbaren Ausgabe von Robert Brück aus dem 
Jahre 1905 vor. Winkler hatte nur einzelne der etwa 170 Blätter in seine 
Ciesamtausgabe der Dürerzeichnungen aufgenommen. 
Die wohlfeile, sehr sorgfältige Neuausgabe dieses Werkes füllt deshalb 
eine deutliche Lücke aus. Der tüchtige amerikanische Lorscher 
Walter L. Strauss, dessen Sachkenntnis überzeugend bereits durch 
andere Beiträge zur Dürerforschung ausgewiesen ist, hat eine sorgfältige 
Bearbeitung vorgenommen, die über die Brucksche Ausgabe hinaus- 
führt, vor allem dadurch, daß er eine sinnvolle Ordnung in die mehr 
oder minder zufällig angeordneten Blätter des Skizzenbuches bringt. 
Die Wiedergaben in Originalgröße stehen denen der Bruckschen Aus- 
gabe nicht nach. P'ra}iz Wiji^inger 

Marin Pra^: Konversation pieces. A survcy oj the informal groiip portrait in 
Ein-ope and America. jSy Seiten, ^So Abbild/nigeu. l niversity Park aiid 
London, I he Pennsylvania State U niversity Press igji. 

Man kennt Kunsthistoriker, die über literarische Themen geschrieben 
haben, und Literarhistoriker, die sich mit kunstgeschichtlichen The- 
men beschäftigten, aber daß ein Professor der englischen Literatur eine 
(ieschichte des Möbels geschrieben hat, das kennen w ir nur von Mario 
Praz. Cierade in dieser unwahrscheinlichen Verbindung liegt jedoch der 
Schlüssel zu seinen beiden kunsthistorischen Werken. Sie sind das 
Produkt eines geborenen Sammlers: eines Sammlers von kunstgeform- 
ten Gegenständen und Sammlers von Informationen. Die Bewältigung 
der Stoffülle geschieht im lalle der »conversation pieces« durch ikono- 
graphische Klassifizierung. Da gibt es Kapitel über »sporting and musi- 
cal conversations« oder »mourning pictures and portraits w ith a hust«. 
So finden sich die stil verschiedensten (iemälde über drei Jahrhunderte 
zusammen, wobei Ähnlichkeiten uiul Zusammenhänge in l>scheinung 
treten, die tlie F-'rage aufwerfen, ob ein Thema eben nur eine gewisse 
Anzahl \on Losungen in sich birgt oder ob es sich um ikonographische 
oder stilgeschichtliche, bew ußte oder halbbew idke Traditionen handelt. 
Solchen Lragen weicht der Autor aus; er ist's zufrieden, seinen impo- 
nierenden Bilderapparat zusammen mit seinen liebevoll gesammelten 
Informationen über die Dargestellten dem Leser zu übermitteln. Dabei 
geht es nicht ohne Monotonie ab, die selbst das literarische Talent des 
Verfassers nicht immer vermeiden kann. Die BildanaKsen sind reich im 
Inhaltlichen, kärglich im lormalen und kaum vorhanden im eigentlich 
Kunsthistorischen. Dafür belohnt das Buch <\cu Leser durch eine l'ülle, 
die es dem unermüdlichen Sammeleifer von XLirio Praz verdankt. Man 
hat tien i ■ indruck, daf.^ der X'erfasser nicht nur durch zwei Kontinente 
von Museum zu Museum gereist ist, sondern auch von Privatsammlung 
zu Privatsammlung, vor allem in Holland luuI läigland, dem Ideal- 
gelande für das Thema. \'or allem aber ist Amerika noch von keinem 
Lluropäer so erfolgreich auf sein ikonographisches Material hin unter- 
sucht worden. Lline imponierende Leistung! 

Sehr viel hängt bei einer solchen Publikation von der Bebilderung ab. 
Hier verdienen Autor und Verlag unbeschränkte Bewunderung. Die 
zahlreichen farbigen sowie die Schwarz- Wciß-'T'afeln sind scharf, und in 
der mir vorliegenden amerikanischen Ausgabe ist die Verteilung der 
Abbildungen auf den Seiten in \^erbindung mit der T'vpographie aufkr- 
ordentlich gelungen. Lnd während Larbtafeln oft den erfahrenen Leser 
schaudern lassen, kommen sie hier alle paar Seiten als ästhetische Be- 
lohnung für den Betrachter. 

VC'as den eigentlichen Inhalt des Buches angeht, so ist er umfassend, aber 
nicht eigentlich erhellend, weil die historischen Zusammenhänge ent- 
weder gar nicht oder nur andeutend behandelt werden. Der Nachdruck 
liegt naturlich auf dein holländischen Konversationsstuck des 17. und 
dem englischen des iH. Jahrhunderts. Aber die X'erwandlung tles 
holländischen und französischen N'orbikles ins tvpiscb l.nglische wird 



204 



0^)J<i^V\ZiJ 




Besuch aus den UHR 

Rendsburg (KHF). Um Stndinn übnr 
hlBtorische Dnnkmnlo Im Nor- 



kult 

dnn DoutsdilandR zu botroibnn, wnil- 
lo Prof. Alfrnd Wnrnnr (USA) In dnr 
DundosrnpnVilik. Drr Rnhürtijrp Wio- 
nor, der spätnr in Hin USA rmir,ri<'r- 

fo ^A/nr fi'ir «njn Vpifllnndifnmt'slip- 

niülinn und das Vnrtrntnn firr ci'^nf- 
sdinn Snitip in dnn USA mit dorn linn- 
dosvnrdinnflJkreu/. auRp,R7niflinnt wor- 
don. Durch soin F.intrntrn trug or da- 
zu boi, RoRsrnlimonts nbzubnimn. 

Srinn dinsjäliriRO KoIrr b.it Woiiht 
bopondf^rs nnrh Sflll^swiJ^^^lstnin 
gnfiihrt. Dabei wniltn nr ^oRtcrn in 
Rnndsburj:^, um Rirb iiior dir Miirir>n- 
iind Christkirrho sowio fmfjfr«' kuifur- 
historlflchR Hnutm nn/.iiR<bnuPn. IVof. 
"WRrnnr znijjtn sich bonindrurkt von 
dem Gesnhrnen. Er ßnb seiner iJe- 
Bfiirzunß über den Ratb^HiR-nr.ind 
Ausdrurk und bezeirbnete die Hilfs- 
aktiion für den Wiederanfbnu des Rat- 
h.iuRos und deR UrimntmuRenmR 
durch die Rendfiburjjer T3iirRer als bei- 
spiflbnft. 

Hei seinem m^hntündinen Resurh 
ließ sidi der nnieriknnlRrbe Kunst- 
historiker, der ..eij^entlidi von techni- 
schen Dingen nicht viel Ahnung hat", 
auch den Norrl-ORtRen-Knnni zeinnn 
und liber seine GoRchichte berichten. 
Prof. Werner war von dem (jeqehe- 
nen in Rendsbur« inspepamt bnnin- 
druckt und wird in amerikaninchnn 
Zeitungen über die Stadt an Eidei 
und Kanal und ihre Sehenswürdig 
koiten berichten. 



«« ... 



f 



„Viel voniüiidicfor alr; in den 
Piicr;ou:;S4;dica" 

Rnntlsbnrg (klif), ProfcRsor Alfrrd 
Werner, iinierikiinischcr Kun?;thislf)ri- 
ker. der vor vveni<',fMi TiiHcu die Stndt 
Rendsburg besiichlc. um hier Slufiien 
in den beiden Kirciifu /ii IrfÜHMi nnri 
Gespräc.JH! /u fiihirn. hjil sich kui/. 
vor seiiu'r Al)rcusp für den b'-i/liflicn 
lunfifang in der Sladt licdfinkl, Daliri 
stellte er fest, dfiO Renflsbin;» hid)S( li 
sei und das l.ehen hier vvalti scIumm- 
lirh viel vernünftiger als in den Rin- 
sensthdten. 

F'rnf. Werner p,id) da« VerHprreheti 

ah, bei sein(Mi l^.idiovorlrjnv'M in flen 

'lISA und bei SiMncn iniirnalislischen 

Arbeiten Rendsburg nichj zu verjjes- 

sen. 

InteresRJuit seine Sclilnl\l)einfM'knng 
über die Situation der llnndeHrepii- 
blik: ,,Möge neulschland daR Paradies 
bleiben, das es anscheinend ist." 



1' 

u 

R 






0. 



u 



Miscellany 



ABOUT 




BOOKS 




THINGS 




'* 



Views and Visions 



C/2 

X 
H 



CO 






Lipchitz: Humanist Genuis 



By ALFRED WERNER 

Jewish News Art Critic 

I last saw Lipchitz on an 
evening early in April. He 
was an honored guest at a 
meeting of people con- 
nected with the arts, as 

Professionals or amateurs, who 
filled the hall of the New York 
Bar Association building to Pro- 
test against the Metropolitan 
Museum's stränge practice of 
"de-acquisitioning," rather irre- 
sponsibly, works of art 
bequeathed to it. 

Thunderous applause greeted 
the octogenarian sculptor, when 
his name was mentioned by the 
ehairman. 

At the reception, following the 
discussion, I sought out my 
friend Jacques Lipchitz (whom I 
had first met about 1943, when 
both of US were still "green- 
horns," driven to these shores by 
the nazi conquest of Europe). 
Lipchitz knew that I was at work 
on a book about the painter 
Chaim Soutine, whom he had 
known personally back in pre- 
World War II Paris. Without any 
prompting on my part, he once 
more dug into the treasure house 
of his memory, as he had done 
previously, to recreate a Mont- 
parnasse that is no more. 

For Lipchitz combined great 
gifts with a profound goodness; 
he had all the worldly wisdom 
that was so sadly lacking in the 
companions of his youth, Soutine 





Study for the Cry 



(Lipchitz— 1920) 



Caramoor a Fine Setting 
For Musical Adventuri 

By JERRY BEN-ASHER 

Jewish News Music Critic 

KATONAH, N.Y.— For those who anticipate sum- 
metime as a season for musical adventure, Caramoor,! 
tucked among the thick woods of this Westchester] 
County hamlet, is as 



SCULPTURE CULTURE. Sculptor Jacques Lipchitz discusses his 
art with children at the Youth wing of the Israel Museum, Jerusalem, 
where 130 of his bronze sketches were put on display. 



and Modigliani. Endowed with a 
robust physique — essential for 
one dedicated to the ardous 
tasks of a sculptor— and with a 
distinguished and beautiful 
head, he also had a nimble mind, 
and — a rare feature in an artist 



Schneider, Serkin Offer 
Spirited 'Festival Casals' 

The happy coincidence that New York City attracts 
more fine musicians per square foot than any spot on 
earth, and that Alexander Schneider's roots have been 
Struck there, accounts for 



some of the attractive 
musical happenings 

among the vast piles of bricks 
across the Hudson. 

When artists — in the guise of 
a string quartet, Chamber 
ensemble or symphony orches- 
tra — play alongside or under 
Maestro Schneider, the quintes- 
sential may not always be achie- 
ved. Invariably, however, their 
rapport causes audiences to 

bask in musical gemutlichkeit. 
The violinist-conductor and an 

orchestra without name 
(Schneider maintains no perma- 
nent ensemble, accumulating 
his own cream-of-the-crop 
Players), together with pianist 
Rudolf Serkin, on June 19 opened 
"Festival Casals of Puerto 
Rico," a series of three concerts 
at Carnegie Hall. 

The Performance offered a 
veritable Beethoven feast: the 
Fifth Symphony, the Third 
Piano Concerto, and expanded 
versions of movements from the 
Quartets in F (Op. 135) and C (Op. 
59, No. 3). 

If perfection was not always 
plucked from this mixed bag of 
fruit, Rudolf Serkin's individual 
contribution approached it. The 
septuagenarian virtuoso is yet 
another of those remarkable 
senior Citizens who play rings 
around younger artists. 

*'Con brio" (with spirit) epi- 



tomized his Performance of the 
Third Piano Concerto. The steel- 
spring Impulse of hands that has 
made his appearances memora- 
ble for decades was evident 
again in the crystal-clear finger- 
ing of cadenza and coda conclud- 
ing the allegro (first) movement. 
And the nobility of his expres- 
sion in the largo further height- 
ened the work's impact. 
Throughout, the orchestral 
accompaniment traced outline 
and detail with balanced crisp- 
ness. 

Mr. Schneider had opened the 
program with the Fifth Sym- 
phony. The open boldness with 
which French horns proclaimed 
the Fate theme signified that a 
fulsome Fifth could be expected. 

Passion did blend with the 
marvelous tonal resonance 
unique unto Carnegie Hall to 
produce a gratifying rendition of 
the symphony — though perhaps 
not the most heroic, even 
marred once or twice by rough 
string texture and indecisive 
tempo. 

Someone wiser than ordinary 
mortals arranged to conclude 
the concert with expanded 
scores of the iento assai" (very 
slow) movement from Quartet in 
F (Op. 135) and the Fugue from 
Quartet in C (Op. 59, No. 3). The 
sagacious fellow, rejecting the 

(See FESTIVAL— Page 30) 



—was well-read and highly 
articulate. 

He looked a bit frail and was 
glad to have found a comfortable 
chair, while everyone eise was 
Standing, glass in hand. Yet 
there was nothing defeatist or 
moribund about him, as he told 
me about the immensity of the 
work that was still ahead (alas. 
organizations wait until an artist 
is 70 and older to award commis- 
sions, so that they can shine in 
the accumulated glory of his 
internationally famous name, 
instead of calling on his gifts 
when he is still young, füll of 
energy and less known). 

He expected to leave shortly 
for Italy, and it was there, on the 
island of Capri. that he was 
felled by a heart attack on May 
26, a f ew months before he would 
have celebrated his 82nd birth- 
day. 

Dedication to Ideals 

Retirement was certainly not for 
one like him whose gray hairs 
could not conceal his fervent 
heart. By the time of his death 
his Output — works in stone, ter- 
racotta or bronze, many of them 
very large— was immense 
enough to fill the halls of major 
museum. Yet what distinguished 
Lipchitz from most of his con- 
feres was not alone his prolific- 
ness, approaching that of 
another great man who died this 
year, Picasso, but the strength 
of his unwavering dedication to 
lofty Ideals. 

At the height of his career, he 
wrote: "Sculpture is a man- 
made companion with an 
immortal human heart inside 
from which calls are emitted 
constantly, giving us joy, warm- 
ing US and teaching us, all at the 
same time." Decades earlier, at 
22, he had joined the Cubists— 
the group dominated by Picasso 
— because he had realized that 
what they were evolving was 
more than a fad, a fashion, even 
more than a style or a mere 
mode of expression. 

(See VIEWS-Page 16) 



magical a spot as man 
might conjure for a music 

festival. 

A fortunate bequest long ago 
transformed the Walter and 
Lucie Rosen estate into the 
Caramoor Center for Music and 
Arts. The center includes a 
Great House, with precious art 
ranging from the Middle Ages to 
the late 18th Century. But save 
that exploration for (as the- 
phrase is used these days) 
"another point in time." 

Concerts and operas at Cara- 
moor are heard outdoors in a 
Spanish Courtyard or Venetian 
Theater. The settings are lux- 
uriantly bucolic, the music 
serious and expertly played. And 
the festival is favored with the 
direction of Julius Rudel, peripa- 
tetic conductor of Lincoln Cen- 
ter's City Center Opera and 
much more. 

Mr. Rudel inaugurated the fes- 
tival's 28th year with "An Eve- 
ning of Mozart," in the Venetian 
Theater on June 23. He began 
and ended with two works pro- 
duced for a Salzburg Burgomas- 
ter: the "Haffner" Serenade No. 
7 in D Major (K. 250) and the 
"Haffner" Symphony No. 35 in 
D. Major (K. 385). Sandwiched 
between them were the Hörn 
Concerto in E Fiat Major (K. 477) 
and Clarinet Concerto in A 
Major (K. 622). 

Like blood relatives who can't 
abide each other. the one char- 
acteristic the Haffners had in 
common was their name. The 
Serenade sounded iike some- 
thing commissioned for the wed- 
ding of the burgomaster's 
daughter. As a matter of fact, it 
was. Tranquil, tender and 
overly-long, it was about as sti- 
mulating as lukewarm water. 

The work did offer Charles 
Haupt, concert master of the fes- 
tival orchestra, an opportunity 
to perform a few of its seven 
movements in concerto- 
symphonic style. Though small- 
voiced— perhaps because of the 
acoustic weakness of the outdoor 
theater— the young Violinist 



fingered adroitly the second 
movement andante, its cadenza, 
and the fourth movement rondo. 
One passage in the menuetto, the 
solo violin buttressed by anti- 
phonal horns, flowed with espe- 
cial sweetness. 

The symphony, also originally 
composed as a serenade, is 
prime Mozart. Meticulously 
cued by Mr. Rudel, brightly 
played by his ensemble, it 
brought the evening to a grace- 
ful conclusion. 

Inclusion of the two concerti 
mirrored Mozart's remarkable 
grasp of the special nature of 
individual Instruments. No other 
composer has written for them 
in such quantity and with such 
variety. 

In the instance of the clarinet 
— a new discovery in Wolfgang 
Amadeus' day— his composition 
has never been superseded. 
Charles Russo, like Mr. Haupt a 
leading member of the orches- 
tra, intoned the adagio's legato 
line poignantly. 

A third artist, Anthony 
Miranda, performed the com- 
poser's difficult Hörn Concerto. 

(See CARAMOOR— Page 30) 



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Lipchitz: Humanist Genuis 

By ALFRED WERNER 

Jewish News Art Critic 

I last saw Lipchitz on an 
evening early in April. He 
was an honored guest at a 
meeting of people con- 
nected with the arts, as 

Professionals or amateurs, who 
filled the hall of the New York 
Bar Association building to Pro- 
test against the Metropolitan 
Museum's stränge practice of 
"de-acquisitioning," rather irre- 
sponsibly, works of art 
bequeathed to it. 

Thunderous applause greeted 
the octogenarian sculptor, when 
his name was mentioned by the 
chairman. 

At the reception, following the 
discussion, I sought out my 
friend Jacques Lipchitz (whom I 
had first met about 1943, when 
both of US were still "green- 
horns," driven to these shores by 
the nazi conquest of Europe). 
Lipchitz knew that I was at work 
on a book about the painter 
Chaim Soutine, whom he had 

known personaüy back in pre- sC ULPTURE CULTLRE. Sculptor Jacques Lipchitz discusses his 
World War II Paris. Without any g^t with children at the Youth wing of the Israel Museum, Jerusalem, 





Study for the Cry 



(Lipchitz— 1920) 



prompting on my part, he once 
more dug into the treasure house 
of his memory, as he had done 
previously, to recreate a Mont- 
parnasse that is no more. 

For Lipchitz combined great 
gifts with a profound goodness; 
he had all the worldly wisdom 
that was so sadly lacking in the 
companions of his youth, Soutine 



where 130 of his bronze sketches were put on display. 



and Modigliani. Endowed with a 
robust physique — essential for 
one dedicated to the ardous 
tasks of a sculptor— and with a 
distinguished and beautiful 
head, he also had a nimble mind, 
and— a rare feature in an artist 



Schneider, Serkin Offer 
Spirited ''Festival Casals' 

The happy coincidence that New York City attracts 
more fine musicians per square foot than any spot on 
earth, and that Alexander Schneider's roots have been 
Struck there, accounts for 



some of the attractive 
musical happenings 

among the vast piles of bricks 
across the Hudson. 

When artists — in the guise of 
a string quartet, Chamber 
ensemble or symphony orches- 
tra — play alongside or under 
Maestro Schneider, the quintes- 
sential may not always be achie- 
ved. Invariably, however, their 
rapport causes audiences to 

bask in musical gemutlichkeit. 
The violinist-conductor and an 

orchestra without name 
(Schneider maintains no perma- 
nent ensemble, accumulating 
his own cream-of-the-crop 
Players), together with pianist 
Rudolf Serkin, on June 19 opened 
"Festival Casals of Puerto 
Rico," a series of three concerts 
at Carnegie Hall. 

The Performance offered a 
veritable Beethoven feast: the 
Fifth Symphony, the Third 
Piano Concerto, and expanded 
versions of movements from the 
Quartets in F (Op. 135) and C (Op. 
59, No. 3). 

If perfection was not always 
plucked from this mixed bag of 
fruit, Rudolf Serkin's individual 
contribution approached it. The 
septuagenarian virtuoso is yet 
another of those remarkable 
senior Citizens who play rings 
around younger artists. 

"Con brio" (with spirit) epi- 



tomized his Performance of the 
Third Piano Concerto. The steel- 
spring Impulse of hands that has 
made his appearances memora- 
ble for decades was evident 
again in the crystal-clear finger- 
ing of cadenza and coda conclud- 
ing the allegro (first) movement. 
And the nobility of his expres- 
sion in the largo further height- 
ened the work's impact. 
Throughout, the orchestral 
accompaniment traced outline 
and detail with balanced crisp- 
ness. 

Mr. Schneider had opened the 
program with the Fifth Sym- 
phony. The open boldness with 
which French horns proclaimed 
the Fate theme signified that a 
fulsome Fifth could be expected. 

Passion did blend with the 
marvelous tonal resonance 
unique unto Carnegie Hall to 
produce a gratifying rendition of 
the symphony — though perhaps 
not the most heroic, even 
marred once or twice by rough 
string texture and indecisive 
tempo. 

Someone wiser than ordinary 
mortals arranged to conclude 
the concert with expanded 
scores of the "lento assai" (very 
slow) movement from Quartet in 
F (Op. 135) and the Fugue from 
Quartet in C (Op. 59, No. 3). The 
sagacious fellow, rejecting the 

(See FESTIVAL— Page 30) 



— was well-read and highly 
articulate. 

He looked a bit frail and was 
glad to have found a comfortable 
chair, while everyone eise was 
Standing, glass in band. Yet 
there was nothing defeatist or 
moribund about him, as he told 
me about the immensity of the 
work that was still ahead (alas. 
organizations wait until an artist 
is 70 and older to award commis- 
sions, so that they can shine in 
the accumulated glory of his 
internationally famous name, 
instead of calling on his gifts 
when he is still young, füll of 
energy and less known). 

He expected to leave shortly 
for Italy, and it was there, on the 
Island of Capri, that he was 
felled by a heart attack on May 
26, a few months before he would 
have celebrated his 82nd birth- 
day. 

Dedication to Ideals 
Retirement was certainly not for 
one like him whose gray hairs 
could not conceal his fervent 
heart. By the time of his death 
his Output— works in stone, ter- 
racotta or bronze, many of them 
very large — was immense 
enough to fill the halls of major 
museum. Yet what distinguished 
Lipchitz from most of his con- 
feres was not alone his prolific- 
ness, approaching that of 
another great man who died this 
year, Picasso, but the strength 
of his unwavering dedication to 
lofty Ideals. 

At the height of his career, he 
wrote: "Sculpture is a man- 
made companion with an 
immortal human heart inside 
from which calls are emitted 
constantly, giving us joy, warm- 
ing US and teaching us, all at the 
same time." Decades earlier, at 
22, he had joined the Cubists— 
the group dominated by Picasso 
— because he had realized that 
what they were evolving was 
more than a fad, a fashion, even 
more than a style or a mere 
mode of expression. 

(See VIEWS— Page 16) 



Caramoor a Fine Setting 
For Musical Adventure 

By JERRY BEN-ASHER 

Jewish News Music Critic 

KATONAH, N.Y.— For those who anticipate sum- 
metime as a season for musical adventure, Caramoor, 
tucked among the thick woods of this Westchester 

County hamlet, is as 

magical a spot as man 
might conjure for a music 

festival. 

A fortunate bequest long ago 
transformed the Walter and 
Lucie Rosen estate into the 
Caramoor Center for Music and 
Arts. The center includes a 
Great House. with precious art 
ranging from the Middle Ages to 
the late 18th Century. But save 
that exploration for (as the- 
phrase is used these days) 
"another point in time." 

Concerts and operas at Cara- 
moor are heard outdoors in a 
Spanish Courtyard or Venetian 
Theater. The settings are lux- 
uriantly bucolic, the music 
serious and expertly played. And 
the festival is favored with the 
direction of Juhus Rudel, peripa- 
tetic conductor of Lincoln Cen- 
ter's City Center Opera and 
much more. 

Mr. Rudel inaugurated the fes- 
tival's 28th year with ''An Eve- 
ning of Mozart," in the Venetian 
Theater on June 23. He began 
and ended with two works pro- 
duced for a Salzburg Burgomas- 
ter: the "Haffner" Serenade No. 
7 in D Major (K. 250) and the 
"Haffner" Symphony No. 35 in 
D. Major (K. 385). Sandwiched 
between them were the Hörn 
Concerto in E Fiat Major ( K. 477) 
and Clarinet Concerto in A 
Major (K. 622). 

Like blood relatives who can't 
abide each other, the one char- 
acteristic the Haffners had in 
common was their name. The 
Serenade sounded like some- 
thing commissioned for the wed- 
ding of the burgomaster's 
daughter. As a matter of fact, it 
was. Tranquil, tender and 
overly-long, it was about as sti- 
mulating as lukewarm water. 

The work did offer Charles 
Haupt, concert master of the fes- 
tival orchestra, an opportunity 
to perform a few of its seven 
movements in concerto- 
symphonic style. Though small- 
voiced— perhaps because of the 
acoustic weakness of the outdoor 
theater— the young Violinist 



fingered adroitly the second 
movement andante, its cadenza, 
and the fourth movement rondo. 
One passage in the menuetto, the 
solo violin buttressed by anti- 
phonal horns, flowed with espe- 
cial sweetness. 

The symphony, also originally 
composed as a serenade, is 
prime Mozart. Meticulously 
cued by Mr. Rudel, brightly 
played by his ensemble, it 
brought the evening to a grace- 
ful conclusion. 

Inclusion of the two concerti 
mirrored Mozart's remarkable 
grasp of the special nature of 
individual Instruments. No other 
composer has written for them 
in such quantity and with such 
variety. 

In the instance of the clarinet 
— a new discovery in Wolfgang 
Amadeus' day — his composition 
has never been superseded. 
Charles Russo, like Mr. Haupt a 
leading member of the orches- 
tra, intoned the adagio's legato 
line poignantly. 

A third artist, Anthony 
Miranda, performed the com- 
poser's difficult Hörn Concerto. 

(See CARAMOOR— Page 30) 



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where Framing is a Family Tradition 

since 1860 

we will be close(d for VACATION 
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es 



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Views 

(Continued from Page 12) 



Cubism, as the young Immi- 
grant from Lithuania under- 
stood it, was far more than a 
device to reduce forms to fun- 
damental shapes. As far as 
Chaim Jacob Lipchitz was con- 
cerned, it showed artists a road 
to f reedom ; it offered the liberty 
to abbreviate, elongate, "dis- 
tort," often with only a hint of 
the thing observed. 

Those who will see the memo- 
rial Show in October, arranged 
by the Marlborough Galleries in 
Manhattan, will understand why 
the master continued to refer to 
himself as a Cubist long after 
Cubism had subsided as a mili- 
tant movement, and why to him 
it remained "a new view of the 
Universe . . . a search for a new 
Syntax." 

Whilp thprp is nnt miioh obvi- 

ous resemblance between the 
austere, angular, near-abstract 
carvings of his youth, and the 
swelling, sensuous, represent- 
ational bronzes of his middle 
years, the spirit that moved his 
Creative hands remained the 
same, despite certain changes of 
Vision, along with constant 
growth and increasing maturity. 
In the days of early struggle as 
well as in those of mellow old age 
the underlying assumption was 
identical— the conviction that 
art has higher aims than captur- 
ing the mutable aspects of thi- 
ngs, that it was the sculptor's 
task to produce lasting tes- 
timonies of what is essential and 
timeless, whatever forms he 
uses. 

Figure of Speech 

For my friend Lipchitz, sculp- 
ture functioned as a figure of 
Speech. Thus, his musicians, 
harlequins. dancers. mothers 
with children, or his composi- 
tions based on Biblical or pagan 
motifs are condensations of life. 
To understand him, we must 
accept him as the artist he was, 
eager to communicate what he 
knew about life to those who did 
not yet know, an artist for 
whom sculpture was the appro- 
priate way to embody an inner- 
most feeling or thought. 

Facing a Lipchitz, it is, there- 
fore, not enough to look — one 
must be able to empathize. 
Through his work, he seemed to 
exclaim, "I am a Humanist! " As 
such, he feit he had a right, nay a 
duty, to break down natural 
forms into their Stereometrie, 
that is intellectual Clements, 
and then to rearrange those very 
Clements into the patterns he 
wanted to create. 

He knew, and wanted the 
World to know, that a work of art 
is a man-made organism rather 
than a slavish Imitation of some- 
thing that is given. There was a 
deeply religious Substrate in his 
concern for the spirit which com- 
poses, in contrast to the senses 
that by themselves decompose, 
experience. 

Whether he used the chisel and 
hammer to cut his philosophical 
Images into störe or. as he later 
did far more frequently, 
kneaded and twisted clay into 
the eternal shapes of life. we 
must recognize him as an artist 
who belongs to all periods and to 
none. who was at once modern 
and primeval, who wedded the 
abstract to the human, and 
whose quest for ordered simplifi- 
cation eliminated the merely 
incidental. 

Interested in Vitality 

His work is never "attractive" 
in the way of so much academic 
sculpture of the past, or so much 
Minimal Art of today. For he 
was less interested in "beauty" 
than in vitality, less also in repli- 
cas of existing forms, compli- 
cated or simple, than in the cre- 
ation of magic. Yes— the kind of 



magic that can move the souls of 
menl 

He was a magician on the level 
of the sculptors of the cathedral 
in Charters, who went beyond a 
mere representation of human 
bodies and suggested the uni- 
verse of medieval thought. 
Indeed, all great sculpture 
before him — from Phidias to 
Donatello to Michelangelo to 
Rodin — has always been, like his 
own, "visible speech," to apply 
Dante's magnificent definition, 
sentences formed to utter 
anguish, defiance, or hope. 

Ideas or feelings, like those he 
expressed, are abstract, and 



abstract, too, in some sense, is 
everything that deserves to be 
called Art. Visitors to any of his 
numerous retrospectives shows 
—the last was seen here at the 
Metropolitan Museum in the 
Summer of 1972— were able to 
observe how close to pure 
abstraction Lipchitz came early 
in his career. 

But he reached the point 
where he feit he could go no fur- 
ther. that he needed something 
concrete and that by avoiding 
the image of Man he would 
impoverish himself. Without 
denying the abstractionist 
members of his confraternity 



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the right to produce shapes com- 
pletely unrelated to the kingdom 
of man, he himself, fearing that 
he had eliminated too much and 
might end up with nothing, 
reversed his course and made 
the widest use of all possibilities 
afforded by the human form, by 
history, religion. legend and 
allegory. 

One recalls that the late Amer- 
ican painter, Max Weber, after a 
near-abstract period, created 
pictures with clearly recogniz- 
able subject matter. To explain 
the abrupt end of his "abstract" 
phase, Weber declared: "In my 
early days I discovered the 



geometry in the work of God. 
Now I feit the need to return to 
the works of God themselves." 

Liptchitz, who was also a 
deeply religious man, could have 
Said the same. He was in his 40s 
when he began his long cycle of 
groups related to Biblical or 
mythological episodes, such as 
"Rape of Europe," "Pro- 
metheus Strangling the Vul- 
ture," "David and Goliath" and 
"Jacob Wrestling with the 
Angel." 

The bulk of his work cele- 
brates man. Lipchitz endorsed 
Goethes belief that the aim of 

(See VIEWS— Page 17) 



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Views 

TContinued from Page 16) 

sculpture was "to render the dig- 



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of the human form. 






Far from being a fanatic or a 
Chauvinist, Lipchitz was always 
loyal to his fellow-Jews, and 
aware of Judaism's significant 
role as a world religion. Hence, 
it is not surprising that quite a 
few of his groups are inspired by 
events in Jewish history, past 
and present. 

His "Mother and Child" of 1942 
seems to have been inspired by 
newspaper reports read by the 
refugee Lipchitz, newly arrived 
in the United States after his 
escape from France. For this 
mother is without hands, without 
legs. The child, asymetrically 
placed on her back, anxiously 
chngs to the mother's neck. He 
may have wanted to remind us 
of those countless mothers who 
perished in nazi concentration 
camps, along with the little chil- 
dren they futilely tried to shield 
from the murderers. 

In contrast to this haunting 
piece of sculpture, imbued with 
the tragic spirit of one of the 
darkest eras in European histo- 
ry, is "The Miracle" of 1948— an 
exultant figure with raised arms 
faces the Tablets of the Law, out 
of which grows the seven- 
branched candelabrum. The 
spirit of happiness it exudes was 
inspired by the news of the cre- 
ation of the Jewish State. 

As an elderly man, Lipchitz 
became very miich interested in 
Hasidism. He developed a 
friendship with Menachem 
Schneerson, the leader of the 
Lubavitcher movement within 
the Hasidic sect, and he often 
visited the rabbi at the head- 
quarters, on Brooklyn 's Eastem 
Parkway. One of his last pieces 
of sculpture was entitled, "A 
Rebbe and his Hasidim." 

Lipchitz' most widely known 
work is, perhaps, "Prometheus 
Strangling the Vulture," which 
exists in several slightly dif- 
ferent versions. Done in the style 
of Lipchitz' maturity— rounded, 
swelling forms interlocked in the 
dynamism of Baroque theatri- 
cality— it presents Prometheus, 
the rebel, fire-bringer and 
teacher of the arts of life as the 
Victor over his tormentor, the 
vulture. 

Having broken the chains that 
bound him to the rock, the 
Friend of Man, in Lipchitz' bold 
Paraphrase of the Greek myth, 
strangles the ugly bird with one 



band, while stanching with the 
other the wound infhcted by the 
tearing claws. 

It is obvious that the vulture 
Stands for brüte force that would 
wipe out civilization were it not 
for its recurrent defeat by the 
spint Ol Mciii. vVe have here, as 
in other works by Lipchitz, pro- 
grammatic sculpture at its best 
—works that make us pay atten- 
tion to subject matter, but never 
at the sacrifice of purely aes- 
thetic pleasure. Here we have 
"significant forms"— forms 

appropriate for our own Age of 
Discontent. 

In an era of strife, disorder, 
schisms, it is easy to emphathize 
with Lipchitz' creations, which 
often nervously extent, thrust 
and spread into space without 
noticeable concern about verisi- 
militude, and where limbs are 
elongated, thickened or thinned 
out, and cavities are often sub- 
stituted for volumes— all to 
accentuate the essential at the 
expense of the ephemeral. 

To his end, the Impulse to 
make art was overriding: "It is 
a kind of desire to fight against 
death," he explained. He spent a 
lifetime directing his restless 
energy to the problem of turning 
mind into matter, and matter 
into mind. 

All this critic and devoted 
friend cän say, in summing up, 
is that freedom from the inhibit- 
ing and repressive laws of gravi- 
ty, and conquest of the static 
force of weight by light and 
flight were his bold dream, and 
his tender hope. 



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Meister der ausgestellten Bildnismedaillons. 
l>'mpire- und |ugendstilarbeiten stehen am 
Knde dieser eindrucksvollen Ausstellung. 

iMOSKAU 

Staatliches Pnscbkinfnnscuni 

Ausstellung: Mcister^ehlmunocit aus (kr . Mbertina 

April bis Mai K) 7^ 

Dieser grolkn Austauschausstellung kamen 
zwei Aufgaben zu: einmal den Reichtum der 
Sammlung zu zeigen und zum anderen die 
österreichisrhp '/.«-irhenkunst exemplarisch zu 

präsentieren. 

Es wurden hervorragende Blätter von hollän- 
dischen und flämischen Meistern wie Brueghel 
d. Ä., Heemskerck, joos de Momper, Rem- 
brandt, Goltzius, van Dyck und Rubens ge- 
zeigt. Die Italiener waren mit Carpaccio, 
Guercino und Piazzetta, die Franzosen mit 
Fragonard und Liotard vertreten. Neben 
Zeichnungen von Dürer, Schönfeld und Will- 
mann waren die Österreicher Strudel, Troger 
und Rottmayer, Führich, Moritz von Schwind 
und Scheffcr von Lconhartshotf zu sehen. Mit 
den Meistern der Sezession endete die Ausstel- 
lung. I ictor Antomw 



USA und Kanada 



ATFANTA, GF.ORGIA 

High Museum of Art 

Exhibition: I'he Diisseldorj Academy and the 

America ns 

Summer to October 28, IQJ^ ( see Illustration) 

In the minds of many Americans, the Düssel- 
dorf Academy Stands for the worst in lyth 
Century German art: mawkish sentimentality 
combincd with rigidly naturalistic rendering 
of figures and scenes. Actually-as this largc 
exhibition, "The Düsseldorf Academy and 
the Americans" demonstrated-both the in- 
structors and the pupils often created pictures 
of merit, cspecially in the fields of genre and 
portraiture (the show opened at the Munson- 
Williams-Proctor Institute in lUica, New 
York, on january 7, 1973, and will close at 
the High Museum of art in Atlanta, Cxcorgia, 
on October 28, 1975). Men likc Schadow, who 
directed the Academy from 1826 to 1859, and 
his successor Bendemann ; the brothers^chen- 
bach, exponents of the best in Düsseldorf 
landscape painting, the superior draughtsman 
Rethel and the excellent portraitist Sohn turn 
out to be much better than the reputation 
thcy acquired posthumously and unjustly, 
But the primary goal of this exhibition was 
not a revindication of twenty-four Düssel- 
dorf Germans: it was a comparison between 
the Düsseldorf professors and their American 
pupils. The school's acsthetics actually domi- 
natcd much American painting because, as 
Gudmund Vigtal, director of the High 




l;:astman Johnson, Polly Gary, charcoal and 
chalk. .hulorer, Addison Gallery of 
American Art, Philipps Academy, Exhibition: 
Atlanta, High Museum of .Art, The Düsseldorf 
Academy and the Americans. 



Museum which organized the exhibition, 
stated in the catalogue, "the gloss and senti- 
ment so characteristic of the Academy style 
suited mid-i9th Century tastes to perfection." 
Emmanuel (iottlieb Lcutze is considered an 
American -he was taken as a child from his 
native (iermany to Philadelphia. In 1841, he 
went to Düsseldorf, attracted by the Aca- 
demv's lustre, to study with C.arl Friedrich 
Lessing. I le painted "Amcrica's best-known 
picture, the huge, somewhat theatrical 'Wash- 
ington Oossing the Delaware' (1850) and a 
mural for the Ilouse of Representatives in 
Washington, Westward the (^ourse of F.mpire 
Takes its Way." He was foUowed to Düssel- 
dorf by Woodville, Whittredge, Johnson, 
Bierstadt and others whose reputations have 
been upgraded here in recent ycars along 
with a total re-evaluation of i9th Century art 
history from fresh, new perspectives. 

MONTREAL, CANADA 

Montreal Museum of Fiiie Arts 
Exhibition: French .Art in the Middle Ages 
fanuary i i-Fehruary iH, Kjy^ ( see Illustration) 

I'he exhibition, "French Art in the Middle 
Ages," was first seen at the Musee du (Quebec 
(October i8-Decembcr 15, 1972) and there- 
after at another (^anadian museum, the Mon- 
treal Museum of I'inc Arts. The very com- 
prehensive show was co-sponsored by Ac- 
cords (Ailturels Franco-Qucbecois and Asso- 
ciation Francjaise d'Action Artistique. Most 
of the objects were loaned by museums in 
France. At the Montreal Museum the direc- 
tor, David (harter, wisely displayed the capi- 
tals of columns abovc eye Icvel and provided 



backlighting for the pieces of stained glass. 
Since the art of the Middle Ages was essen- 
tially monumental, the walls of the rooms 
were covered with photographs of French 
cathedrals, exteriors, intcriors, or details. 
Virtually all of the objects- among them 
books and ivories, shown in glass cases-had 
a religious function. (^hronologicallv they 
ranged from the seventh centurv (a sarco- 
phagus panel decorated with a Cireek cross 
from Saint-Germain-des-Pres) to the be- 
ginning of the sixteenth centurv (a proces- 
sional cross from a parish church at (.astillon- 
en-C,ouserans, which combines Ciothic with 
Renaissance features). There were some very 
beautiful small statuettes of saints. Of partic- 
ular beautv was the stone carving of Saint 
lohn the I Evangelist, which probably came 
from the same atelier as some of the sculptures 
that adorn (^hartres Cathedral. The stained 
glass window from the church A Saint- 
Vincent de Rouen (ca. 1525) is ot consider- 
able interest because its iconography-the 
theme is the family of the Virgin: St. Anne 
and her three daughters-is highly complex. 




lohannesschüssel, französisch, zweite Hälfte 
15. Jahrhundert, Sandstein. Quebec, Musee 
du Quebec, Exhibition: Montreal, I'he Montreal 
Museum of Fine Arts, French Art in the 
Middle Ages. 



NEW YORK 

Finch College Museum of .Art 
Exhibition: Etchings by Salvaior Rosa 
April i97i 

New ^'ork's tirst show ing of etchings by 
Salvator Rosa was arranged by Robert L. 
Manning, director of the Old Masters Wing 
at the Finch College Museum of Art. It ran 
through April 1973 to observe the tercente- 
nary of Rosa's dcath and comprised eighty- 
four works donc between 165 1 and 1663. In 
the release, issued by the museum, we are told 
that Rosa turned from painting to engraving 
to publicize himsclf, to overcome fierce com- 
petition. Another reason for his involvemcnt 
in print-making is given by B. De Dominici 
in his Vitc de' pittori (1745)- According to 
this source, Rosa began etching "in order not 



pS 



\ 



tc) rcmain idlc . . . and his genius incrcasing, 
or rathcr bccoming pcrfcct with practicc in 
ctching, he executcd many coppcrplatcs, thc 
ink-drawings for which hc had donc cxcel- 
Icntly with graccful and bcautiful lines and 
with an almost eccentric originality of con- 

ception." 

Pcrhaps thc last uomo universale as this 
phrasc was meant in the Renaissance -he was 
actor, plavwright, musician in addition to 
being a most versatile and many-sided artist- 
Rosa excelled in cverything he did. He 
learned the craft of etching from Aniello 
Falcone, and mastered it thoroughly. The 
show inciuded many " Di v eist, Tigüics, 
made in 1657 for Carolo Rubeo (Carlo de' 
Rossi), a banker and merchant who had a 
vcrv important collection of Rosa's paintings; 
they look like studies for costumes in some 
fantastic pageants. Much larger in format are 
the compositions on historical or mythologi- 
cal themes, such as the martyrdom of Attilus 
Regulus, Polycrates, the fall of the giants, 
and Oedipus. As was to be expected by those 
familiär with Rosa's paintings, they are very 
histrionic, and totally lack the inwardness of 
Rosa's great contemporary, Rembrandt. ^'et 
they are characterized by much vitality and 
energv. hicluded in the show was an oil 
painting, assumed bv some experts ro be a 
self-portrait. 

Metropnlifan M/isenw of Ar/ 
Exbibition: Gold 
April-SepteMher, 19J} 

Unlike the majority of American museums 
which have, due to economic stringencies of 
the past year or two, reduced their exhibition 
schedules to a depressingly small minimum, 
New ^'ork's Metropolitan Museum of Art 
continues to otfer fascinating shows, of value 
to the lav public and the scholar alike. The re- 
cent exhibition "Ciold," organized by (Carmen 
Gomcz-Moreno, curator of the Department 
of Medieval Art, displayed about live hundred 
objects bv masters from all times, races and 
religions. 

Metropolitan MnseuM of Art 

fzxhibithn: Drairinos and Priiits hy the Crrracci 

April 24- Jiily /, kjj} (see Illustration} 

Drawings and Prints by the Carracci illumi- 
nated the contributions of Agostino, Annibale 
and Ludovico, who were the pride of Bologna 
around 1600. On view were pen and ink 
drawings, ctchings and engravings by these 
celebrated thrce, as well as prints executed by 
lesser men after Annibale C.arracci. While all 
of the prints shown belong to the Metro- 
politan, some of the drawings came from 
private collections, and one from the Pierpont 
Morgan Library. Since the (Carracci are not 
always recognized in historical surveys as thc 
eminent draughtsmen and print-makers they 
were, the exhibition may help to re-evaluate 







Annibale Carracci, Two Studies of a Boy and two of a Ciirl, red C'halk, heightencd with 
white, on beige paper. \ew York, The Metropolitan Miiunm of Art, Harrie Brisbane Dick 
Fund and Rooers Fund, 1972, Exhibition: Dran'ings and Prints by Carracci. 



their Status. Annibale Carracci, in parricular, 
emerges from this show as one ot the grcat 
draughtsmen of all time. There is a small 
catalogue, with text by Jacob Bean, who 
organized the show. 

Metropolitan Museum oj .Art 

Exhibition: American Impressionist Paintings 

and Drawings 

April 19 June }, icjyj ( see Illustration) 

American Painting of the last Century has 
often been neglected for the simple reason 
that the l'nired States could not boast of a 
Dclacroix, a (-ourbet, or of anyonc approach- 
ing the importance of the 1 rench Impres- 
sionists and Post-Imprcssionists. \'et, as the 
show "American Impressionist Paintings and 
Drawings" proved, this country had very sensi- 
tive and skillful painters, even though onlv 
one in this particular group (loaned to the 
Metropt)litan by Mr. and Mrs. Raymond J. 
llorowitz for the duration ot the show), the 
expatriate John Singer Sargent, was ever to 
achieve international fame. 
Much of the oblivion into which American 
painting, especially of the period between ca. 
18S0 and 1914, had fallen is due to the fact 
that in North American visual arts the more 
conservative spirit of Munich rather than the 
more progressive of Paris prcvailcd. William 
Merritt (,hase, John Twachtman atid Robert 
Blum studied in the capital of the Bavarian 
kingdom, where "they learned to apply a 
dashing technique to otherwise mundane 
subjects (portraiture and landscape) and to 
cxotic oncs (gypsies, quaint peasants, soldiers) 



as well," to quote from John K. Howat's 
introduction to the richly illustrated catalogue. 
The show offered visitors a rare oppt)rtunity 
to become acquainted with works by other 
lesser know n painters, such as Robert Frede- 
rick Blum, Dennis \Iiller Bunker and Fdward 
Henrv Potthast, who were representatives of 
that "quietism" that prevailed in the more 
genteel circles of America prior to the unrest 
introduced bv World War 1. .Alfred Werner 



(^larles (^romwell Ingham, Amelia Palmer, 
circa 1829, oil on canvas. AV;;' York, 
Metropolitan Museum of .Art, Ciift oj 
Courtlandt Palmer, kjjo, Exhibition: 
American Impressionist Paintings and Pra}rings. 




J2P 



Zeichnungen des Neun- und Zehnjährigen erkennen. V^or 1890 erhieh 
der Knabe von seinem Vater dem Maler, Zeichenlehrer und Museums- 
konservator lose Ruiz Blaset) -die ersten Anleitungen im Zeichnen und 

Malen. 

Die Zeichnungen und Skizzen des Kindes und Jünglings Picasso verra- 
ten eine unbändige Lust am L^abulieren und l '. runden von »Bildreporta- 
gen«. Der i:if- und Zwölfjährige zeichnete und schrieb seine Zeitschritt 
»Azul V Blanco«, die er mit lustigen Illustrationen versah. Neben Stier- 
kämpfen und Schlachtenszenen Hnden sich öfters Darstellungen aus 
einem imaginären 17. Jahrhundert: man ist versucht, von hier eine 
Brücke zu den zwischen dem 16. März und 5- Oktober 1968 entstande- 
nen 347 Radierungen zu schlagen, wo der «7 jährige seinem zeitweise 
bezähmten Hang zum Erzählerischen und Burlesken wieder ungehemmt 

nachkam. 

Pablo beherrschte die konventionelle akademische Malerei bald. Nach 
glänzend abgelegtem lixamen fand er, vierzehnjährig, Aufnahme in der 
»liscuela de la Lonja« in Barcelona, wo er die höheren Kurse belegte. 
Im Oktober 1897 bestand er die Aufnahmeprüfung für die Oberstufe 
an der altehrwürdigen »Königlichen Akademie San Fernando« in 
Madrid. Aus jener Zeit stammen die ersten Kopien nach Werken der 
großen spanischen Meister: im Prado kopierte er ein Bildnis Philipps 1\'. 
von Veläzquez. Dessen »Reiterbildnis Philipps IV.« taucht - seitenver- 
kehrt und frei interpretiert in einem Skizzenblatt auf, wo eine wei- 
tere Reiterdarstellung von Tizians »Karl \'. in der Schlacht bei Muhl- 
berg« abstammt. Sieben Jahrzehnte später erfolgte die Auseinander- 
setzung mit Veläzquez' Bild »Las Meninas« in einer Folge von 44 Ciemäl- 
den, die der Künstler 1968 dem Picasso-Museum in Barcelona ge- 
schenkt hat. In dem »März 1898« datierten »Album 14« findet sich die 
Kopie nach der von (Jova mit Rötel ausgeführten Vorlage zu Blatt 14 
von »Los Caprichos«: »Bien tirada estä« (und nicht nach der Radierung, 
w ie (^irlot meint). Von biographischem Interesse ist sodann in diesem 
Album die aufgrund eines alten Druckes entstandene Nachzeichnung 
eines Porträts des berühmten Toreros Jose Delgado, genannt Pepe lUo, 
dessen 1796 erstmals veröffentlichtes Handbuch »La Tauromaquia« 18 16 
in einer Neuausgabe mit 33 Radierungen von (Joya erschien, und von 
dem sich Picasso 19^ ''-u 26 Aquatintablättern inspirieren lieb. l^ie 
Beschäftigung mit dem wiederentdeckten \.\ (ireco im Jahre 1899 spie- 
irclt sich im »Portr.it nach L.l (ireco« und in zwei weiteren Bildnissen. 
1950 wandte sich Picasso erneut diesem Künstler zu ur.d malte die groß- 
artige Version nach (irecos »Porträt eines Malers« (Sammlung Angela 
Roscngart, Luzern). Fs verw undert, daß sich (]irlot entgehen lief.^, sol- 
che Zusammenhänge zwischen dem \Xerk des jungen Akademieschü- 
lers und jenem des greisen Meisters aufzuzeigen. 

Dennoch handelt es sich um einen der w ichtigsten Beiträge zur Picasso- 
Literatur der letzten Jahre. Die Bedeutung des Bandes »Picasso: Das 
jugendwerk eines Cienies« liegt nicht allein in der Bereicherung der be- 
kannten lugend- und Frühwerke um über 900 Arbeiten; zahlreiche der 
erstmals veröffentlichten Zeichnungen und Olstudien decken bisher 
verborgen gebliebene Zusammenhänge auf und erschließen faszinieren- 
de Einblicke in die Arbeitsweise des jungen Künstlers. 

Christian Gcelhciar 



Pierre Cnm-thioH, Sontiuc: Pe nitre du Dechirant. ^00 pciiics, j 1 7 ill/istratious, 
lolnur plcUcs. Hdita, Panscunic i(jjj. 

A well-known Swiss-born ecrivain d'art, for decades a major tigure in 
Paris, (^ourthion has devotcd a dozen years to the Herculean task of 
dealing with the chaos offered by Soutine's life-story and "heart-rend- 
ing" (dechirant) (uuvre. The hrst part of the book is dcvoted mainly to 
the biographv pieced together from the memories ofthose who knew 
the artist during his boyhood in Russia (1895-1912) and bis subsequent 
years in France (Soutine died in a Paris clinic on August 9, 1943, after an 
Operation). 

Courthion also gathered together Information on 531 works, tiearly all 
oils, and nearlv all reproduced in the catalogue raisonne following the 
text (in 14 cases, the photographs w ere either unavailable or arrived too 



late). In addition lo these small reproductions, man\ of the w (jrks arc 
interspersed throughout the text, in larger reproductions, some in tull 
color. ^X hile this review er wonders w hether at least two pictures are not 
erroneousU attributed to Soutine, he is gratefui to (Courthion for ha\ing 
ferreted out from their hiding places manv pictures that had hitherto 
remained unknown, and for having put plausible dates on theni (Sou- 
tine never dated his work, and often left it to dealers to put in the 
signature thev also supplied the often arbitrary titles). 
(Courthion does not confine himself to biographw He caretullv points 
out Soutine's indebtedness to (X'Zanne, to C^orot, Courbet and, in 
particular, Rembrandt. He describes chaim's friendship with Modigliani, 
but also emphasizes the aesthetic and stvlistic dirterenccs betwecn the 
unbridied Russian {Expressionist and the near-C^assical Italian. The 
Scholar w ill read with interest the chapter on the false Soutines that are 
flooding tfie art market. 1 here is a usetui Mst of exhibitions anci ot 
private collections, anti the biographical '.vm\ bibliographical notes are 
comprehensive. ■ Mfrcd IV'cn/cr 



Fricd/jc/M U". /■/si/jcr, Max Becknimtn. Symbol /tiid Weltbild, dr/nidriß einer 
Deiitnng des Gesamtwerkes. 280 Seiten, j^ Abbildungen, davon 1 j Jarbio. 
W'ilhelw t'ink-\ erlag. Manchen 1972. 

Als erster unter den Beckmann-F\)rschern bedient sich Fischer der 
quellenkritischen Methode, um die Ikonographie eines krvptisch ent- 
standenen Werkes zu enträtseln. Das Studium der Bibliothek Beck- 
manns mit L^nterstreichungen und Randbemerkungen des Kunstlers 
brachte ihm entscheidende Hinweise auf verwandte Denkmodelle, auf 
mythische und religiöse Bezugssysteme: Beckmanns Weltbild war dem 
der (inosis verwandt, er kannte geheimwissenschaftliche ( berlieferun- 
gen, hat sich mit der Kabbala, mit indischen und theosophischen Lehren 
beschäftigt. 

Nach der Bearbeitung dieser Quellen war es Fischer möglich, Beck- 
manns L'berzeugungen, seine Svmbole, seine Themen und Themen- 
kreise um vieles deutlicher und in gr()ßeren Zusammenhängen als alle 
bisherigen Interpreten zu erkennen lhuI auszuführen. Jedes der neun- 
zehn Kapitel seiner Arbeit behandelt ein Sinnbild und dessen über tlen 
jeweiligen Lebensabschnitt der Fntstehung hinausgreifende Querver- 
binckuigen. 

Die ungewöhnliche (Jegenw ärtigkeit und ilie spezifische lormensprache 
laßt l'ischer unbesprochen. Bei Beckmann war diu Wendung des 20. 
lahrhunderts zu kosmischen unti archaischen Mächten, der I^rang, l'r- 
sprüngliches neu zu entdecken, kein bew ufUer X'organg, keine FVage 
der l'rkenntnis, sondern 1 -Erfahrung. Sie zwang ihn, gegen das mit dem 
llrsprünglichen andrängeiulc (Ehaos, keine schützenden abstrakten I or- 
men zu erfinden, sondern Svmbolgestalten, die so welthaltig waren, tiaß 
er in den X'orstellungen anderer Kulturen w iederfinden konnte, was er 
bereits besal^ und gestaltet hatte, und nunmehr iu)ehmals umformen 
konnte. 

Der okkulten Crundhaltung Beckmanns entsprechend, bleiben durch 
alle seine Schaffenszeiten hermetische Bildstruktur, X'ieldeutigkeit und 
Cieheimnischarakter seiner l'iguren (Grundlage seines Werkes und setzen 
der Deutung drenzen, w ie Pischer immer wieder betont. Das X'erständ- 
nis seiner Bildinhalte verlangt eben nicht nur Kenntnis der Quellen, 
ihrer Bedeutungsinhalte, sondern, wie Beckmann äulV-rte, auch den 
»gleichen Code«, lün gleiches (iespür für die geheimen Struktureti der 
Welt und ihre X'erbildlichung in der (iegetnvart ist aber schw er nachzu- 
vollziehen. Begreiflicherweise unterlaufen daher FMscher öfters I'ehl- 
formulierungen, wenn er etw a von den »symbt)lischen Requisiten« eines 
Bildes spricht oder i.\cu Kunstler einem »phantasiebegabten Hellseher« 
vergleicht. Beckmann konnte im Hotelbov einen (iötterboten erfassen, 
und er konnte König, Narr, Schauspieler, (Ehrisrus utul sich selbst als 
dasselbe erleben, denn es war seitie Leistung, (iegenwart mvthologisch 
zu erfahren. Dieses Phänomen bedarf noch der Deutung, die jedoch 
kaum von einem Kunsthistoriker allein, sondern in Ciemeinschaftsarbeit 
mit anderen geisteswissenschaftlichen Disziplinen zu leisten sein wird. 

Rike Wanken i'dler 



34J 



S! 



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/\\M lOc^y^ ÜUtS~ 



n 



\^l T^ijA/^., 



|ö?^ J\, 



•'./■ l^ 



y^Ue ß.i UA) 



.1 



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• ■•■>• 





Ars Sacra: 8(K)- 1200, by Pctcr l.asko, one 
illus. in color, 296 in black and white. 338 
pp., 10' 2 X 7. The Pehcan Hislory of Art 
series, Ptnguin «Rooks. $35 

"Saered Art" is the title chosen Wn the 
last ot" three seholarly volumes devoted 
to the arts oithe period starting with the 
proelamation. by the Pope, of C'harle- 
niagne as Holy Roman Ijiiperor and 
ending with the writing of the Magna 
Carta. The first volunie was eonfined to 
sculplure and the seeond lo painting. 
while this one deals with what used to be 
called the "minor arts." Of eourse, any- 
one studying the illiistrations from the 
Tassilo C'haliee, now the greatest treas- 
ure of the Austrian Abbey of Krems- 
muenster. to the Shrine of St. Mary, an- 
other riehlv deeorated masterpiece now 
in the Palaee C'hapel oi' Aaaehen- will 
ememe convineed that manv of the often 
anonymous medieval goldsmiths. ivory 
carvers. and other eraftsmen were as 
skilled and imaginative as some of the 
eelebrated painters and seulptors. 

The objeets diseussed by the British 
scholar—reliquaries. portable altars. 
book Covers, crosses. and other acces- 
sories to religious Services— are generally 
smali in size, althouiih lariie works, like 
bronze doors. are also included. All are 
süperb in execution. and many are 
profoundly appealing to modern man; 
on the strength of these objeets it is hard 
to Linderstand w hy the entire interval be- 
tween Anliquity and the Renaissance 
was so frequently put dow n as the "Dark 
Ages." 

, Unquestionably all o\^ this was Art. 
thoLiiih not art for its own sake: it had the 
function of embellishinu the C'hurch 
with all the splendor that could be be- 
stow ed upon her. The eraftsmen. who 
were poorly paid. were not only well 
trained but. unlike so manv of their 
modern confreres, were also stronglv 
motivated (otherwise they would not 
have taken such pains to produce the 
complicated and complex works we ad- 
mire in this volume. pieces that de- 
manded the labor of months and even 
years. without the expectation of greal 
material reward or the incentive o\' 
worldly honor. though their makers may 
have expected to be compensated in 
heaven for their iiood deeds). 

Profes.sor Lasko strongly emphasizcs 
the fact that this ars sacra in the C'aro- 
lingian and Ottonian periods (so called 
after the dominant rulers who. along 
with the princes of the C'hurch. were the 
major patrons of the arts) and hnallv in 
the Romanesque period was largelv anti- 
naturalistic. These artists and artisans 
were not as much interested in the Obser- 
vation and imitation of natural forms as 

ihose of the CJothic Age anu, in paiiicu- 
lar. the Renaissance were to be. This is 
another way of saying that these gifted 
men were not concerned with classic hu- 
man beauty. or any sort of beauty except 
as a retlection of divine creation. Their 
works are characterized by a disciplined 
austerity. Sensuality and sensuous 
warmth are avoided as interfering with 
the metaphysical message to be trans- 
mitted. Still, they managed to render the 
supernatural visible to mortal eyes. Mys- 
leriously they somehow succeeded in 
helping medieval man's heirs— the read- 
ers of this excellent volume in the age of 
moon travel and empty churches to in- 
crease their grasp of the human condi- 
tion by dealing. with tenderness and gen- 
tleness and grace, with the eternal 
themesof man\s relationship to God and 
his understanding of his own seif. 

The text is lucidly written and Covers 
developmcnts in Europe from Spain in 
the South to the Scandinavian counties 
in the North. Most of the objeets repro- 
duced can be found in German or Aus- 
trian public collection. American collec- 
tions are repre.sented with works owned 
by the Metropolitan Museum, the Pier- 
pont Morgan Library. Dumbarton Oaks, 
and the Cleveland Museum of Art. a.w . 



Romeyn de Hooghe, The Etcher: Con- 
temporary Portrayal of Europe, 1662- 

1707, by'john Landwehr. 4ü4 pp.. 320 
illus. in black /white. 13'/2 x 9'/2, Oceana 
Publications. Dobbs Ferry, New York. 
$75, boxed 

Romeyn de Hooghe is now cerlainly less 

wt>ll kni^wn ihMn hi*; imrle Pieter de 

Hooch, the Dutch painter of domestic 
interiors and scenes from daily life. But 
during a long career— his dates are 1645 
to 1708— this versatile native of Amster- 
dam played a very important role at vari- 
ous royal courts in Europe where his 
amazingly flexible talent was employed 
to immortalize significant events. some- 
what the way that. around 1900. kings 
and statesmen would use the Services of 
well-established photographers. 

De Hooghe produced paintings and 
sculptures. but his main merit lies in the 
fact that he was always "where the action 
was." He reported graphically. with 
journalistic flair. a great manv battles as 
well as peace Conferences: he also drew 
and etched portraits of many of tl-e 
crowned heads o( his time. and cne, 
King John 111 of Poland. even rewurded 
him generously by raising hin? to the 
peerage. Presumably. not all o^ his de- 
pictings of wars or eoronaiions are er 
tirely accurate. but even where he mix 
fancy with fact. the ti/ial products ref^' 
in the words of author Landwehi. 



"cultural climate" of the late I7th Cen- 
tury. 

Unquestionably. de Hooghe was a 
highlv skilled and even brilliant Illustra- 
tor While in his youth he created some 
very Dutch etchings on rustic themes. 
such as peasants guarding their cattle he 
soon decided that, in a period as rieh in 
conflagrations as his own. it would be 
more profitable to report on land and sea 
battles, for the benefit of the Victors. But 
he also depicted the marriages and tu- 
nerals of the powerfui, as well as their 
Castles and parks. The volume contains 
many fascinaling bird's eye views o 
Preat samples of baroque buildings and 
fheir adjoining artificial gardens, some 
of which either no longer exist or have 
undergone many changes in the eourse 
of centuries. There are numerous like- 
nesses o\^ Verv Important Persons. alle- 
Porical studies. and renderings of fash- 
ionably dressed upper class ladies and 
foppish gentlemen. 

Mr Landwehr offers what can be con- 
sidered a catalogue raisonne of De 
Hooghe's etchings, but he also adds 
plates by contemporaries who inriitated 
Ihe Master's grand style. Works by this 
Dutch artist can be found. of eourse. m 
all the printrooms of his native country; 
however, some of his etchings^are in the 
collections of museums ^^ ^^^ ^ork 
and Boston, and the New York Pu^bhc 
Library. 




c^ 



«■-'V- • 



I. 



teracted. After Turner, only the most 
traditional or naive historian could 
speak with any assurance of an "Amer- 
ican" style in politics, economics, or 
thought. Turners concept of section- 
alism, or "regionalism" as it came to 
be known, did not permit such undif- 
ferentiated generalizations. 

One of the many fine illustrations in 
this handsome bock shows Turner, a 
sedate graduate Student, in the history 
Seminar room at Johns Hopkins Uni- 
versity. On the wall over his head 
is written in huge black letters his- 
tory IS FAST POLITICS AND POLITICS 

PRESENT HISTORY. Strangcly, much of 
Turner's academic energies contrib- 
uted to a revolt against this definition. 
One of the first "social" historians in 
the United States, Turner assumed 
that the common people, not just the 
kings and presidents, were important 
components of any history. To stop at 
"past politics" was to miss much of 
what made a nation tick. Turner ar- 
gued for, and practiced, a variety of 
history that delved into past literature, 



44 

past religion, past economics, even past 
tools and dress. He helped launch a 
revolution in documentation that 
transformed the practice of historical 
writing in America. In his quest for 
a füll and accurate portrait of the 
past, Turner gladly enlisted the aid of 
geologists, anthropologists, biologists, 
geographers, economists, and sociol- 
ogists. in terms of meihod, he lefl llic 
discipline far richer than he found it. 
Students of reform in America, es- 
pecially Progressivism, will find much 
grist for their mill in Turner's life. 
Raised in a conservative Republican 
family, he matured into a classic 
American liberal, distrusting both so- 
cialism and big-business conservatism. 
Theodore Roosevelt was his ideal, a 
President who could lead the nation 
between the threats each extreme 
posed. Yet in 1912 Turner, after con- 
siderable mental anguish, supported 
Woodrow Wilson. By 1924 he was 
"down" on reform, but, almost by hab- 
it, supported the Democrat, John W. 
Davis. 



Another theme in the biography is 
an analysis of academic life. Billington 
intended to use Turner's career as "a 
case study for the entire profession'* 
of academic historians. The book de- 
tails Turner's lack of funds, the press 
of committee assignments, the Iure of 
comparatively lucrative textbook Pub- 
lishing, pressures from students, col- 

1 1 » J-^^ I..^ '^«.^^ 4.^...>. n .^ A 4-1-.^ 

lC<ll£LiC3, dllVi ci\aillllll3Ll cxiv/l o, cliiv.* vilt^ 

struggle to preserve domestic hap- 
piness in the face of it all. His over- 
busy life, mixed with a lack of disci- 
pline, was, Billington implies, an im- 
portant part of the reason why Turner 
published so little relative to his tal- 
ents and enthusiasm. □ 

{Mr. Nash is associate professor of 
history at the University of California 
in Santa Barbara.) 



Modem Art's House 



THE RALPH NADER CONGRESS PROJECT 

Who's Who in 

CONGRESS? 

To find out Order the Ralph Nader Congress Project Profiles: 20-40 
page magazine size studies on each member of the 93rd Congress (except 
those first elccted in November). Arm yourself with the facts on voting 
records, campaign finances, personal and political biography, much more. 

To ordcr-list the names of the Senators and Representatives whose Pro- 
files you wish— use additional sheets if necessaiy. 

Profiles cost $1.00 for each title. 50 or more of the same Profile, 50^ each. 
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MaÜ to: GroMman Publlahefs. P.O. Box 19282- P,. Washington. D. C. 20036. 

I am cndosing $ for Profiles at $1.00 each, postpaid. 

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GOOD OLD MODERN : AN INTIMATE POR- 
TRAIT OF THE MUSEUM OF MODERN 

ART, by Russell Lynes. Atheneum. 
490 pp. $13.95. 

reviewed by Alfred Werner 

The poet Vergil, at one point in his 
Aeneid, beseeches the reader to pic- 
ture the difficulties of building the 
foundations of Rome. MOMA — the ab- 
breviation of New York's Museum of 
Modem Art — was of course a smaller 
project than the Etemal City. Still, it 
was not a light undertaking, as Rus- 
sell Lynes points out in his detailed, 
highly readable history of one of 
America's most influential museums. 
Aeneas would have had a less stren- 
uous task, had he been assisted by 
high spirited, indef atigable, and im- 
mensely wealthy women like Abby 
Rockefeiler, Lizzie Bliss, and Mary 
SuUivan who, forty-four years ago, 
were the Museum's "founding moth- 
ers." But these are only three of the 
hundreds of individuals who receive 
mention— coUectors, dealers, scholars, 
artists, journalists, political leaders, 
and private Citizens as astute and well- 
meaning as these art-conscious society 
ladies. With great skill and even great- 



AUGUST 1973 



) % ^-' 






er tact, Lynes weaves all these figuies 
into the tapestry of a long narrative. 

Today's Gothamites, as well as most 
art lovers outside the metropolis, can 
barely imagine a time when MOMA, 
the impressive six-story combination of 
hhie tile white marble. stainless steel, 
and glass on West 53rd Street, did not 
exist. Yet the building — a proud cre- 
ation of Edward Durell Stone — 
opened its doors to the public only in 
the spring of 1939, the spring in which 
the republic of Czechoslovakia was dis- 
solved as a prelude to World War II. 
In the preceding decade, the Museum, 
less glamorous yet no less ambitious, 
occupied two makeshift quarters and 
acquired, in the teeth of the terrible 
Depression, works of art by living or 
recently deceased masters, American 
or foreign. Thus, it was true to the no- 
ble, if somewhat stilted, Statement of 
aims that had been submitted to the 
regents of the University of the State of 
New York in its application for a char- 
ter: that the Museum was intended 
to encourage and develop "the study 
of modern arts and the application of 
such arts to manufacture and practical 
life," and to fumish '^populär instruc- 
tion." 

It is extremelv difficult to make the 
hi Story of an institution as entertain- 
ing as a spy story. It can be done, in 
one way, if the author emphasizes the 
dramatic or melodramatic episodes, 
Lynes does not follow that easy path, 
but he does not conceal the facts that 
within the walls of the House on 53rd 
Street, and in the drawing-rooms of 
the trustees, many intrigues were born, 
and that infighting, back-biting, and 
jealousy led to scandals, resignations, 
and staff upheavals. He mentions the 
noisy demonstrations outside the Mu- 
seum, such as the one in 1968, when 
young artists objected to the large 
Dada and Surrealist show they dis- 
dainfully dismissed as a "Bourgeoisie 
Circus," and the one in 1972, when a 
group of women staged a protest, 
claiming (not convincingly ) that the 
Museum had always discriminated 
against female artists. 

However, Lynes does not concen- 
trate on the more unpleasant events, or 
on the lively and often arbitrary crit- 
icisms of the malcontents (he quotes, 
approvingly, one of the curators: "Ev- 
ery time we buy a work of art by one 



45 

artist, we insult 10,000 others whose 
work we don't buy"). While he feels 
free to voice his own opinions — he in- 
sists that his account is "unofficial, 
unsubsidized, and unauthorized" — he 
does not waste many pages on the al- 
most inevitable uproars and upheavals. 

Instead, he Stresses the positive fea- 
tures: the idealism of the men and 
women who made MOMA the re- 
markable institution it has become; the 
brilliance of its scholars who gave us a 
rieh series of valuable texts on art and 
artists from the Post-Impressionists to 
the present time; the daring of its di- 
rectors and curators who bought works 
by little-known living artists and 
staged revolutionary shows with the 
knowledge that they would meet with 
fierce Opposition from the public at 
large and from some of the critics 
(Thomas Graven dismissed the pivotal 
Cubism and Abstract Art exhibition 
of 1936 as "one of the foulest doses of 
art ever expounded by the internation- 
al apothecaries" ) . 

One name that turns up on virtually 
every page is that of Alfred H. Barr, 
Jr., who, until his retirement a few 
years ago, was "Mr." MOMA, if any 
individual deserves that designation. 
Barr was in his mid-twenties when 
Harvard University's Professor Paul J. 
Sachs recommended him for Museum 
director as one expert who had 
"thought more deeply on the subject of 
modern art . . . and has the ability 
to express his matured thoughts with 
more clarity than anyone eise who is at 
present giving time and attention to 
this fascinating and difficult subject." 
There were others, too, whose erudi- 
tion, wisdom, and daring helped 
MOMA and modern art to overcome 
many hurdles, in their capacities as di- 
rectors, curators, or librarians. Thanks 
to them, the number of Americans 
who regard modern art as just "a cal- 
culated insult to reason perpetrated by 
a group of dangerous Bolsheviks" has 
visibly declined in the past four 
decades. 

While Good Old Modern is not a 
history of modern art, it will be of 
greater interest to those who have 
studied the subject than to the gen- 
eral public. The book is a valuable 
contribution to American culture. D 

{Mr. Werner is the well known art 
critic and historian.) 



Disceming Essays 

THE DEVILS AND CANON BARHAM, by 

Edmund Wilson. Foreword by Leon 
Edel. Farrar, Straus and Giroux. 
219 pp. $7.95. 

reviewed by William McCann 

Edmund Wilson was in his seventies 
and in failing health when he wrote 
the ten essays on "poets, novelists, and 
monsters" assembled in The Devils 
and Canon Barham. His intellectual 
vigor and restless curiosity, however, 
had yielded little to the infirmities of 
the flesh. The mind still hummed like 
a dynamo. In the ränge of his reading, 
in the span and fertility of his percep- 
tions, Wilson had no peer among con- 
temporary American critics. He died 
in June, 1972; his critical methods and 
achievements compare with those of 
the famed French literary Journalist 
Charles Sainte-Beuve, whose essays and 



( ( 



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causeries appeared a Century ago, dur- 
ing the years 1829 to 1869. 

A small independent income and 
modest material ambitions enabled 
Wilson to avoid what he once called 
"the two great enemies of literary tal- 
ent in our time, Hollywood and Henry 
Luce." And it was perhaps a stubborn 
independencp of minH fh^t caused him 
to shun the blandishments of academic 
life. His controversial essay, "The 
Fruits of the MLA/' an attack on 
academic literary ineptitude, is in- 
cluded in this book. As Leon Edel 
says in a deft and gracefully written 
Foreword, Wilson "bubbled with impa- 
tience over the way in which profes- 
sors write books not out of love of 
letters, or out of curiosity and joy, but 
simply to 'publish or perish.' " 

The poets Wilson discusses are 
Pound and Eliot, thr novelists are 
Hemingway, Edwin O'Connor, Mau- 
rice Baring, Henr\' B. Füller, and Har- 
old Frederic. The "monsters" are the 



46 

ones whose malignant mischief per- 
vades Richard Harris Barham's The 
Ingoldshy Legends, and those whose 
grotesque statues decorate the Orsini 
Park of Bomarzo in Italy. In addition, 
there is a good essay on H. L. Mencken, 
a writer Wilson much admired but of 
whose limitations he was acutely 

a poet in prose, and a humorist, and in 
his time, in certain departments, one 
of the bringers of light to 'the 
Republic' " 

Though Wilson dealt astutely and 
luminously with writers of the first 
rank — Joyce, Eliot, Jane Austen, Dick- 
ens, Henry James — he was sometimes 
especially rewarding in his studies of 
lesser figures. He evidently shared the 
feeling expressed by Sainte-Beuve: 
"Nothing is more painful to me than 
the disdain with which people treat 
second-rate authors, as if there were 
room only for the first-raters." 

The essays on Füller and Frederic 



represent Wilson at the kind of work ' 
he did so conspicuously well. Both nov- 
elists appealed to him, and he liked to 
honor neglected literary achievement. 
With Harold Frederic, in particular, 
he feit a special sympathy and affinity, 
in part no doubt because of Frederic's 
origin in upstate New York, a region 
Wilson knew well and identified with 
through family connections. His plot 
summaries of the two men's novels 
demonstrate again the extraordinary 
facility he had for this rather un- 
promising critical method. As Alfred 
Kazin pointed out, Wilson, by merely 
relating the plot of a novel, was able 
"to throw light at ever>' point." 

All ten of the pieces (most of them 
appeared originally in The New York- 
er and The New York Review of 
Books) are searching and original and 
increase our understanding of their di- 
verse subjects. They have just the air 
of good talk and of highly literate 
monologue that implants facts and 





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AUGUST 1973 



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ITSHAK J. HOLTZ 
Group and One-Man Shows 

National Academy, Allied Artists of America, Audubon 
Artists, and Theodor Herzl Institute, all in New York City ; 
Tyringham Gallery m Tyringham, Mass.; other galleries 
and art centers in Mamaroneck, N.Y. ; Roslyn, N.Y. ; Forest 
Hills, N.Y.; Fair Lawn, N.J.; East Brunswick, N.J.; Phila- 
delphia, Pa. ; Denver, Colorado; Los Angeles, Calif . ; Jeru- 
salem, Israel, and in Michigan and Illinois. 

COLLECTTONS: REPRESENTED IN MANY COLLECTION.S, 

THROUGHOUT THE UNITED STATES 

AND ISRAEL 



THE EXHIBITION 

Meditating 
Slow Season 
Reminiscinjj: 
Yemenite Houses 
Winter, Yonkers 
In Safad 
Piece Work 
The Rabbi's Visit 



DRAWINGS - GOUACHES - PASTEL 

Arab Market, Jerusalem 
Yemenite Couple 
Pressinj? 
Restin}»- 

Talmud Scholar 
Jerusalem, The Old City 
Old City Alley, Jerusalem 
EtroGcIm and Luldvim Vendor 
Litho^rraph.^ 



k* ' %*:• 



iQuoted from tJie Theodor Herzel Institute Catalogne) 

ITSHAK J. HOLTZ 

Itshak Holtz draws and paints what he loves, the fascinating Old 
World types in Jerusalem or New York; the few small old houses and 
narrow streets still left in modern countries such as the United States 
and the new Israel; and the landscape of the Holy Land (to which he 
came from Poland as a boy in 1935 and where he spent fifteen years). 
This familiär world of experience he conjures up with the technique 
that he acquired at the Bezalel Art School of Jerusalem, and subse- 
quently at New York's Art Students' League and National Academy, and 
that he has been refining through unrelenting application. With dis- 
arming honesty, he draws and paints the subject matter he cherishes. 

He tries to create convincing illusions of existing form and texture, 
of the faces of real people, of the moods of the city, of places we tend 
to overlook. But his swift pencil, his brisk, easy brush are not confined 
to simple narration. Close examination of his offerings reveals that his 
works are based on a thoughtful Organization of all pictorial Clements. 
One finds a subtle planometric composition, a careful orchestration of 
pigments, demonstrating that, far from being a counterfeiter of reality, 
Holtz always endeavors to work out, beforehand, the genuine aesthetic 
Problems that intrigue him. 

At his best, Holtz is also trying to bring into focus important de- 
tails, while omitting others that might detract from the solidity of com- 
position. What he is after, in short, is a poetic intensification of reality, 
by availing himself fully of the spirit lacking even in the most com- 
plicated machine - the mind and the soul of man. He seeks to give us 
authentic people, and, if there are many of them, he groups them with 
an artful plausibility, with careful consideration for space, depth and 
the play of light, in order to satisfy his own creative yearnings no less 
than the customer's taste for the unpretentiously charming and quaint. 

What pleases me most are his physically small renderings of old 
buildings in Brooklyn or the Lower Eastside. Simple, unpretentious 
edifices, with a haunting quality, like these are still to be found in 
certain sections of American cities. Yet few men have the eyes he has 
to perceive the stränge beauty in those combinations of horizontals 
and verticals, in those red, brown and black rectangles enlivened, now 
and then, by tiny figures of humans or by patches of snow. Intrigued as 
he is with unglamorous everyday sights rather than with exceptional 
splendor, he presents the moody world he knows with the means at his 
disposal, especially an unmatched directness of Observation. Hence, these 
small oils have both vitality and weight. They suggest a sensitive man of 
intelligence, capable of viewing our world with tender love - and that is 
no mean achievement today. 

Alfred Werner 



Paintings 



Drawings 



Water Colors 

By 

ITSHAK J. HOLTZ 



July 21 Through August 5 

1973 



TYRINGHAM GALLERY 

Tyringham, Mass. 






•-5 

I 

X 



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5 

s 



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Miscellanv 



ABOUT 



BMa 




BOOKS 



WtlMi ■! ■ liTiMwimniTn 




tutf 

THINGS 




»mal 



Views and Visions 



Jewish Art: Yes and No 



By ALFRED WERNER 

Jewish News Art Critic 

A Scholar cannot con- 
fine his reading ol books 
in his field to one lan- 
guage. For instance, so 
far as the question of 

"Jewish Art" is concerned, it is 
impossible to overlook the pion- 
eering works that appeared in 
Germany in the decade betöre 
the destruction of German 
Jewry in 1938: thorough studies 
by Rahel Wischnitzer-Bernstein, 
Ernst Cohn-Wiener Franz 
Landsberger and Karl Schwarz 
that have yet to be translated 
into English. 

After the collapse of the nazi 
empire. a tremendous interest in 
all things Jewish arose among 
young Germans who, for 12 long 
years, had been taught to regard 
the Jew as the incarnation of 
everything infernal, but who had 
refused to close their minds for- 
ever to reality, to truth. 

There was an even greater 
desire to find out all that could 
be learned about the Jewish peo- 
ple among those who were still 
mere children at the time the 
nazi regime disintegrated. 
Important Shows 

This intense interest explains 
why there have been several 
important exhibitions of Jewish 
ritual art, and of Judaica in gen- 
eral, in the larger cities of the 
Federal Republic ol Germany. 
and why German firms have 
issued a considerable number of 
excellont book^ on Jewish histo- 
ry. Jewish religion. and Jewish 
art m the last two decades. 
despite the fact that the number 
of Jews residing in West Ger 
niany is much too small to 
account for such ventures. 

In the field of what, for lack of 
a more precise term. shall be 




Drawing by Joseph Herman 



called here Jewish Art. three 
voh.'mes might be mentioned 
Ludwig Gutfeld 's "Von der Bibel 
bis Chagall" ( Ner-Tamid Ver- 
lag. P'rankiort; an English Ver- 
sion, under the title. "Jewish 
Art: From the Bible to Chagall" 
was issued in New York by the 
firm ot Thomas Yoseioffi; 
"Wandmalereien in alten Svn 







Drawing by Joseph Herman 



agogen." by Da\id Davidovic/ 
(Adolf Sponhoit/ Veilag. 
Hameln-Hanoveri, which deals 
with the work of Eliezer Suss- 
mann, an isih Century Polish 
Jew. whodecoraled tht- interior.^ 
oi Southern German syna 
gogues; and most recently. "Die 
Kunst der Juden im Wandel der 
Zeit und Umwelt," by lleinricli 
Strauss (Verlag Ernst Wasmuth. 
Tuebingen > 

The last named work. whose 
title might be rendc»red as The 
Art of the Jews through Chang 
ing Times and Environment" 
was written by a German- 
Jewish Scholar who is now a res- 
ident of Jerusalem. It is a 
slender volume. with a lext of 
144 pages. and 49 illustrations 
in black and white. 

Wisely, the writer refrains 
from trying to sohe all Prob- 
lems, answer all the questions 
concerning the »nterrelationship 
between the group ot people, 
commonly held to be Jews, and 
that sector of human endeavor 
usually referred to as "Visual 
Arts" or "Flastic .Arts." 

Strauss seems fully aware of 
the fact that terms like "Jewish 
art" and "Jewish artists" are 
offen thrown about carelessly 
not only in informal talk. but 
even in lectures and in sup- 
posedly scholarly essays. 

The lack of clarity permits 
expectations offen to run too 
high, while. by the same token. 
disappointments are offen too 
great, after Claims and counter- 
claims had been subjected to 
impartial scrutiny. 

Avoids Extremes 

Strauss uses common sense. 
He adheres to the happy medium 
between the extremes of a David 
Pinkerfeld who insisted on the 
existence of a definite Jewish 
art. denied. he thinks. only by 
(See VIEWS— Page 33) 



U' 



.Vi 



BWS 

(Continued from Page 12) 

the enemies o^ the Jew, and, at 
the other end, the verdict of a 
Bernard Berenson who main- 
tained that "Israel through the 
ages has manifested nothing 
essentially national in the plastic 
arts." 

Strauss finds it absurd that all 
books on Jewish art, and all Jew- 
ish encyclopedias, devote con- 
siderable space to a Philipp Veit, 
who was a Jew by the Hitlerites' 
definition only. 

Veit was a son of Dorothea 
Mendelssohn, erratic daughter 
of the famous Jewish philoso- 
pher Moses Mendelssohn, and 
her first husband, a Jewish 
businessman named Veit. 

Dorothea's second husband 
was the Protestant German 
writer, Friedrich von Schlegel. 
Dorothea converted to Protes- 
tantism ; later, the couple turned 
Catholic. 

led to the baptismal fönt in the 
Cologne Cathedral. His paint- 
ings were largely devoted to 
Christian themes, and were 
imbued with a fervent spirit of 
Catholicism. 

But Strauss is not in the ranks 
of those who maintain a fana- 
tically Jewish position and visu- 
alize Judaism as a sternly 
seplarliltist phenomenon, with- 
out any links to the non-Jewish 
environment. 

He Points out that the art and 
architecture of Israelites and 
Jews always mirrored the styles 
and trends of the time and area 
they lived in. 

The Tempie of Solomon was 
built by Phoenician artisans and 
workers, furnished by King 
Hiram of Tyre. No trace of this 
tempie has come down to us, but 
there is no doubt that it must 
have resembled Phoenician 
structures. 

There was, however, one big 
difference— unlike a pagan 
house of worship, it contained no 
Idols ! 

It must be borne in mind that 
the Israelites, after their return 
from the Babylonian exile, were 
so deeply committed to monoth- 
eism that their leaders did not 
fear any lapses into idolworship 
by the masses, and were tolerant 
about the use of figurative art in 
the synagogues, to judge by the 
few remnants from antiquity 
that have come down to us ( sev- 
eral mosaic floors of wrecked 
synagogues, and part of the 
murals of a small synagogue at 
the Syrian frontier town of Dura 
Europos). 

Whether in the Middle East, in 
Greece or in Rome, Jews were 
not alarmed by the presence of 
all kinds of statuary in public 
places. 

One rabbi was asked how he, 
as a religious Jew, could 
frequent the bathhouse at Acre, 
which displayed a statue of 
Aphrodite. He rephed that this 
did not bother him, since the 
sculpture was there as a decora- 
tion, not as an object of worship. 

Jews did not mind the statue of 
a Persian king in one of their 
synagogues in Mesopotamia, 
because it stood there simply as 
a Symbol of secular power. But 
when the Roman emperor, 
Caligula, introduced his statues 
into synagogues as images to be 
worshiped, the Jews revolted! 

In the Middle Ages, syna- 
gogues in Spain mirrored the 
Moorish architecture ( as can be 
noted by every tourist who visits 
the buildings at Toledo which 
after the expulsion of the Jews 
were converted into the chur- 
ches, Santa Maria la Banaca and 
El Transito). 

In Central Europe, the syna- 
gogue at Worms - destroyed by 
the nazis, but carefully recon- 
structed after the war - recalls 
other Romanesque edifices, 
while Prague's Altneuschul is 
pure Gothic. In K'ai Feng, the 
synagogue, which was still in 




existence in the 18th Century, 
looked very much like a Chinese 
tempie; yet it was built to face 
westward, in the direction of 
Jerusalem; and it undoubtedly 
contained all required acces- 
sories to Jewish worship. 

Illuminated Hebrew manu- 
scripts demonstrated that most 
of the time the Jew of the Dia- 
spora was unwilling to Interpret 
the Second Commandment in a 
rigidly literal sense, for the 
prayerbooks, Bibles, Haggadith 
and Talmudic commentaries 
abound in glorious figurative 
decorations. 

The parchments are filled with 
scenes in which not only animals 
but humans appear, often in rieh 
architectural settings. 

In some cases the scribes, who 
lavished gold, silver, and the 
strongest reds, blues and greens 
on the tiny pictures, may have 
been Jews; in others, the Ser- 
vices of skilled Gentiles had 
been called for - the creed of the 
illuminator was immaterial, as 
long as he provided the patron, 
usually a wealthy member of a 
congregation, with all the 
beauty and splendor that was 
required. 

Jewish religious art for tem- 
pie or home deteriorated in the 
last Century, as prayerbooks 
were mass-produced by cheaper 
methods, and silver objects 
were manufactured in cold, 
mechanical fashion, without 
the love and care that had been 
bestowed upon them by the 
craftsmen of earlier periods. At 
the same time, gifted Jews 
emerged as painters and sculp- 
tors. 

Strauss discusses some of 
these at great length, notably 
Moritz Daniel Oppenheim, a 
successful Portrait painter, 
dubbed by his coevals "the 
painter of the Rothschilds and 
the Rothschild of the painters"; 
the sculptor Mark Antokolski, 
who carved large statues of 
Ivan the Terrible and Peter the 
Great, but who, despite his 
patriotism, was subjected to 
anti-Semitic attacks by the Rus- 
sian press and chose to spend 
his final years in Paris (where 
he returned to the Jewish 
themes that had occupied him 
in his youth); the child prodigy, 
the painter Maurycy Gottlieb, 
whose career was cut short — he 
died at the age of 23; and the 
fine landscapists Jozef Israels, 
Camille Pissarro, Isaac Levi- 
tan and Lesser Ury. 

There are also long chapters 
on Max Liebermann, Jacob 
Epstein, Marc Chagall, and 
Ben Shahn; on the Russian 
painter El Lissitzky, who 
endeavored to turn his talents 
to the goals of the communist 
regime, but was rebuffed by it 



because his daringly abstract 
style was in contrast to the 
naive "Socialist Realism" that 
dominated the Stalin era; on 
the "Jewish School" of Paris; 
and on the artists in the State of 
Israel. 

Strauss recalls a conversa- 
tion with Martin Buber a few 
years before the philosopher's 
death. As a young man. Buber 
had prophesied that an indigeous 
and original, decidedly Jewish 
art would develop on the soil of 



Canaan; 60 years later, the 
aged Buber admitted he had 
given up hope that such a "Jew- 
ish art" would ever develop. 

Strauss himself believes that, 
to put the artistic production of 
Israel into the straight-jacket 
of a "national" style would 
simply lead to fossilization— 
that to succeed aesthetically 
the artist must be allowed to 
foUow his intuition, unham- 
pered by any fetters of a "Jew- 
ish heritage" or a "Zionist 
task." 

At the same time, Strauss is 
pleased to note that some 
Israeh artists are inspired by 
Biblical themes, and by the 
particular character of the 
landscape of Israel. Yet he can- 
not help observing a significant 
fact— that the abstract, non- 
figurative style prevails in 
modern Israel to an even 
greater extent than it does in 
the European countries. 

"Die Kunst der Juden" con- 
tains many interesting details. 

dated June 28, 1933, by Max 
Liebermann, thanking the 
director of the Tel Aviv Museum 
for having named one of its 
halls after him. 

Liebermann, who had always 
considered himself nothing but 
a German artist now conceded 
that he had been rudely awa- 
kened from the beautiful 
dream of assimilation that he 
had dreamt throughout his long 
life. / 

Were it not for his advanced 
age, he, too, would emigrate to 
Palestine, he wrote, but "alas, 
you can't transplant so old a 
tree— I shall be 86 next 
month." 

Years earüer, when Lieber- 



mann accepted a commission to 
portray the President of the 
German Reich, Hindenburg, 
some of the German papers 
expressed anger that a Jew had 
been chosen for this assign- 
ment. 

"I am a painter," Lieber- 
mann Said. "What has my 
painting to do with the fact that 
I happen to be a Jew?" 

But even in liberal and toler- 
ant England there were circles 
that looked askance at the 
inroads made by Jews in the 
realm of art. 

Sir Basil Spence, who 
designed the new cathedral at 
Canterbury, after World War 
II, commissioned Jacob 
Epstein to do the large sculp- 
ture, "Saint Michael and the 
Devil," to be installed on one 
facade of the building. 

When he mentioned the name 
of Epstein to the committee in 
Charge of the cathedral's recon- 
struction, the group reacted 
with a "shocked silence," 
vvliiLii was» fiiialiy iiiienupleu 
by the remark from the audi- 
ence, "But he is a Jew!" Wit- 
tily, the architect retorted, "So 
was Jesus Christ . . ." 

"Die Kunst der Juden" has 
much to offer the serious rea- 
der, who wishes to be informed 
rather than to be manipulated. 
One would hope that the vol- 
ume will be made available to 
readers in England and the 
United States through transla- 
tion. 

The illustrations, though 
small, are very clear. Chrono- 
logically, they reach from a 
decoration in the palace of a 
king mentioned in the Bible, to 
a painting by the Israeli artist, 
Isidor Aschheim. 



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Even well established artists are often 
baffled by the problem of selling their 
work. As a matter of fact. many artists 
believe that selling depends only \m 
luck. Well, not quite. The author of this 
book believes that there are various tech- 
niques in selling, not just one. The tech- 
nique depends upon the personality as 
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He asserts that there are close to 
300,000 markets willing to pay for your 
work, if it isof the right kind and ready 
for delivery when wanted. Selling artistic 
talent is much the same as selling dram- 
tic, musical, or any other talent. Indeed, 
Mr. Berlye believes. "It is much the same 
as selling girdles, garages. and garden 
hoses." Some artists may well shudder^ 
this Statement, but selling does invo(ve a 
product, salesmanship, and the law of 
supply and demand. The author admits 
that special procedures and formalities 
are inherent in the sale of art work and 
talent. These special traits are discussed 
in the book. 

When are you ready to seil? Where 
can you seil fine art':' How much should 
you Charge? What about agents, dealers, 
galleries, and art centers? How can you 



/h^ Coulcft 



seil to and through a museum? How can 
you obtain commissions? How do vou 
get a Job in commercial art? Should you 
specialize? What schooling do you need? 
What about home study schools? 

Besides answering these vital ques- 
tions, the author advises you on Insur- 
ance policies for your art; on packing, 
crUting, Siiipping yoüi wuik, and he 
gives a huge school directory in all the 
States from Alabama to Wyoming, and 
throughout the provinces of Canada as 
well. There are also lists of art organiza- 
tions and art publications and a valuable 
twelve-page table of scholarships and 
fellowships. The last appendix deals 
with the Code of Fair Practice and the 
Code of Ethics concerning artists. 

It is by no means guaranteed that you 
will seil any of your work or talent. but 
you^l find the book quite helpfui and en- 

»raging. R.p 

'Öskar Kokoschka: London Views, Brit- 
ish Landscapes, by Jan lomcs. icxt (no 
pagc numbcrs) and 16 color platcs. 10 x 
14. Pracgcr. $13.50 

There is, of course. no shortage of mono- 
graphs on Oskar Kokoschka. Born in 
Low er Austria in 1886. hc is onc of the 
vencrablc painters of our time. But since 
his work is vast in scopc. it is usefui to 
have a book like this one. which concen- 
trates on the landscapcs inspired by his 
stays in England. 



/" 





Hc was aircady well known as a leader 
Ol I-xprcssionism when hc first visited 
Ihc English capital in 1925; onc of the 
Iruits of this journcy is London. Tower 
Bridge. As a rcfugec from ihc Na/is. hc 
spcnt sevcn ycars in England and cvcn 
bccamc a British subjcct"^ Evcntually he 
scttlcd in Switzcrland. but time and 
again he rcturncd to England. Hc iiavc 
his best when hc cxplored the arl^isiic 
possibilitics otfcrcd by the manv faces of 
London and by sites 'in Kent. Cornwall. 
and Scotland. 

Though better known as a portraitist. 
Kokoschka hasalso applied his immense 
gifts lo the painling of landscapcs and 
city vistas in Europe and the Middle 
Last. They are very unlike the objective. 
quict. and placid picturcs by the Impres- 
sionists. With their un'programmed 
spontaneity o\' brushwork and arbi- 
trariness of color. they are related to the 
chromatic cxplosions of his CJerman 
counterparts. such as Kirchner and 
NoIdc.orofChaimSoutinc. Usingapal- 
ette knife. a piece of cloth. or even his 
lingers. Kokoschka pul on the canvas 
color dictated by emotion rather than in- 
lellcct. Yet he did not treat these motifs 
as mere pretexts for shooting pigment on 
canvas. Anyone who has visited the spots 
painted by Kokoschka will, without dif- 
ticulty. recogni/e the topographical fea- 
turcs that serve as scatfolds to hold the 
emotional superstructure. 




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Kokoschka always souglil a \anlagc 
point as high abovc ihc cilv as hc coukl 
und a hotcl u indow and. alter thc Scc- 
ond World War. a vicw from onc ol'thc 
new high-risc buildings. [:specially, he 
has been fascinaled by the wide expanse 
of the Thames. alive with a varietv oi' 
ships and boats. Of the London pictures 
reproduced here. tvvo are in American 
pubnc colieciions: ihe Minneapoüs In- 
slilule of Ans and the Albriiiht-Knox An 
GüMrvof Bullalo. a.u. 




alian Paintings, XVI-XVIII Centur>, 
from the Samuel H. Kress Collection, by 

Fern Rusk Shapley. 470 pp., 340 illustra- 
lions. including 9 color plates, 470 pp., 12 
X 8'2. published by the Phaidon Press for 
the Samuel H. Kress Foundation. $27.50 

Samuel H. Kress. founder of a chain of 
dime Stores, spent a fortune coUecting 
paintings. bronzes. tapestries, and other 
works of art. These treasures have been 
distributed. under the auspices of the 
Kress Foundation, to museums and gal- 
leries throughout the United States and 
have been catalogued in many large 
scholarly tomes of which the present vol- 
ume is the most recent. For the nearly 
1200 Italian paintings alone. three vol- 
umes were needed. The firsl covered the 
period from the late Middie Ages up to 
the early Renais.sance; the second was 
devoted chietly to the 16th Century. 
New we are presented with the third: 



a large book that deals chiefly with Ba- 
roque and Rococo paintings. although 
some earlier Mannerist pictures that 
could not be accommodated in the sec- 
ond volume are also found here. Fach 
artist is accorded a brief biography; each 
painting is discussed in great detail in 
notes that sometimes fill a page, or even 
two. The pictures themselves are all re- 
produced m a special section Ihat follows 
the text. 

While many paintings were donated 
to the National Gallery of An m Wash- 
ington, others were given to small mu- 
seums in places like Allentown, Pennsyl- 
vania: Coral Gables. Florida; Notre 
Dame. Indiana; and Brunswick, Maine. 

Quite a few of the artists, such as 
Canaletto, Guardi, Magnasco. Reni. 
Rosa. Tiepolo. Tintoretto, and Veronese 
are well known to every art lover. Oth- 
ers, though very competent creators of 
lovely pictures, never achieved great 
posthumous fame. Among these are sev- 
eral woman artists who deserve rescue 
from oblivion, namely. Sofonisba Ang- 
uissola (who lived to reach the age of 97^), 
Rosalba Camera. Artemisia Gen- 
tileschi, Elisabetta Sirani. and Marietta 
Tintoretto, a pupil and assistant of her 
famous father and an accomplished mu- 
sician as well as a successful portraitist. 

The volume's Compiler. Miss Shapley, is 
a former curator of paintings at the Na- 
tional Gallery of Art in Washington, a. w. 



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61 



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INGRES (from page 30) 

thrce-dimcnsional form is nonclhcless 
convcyed. 

A.s a teacher. this maslcr draft.sman 
was a hard laskniaster. Inurcs insistcd 
(hat bis pupils know thcir crafl thor- 
oughly and spcnd thousands of houns on 
drawing bcfore being allow cd to pick up 

•> Kriith \\/»^ l<'nr%\i' hic /-»rMnu^nc i\rt »Kit' 

subject from his fricnd thc Vicomtc 
Henri Dclabordc. Dclabordc cullcd the 
data froni the artist's correspondence. 
the ofticial reports w hieb the painter had 
to write as director of the French Acad- 
emy in Ronie. and from eonversations 
and atelier criticisms that had been s'et 
down on the spot. Fiere are a few exam- 
ples: 

"Drawing includes ihree and a half 
quarlers of the content of painling. If 1 
were asked to put up a sign over my 
door, 1 should inscribe it: Sc/iool for 
Drawini^, and 1 am sure that I should 
bring forlh painters," 

"Drawing contains evervthing. exeept 
the hue." 

"One must keep right on drawing; 
draw with your eyes when you cannot 
draw w ith a pencil. As long as you do not 
hold a balance between your seeing of 
things and your execution, you will do 
nothiniz thal is reallv "ood." 

But it would be wrong to assume, as is 



sometimes done, that he wanted to tn- 
throne the meretricious draftsmanship - 
that until reeently was taught everyw here 
by lottering aeademicians. He demanded 
more than mere technical proficiency: 
"To draw does not simply mean to re- 
produce contours; drawing does notcon- 
sisl merely of lines." he cautioned his 
sludents. "Drawing is also expression. 
the inner lorm. the plane, modeling." 
One must not present him as a Colonel 
Blimp of academic drawing! 

Further. Ingres urged his acolvtes not 
to be afraid of exaggeration: "Whal you 
have to fear is lukewarmness." He did 
not wish to rear copyists ("I want you to 
take the sap from the plant") or slaves of 
nature ("Raphael had so completely 
mastered nature and his mind so filled 
with her that instead of being ruled by 
her. one might say that she obeyed 
him"). 

The best place, of course, to studv Ing- 
res' draftsmanship is the Ingres Museum 
at Montauban, mentioned earlv above, 
which displays his drawings in a series of 
changing exhibitions. In this countrv the 
Fogg Art Museum at Harvard University 
has a particularly rieh treasury of Ingres 
drawings. Inevitablv, the viewer is 
bound to be more attracted bv the por- 
traits, with their vividness and vitality. 
than by the quick sketches for composi- 
tions. by the notations dealing with drap- 
eries, with nude bodies, or with anatomi- 




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Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres: 

Wizard of Montauban 



BY ALFRED WERNER 



''One does not visit a painter in order to admire his drawings," he was 

quokd as saying. Yet he insisted on the importance of drawing to all his students. 

]ean- Auguste-Dominique Ingres (1780-1867) was a süperb draftsman, and 

y^MERiCAN ylRTiST is proud to puy tribute to his masterful creations. 



MONTAUBAN, IN SOUTHWESTERN 

France, sees fewer American tourists 
than. for instance, towns lii<e Aries or 
Carcassonne. Yet, within easy reach from 
Bordeaux, this small city on the Tarn 
River is a rewarding place to visit. Built 
mainly of a reddish brick. Montauban 
retains much of its 17th and 18th Century 
charm and elegance. There is a special 
Iure for the art lover in its museum, in- 
stalled in what was once the bishop's pal- 
ace and named for one of its celebrated 
sons. master draftsman and painter 
Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres (1780- 
1867). The Musee Ingres owns close to a 
hundred oils by this leader of French 
Neo-Classicism and about 4000 of his 
drawings. (There is also a room devoted 
to the sculptor Emile-Antoine Bourdelle, 
also a celebrated native son of Mon- 
tauban.) 

Although Ingres is considered by his- 
lorians to have been one of the dozen 
truly great early I9th Century artists of 
France, the general public regards him 
with less enthusiasm than is evoked by 
Gericault. creator of The Raff ofthe Me- 
dusa, or by Delacroix. Admittedly, Ing- 
res is much cooler than these two. But in 
the proccss of re-evaluating the art ofthe 
last Century, we might take another look 
at the work of this man to see if Ingres' 
outer restraint concealed strong inner 
emotion. 

In doing so we would be repeating 
what the painter's great rival. Delacroix, 
leader of the Romantic School, did in a 
spirit of humility. The two artists, impla- 
cable enemies. had been allotted sepa- 
rate halls at the Universal Exhibition of 
1855 in Paris. The Neo-Classical Ingres, 
who held that his color-intoxicated rival 
had sold himself to the very devil 
(namely Rubens) and had become the 
.assassin. the Robespierre, of traditional 
art, probably never even stole a glance at 
his adversary's a.ssembled paintings. But 
Delacroix did walk inlo the Ingres room. 
His first reaction was-as he contided to 
his yr;///-«^/ -that everything he had seen 
there was highly ridiculous, pretentious, 

26 



'Ci 



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■V^f!*i ■**','- 



Study of an Infant. Ecole des Beaux-Arts Museum, Paris. Photo Giraudon. In this study the 
art ist groped for a Solution to the child's right hand. 

American Artist 






unnatural. But he must have questioncd 
his.rash judgmenl. for Delacroix re- 
turned a fcw weeks later to rctract his 
impulsive tind unjust verdiet: "Ingres' 
section seemed to me much better than 
Ihe first time i saw it. and I very w illingly 
acknowledge his many fine qualities." 

Luekily, we do not have to go as l'ar as 
Montauban to see some of Ingres' most 
outstanding works. The Metropolitan 
Museum ot Art in New York City owns 
seven oils and numerous drawings; the 
Frick Colleetion (New York City) has 
his Portrait of the eharming Comtesse 
d'Haussonville; and he is also repre- 
sented in museums of Baltimore. Boston. 
Cineinnati. and a dozen other Ameriean 
cities. with paintings as well as graphie 
works. Earnest study will reveal that our 
great-grandparents. who revered him as 



a demi-god, were not entirely wrong. 
Through his best works. this "Classicist," 
with hisyearningforsimplicity. hisunre- 
lenting search for absolute purity, his 
tight and severe rhythms. provides a 
bridge to the discipline of our "preei- 
sionists" (sueh as Charles Demuth and 
Charles Sheeler) and even to the geome- 
try oi^ the Op artists of the 1960s. 

Whether one prefers Delaeroix's rieh, 
heavily-loaded brush -with whieh he 
painted his dynamie lion hunts- or the 
more tinieky technique of Ingres— as 
exemplilied in his eelebrated oda- 
lisques- is a matter of temperament. 
Nevertheless. if a man's importance is to 
be gauged by his influence on later art- 
ists, Ingres was certainly as consequen- 
tial as Delaeroix. Degas. for example. 
never forgot the advice he received from 



the venerable Ingres: "Draw lines and 
still more lines, both from life and 
memory." And Degas remained an In^- 
riste to the end of his days. Renoir had an 
"Ingresque" period. Mueh of Ingres' 
sinuous sensuality is in Matisse's Jov of 
Life and subsequent paintings o{ the fe- 
male nude. Ingres lurks beneath the sur- 
faee of the elegant Neo-Classieal draw- 
ings Pieasso made after his Cubist period 
ended. Mueh of Ingres' calm passion is 
echoed in the seduetiveness of paintings 
by our eontemporary. Ballhus. 

Who was Ingres? 

He was the son of a minor seulptor and 
painter. At the Art Aeademy of Toulouse 
he won one prize after another. He also 
was so accomplished a Violinist that. as a 
teen-ager. he regularly performed in an 
orehestra. At 17 he went to Paris and be- 



*'/•■'• '«iMä^iÄi^»^^-!^^^^ 




Wounded Amazon. Bonnet Museum, Buyonne, Franee. Photo Giraudon. Using his giß for Illusion, Ingres Jrew the effeet ofa reliefsculptun 
September 1973 



27 






w 




Aa . * k- 



came the favorite Student of Jacques- 
Louis David, founderof the Neo-Classi- 
cai school. 

In his long life, Ingres received count- 
less commissions, decorations. and offi- 
cial appointments. At the age of 19 he 
won the much-coveted Grand Prix de 
Rome, and he later went to the Eternal 
City to live there as ■dpensionnaire at the 
French Academy in the Villa Medici. As 
a mature man he returned to be the di- 
rector oi' this school. He even held a seat 

111 iiic I iciiLU ociiaic; iic wäS auOFCu 

by the majority ot^ his many students. 

But this portly little man looked more 
like a provincial notary than an artist. 
That petit elcphant hour^cois, who 
gravely walked about in a buttoned-up 
frock coal, sporting the plaque ot Knight 



Commander o{ the Legion of Honor and 
the Prussian Medal of Merit, was als^ re- 
sented by some as a pompous ass who al- 
ways paid punctilious respeCt to the es- 
tablished order. Leading his students 
through the Louvre, Ingres urged them 
not to look at the flamboyant works of 
Rubens, an action that did not endear 
him to those who preferred the more 
universal outlook. the more advanced 
methods of Delacroix. (For Delacroix, 
painting proceeded from color; Ingres, 

line over color.) 

Yet there was also another Ingres: the 
Violinist who loved music as much as he 
loved his own profession; the connois- 
seur, whose idol was Raphael, but who 
also liked pre-Renaissance Italian Mas- 



f 



f 



1 



ters when everyone eise was dismissing 
them as barbaric primitives; the sensual- 
ist who was intrigued by feminine beauty 
and w ho. as a 72 year old widower, dared 
to marry a very much younger woman; 
the master whose band never lost its cun- 
ning and who, at 83, completed The Tur- 
kish Bath (now in The Louvre), a round 
picture hlled with a score of lush female 
nudes that displays an astonishing vital- 
ity. 

Many have maintained that Ingres 
was even greater as a draftsman than he 
was as a painter and that his drawings 
represent the peak of his power. The 
master would have strongly resented 
such an assessment. As a matter o^ fact, 
he did not even attach any special value 
to his countless drawings (though he 



signed and dated many of them), having 
been proud only o\' his elaborate paint- 
ings. This is understandable. His disdain 
lor his ciucJes was in keeping with a tradi- 
tion dating back to the Renaissance: art- 
ists regarded sketches and studies as 
mere steps on the way to a major paint- 
ing, sculpture. or print. Even Gauguin, 
who lived into our Century, refused to 
show his drawings to critics. 

Ingres' deprecatory attitude to his 
drawings is revealed in two incidents. To 
implement his income, young Ingres, 
resident of Rome, with awife and mother 
to Support, turned to making pencil por- 
traits of visiting foreigners. An English 
tourist knocked at his door. The master 
opened it. "Does the portrait draftsman 
Ingres live here?" "No." was the angry 



reply, as he slammed the door, "a painter 
of historv lives here." Also in Rome. In- 
gres berated a younger colleague, 
Gericaull. for bestow ing much praise on 
what he, Ingres, considered unimportant 
works: "One does not visit a painter in 
Order to admire his drawings!" 

Luckily for posterity. w hieb often has 
been more responsive to his unpre- 
tentious drawings than to his ambitious 
paintings. Ingres did not systematically 
destroy his drawings. Yet. in all likeli- 
hood the thousands o\' survivors repre- 
sent no more than a fraction o{ what he 
drew; precocious as he was— Ingres be- 
gan at the age of 9-as a painter. he often 
needed a score of different studies o{ 
movement for. say, the placing of an 
arm. 



ff 



1 




Top left: Study for Drapery. hlack cravon, 12 v ^*4. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Rogers Fund, 1937. Notations indicaie tvpe of fahric. 
Above: Study of a Woman with Three Arms. Ingres Museum, Montauhan. Photo Giraudon. Note delicate modeline. 






1 



l 
« 






! 



\ 



k: 





Ahove left: Saint Adelaide. Bonnet Museum, Bavonne. A strong line that leaves no room for error. Ahove Right: Sluds lor Venus. Dupuv 
Museum, Toulouse. A highly stvlized drawing on laid paper. 



28 



American Artist 



September 1973 



29 



iif 



ß ' U 



Many of these drawings are, ofcourse, 
preparatory sketches for his oils. A good 
many of the portrait drawings can be 
connected with extant large pictures, but 
others were never used for subsequent 
creations of oils. These portrait drawings 
are not "photographs." To judge by por- 
traitsofsomeof the same sitters done by 
more timid artists or by daguerre- 
otypists, Ingres' efforts on small sheets of 

rate likeness. They are victories of form 
and art over lite, as one historian so aptly 
put it. Somehow Ingres made his patrons 
believe he had captured their teatures 
with utmost verisimiUtude, whereas 
what he had actually done was to pro- 
duce, in his own words, "beautiful 
forms-straight planes with rondures." 

As for ourselves, we do not care 
whether or not Ingres actually rendered 
the faces of his patrons with all the truth- 
fulness and exactitude he was capable of, 
nor are we eager to know. in most cases, 
who a particular subject was in real life. 
For the little pictures are, above any- 
thing eise, "arrangements" of a musical 
nature, in which the melody is often car- 
ried by the placement of a graceful band 
on the back of a chair, by the emphasis 
on a lady's coiffure, by small interlocking 
arabesques in a dress, and other vehicies 




'■^^Si^'^J 



y 






\ 



of aesthetic delight. The faces are gener- 
ally dreamy, to the point of impassive- 
ness. It is a precise and disciplined art, 
unsmiling and unbeguiling, but füll of 
plastic strength. 

Ingres also made a number of land- 
scape drawings. Unaided by any color- 
ing, he succeeded in conveying both the 
unforgettable strong Baroque archi- 
tecture of the Papal City and the delights 
öf liic viiia.s wiihin a few mijes. Uener- 
ally he drew what he could see from his 
room in the Pavillon S. Gaetano, a 
Square four-storey tower at the west end 
of the Villa Medici gardens. From there, 
high on the top of the Pincio, one of the 
seven hüls, he could survey the Medi- 
terranean Vegetation, the statuary, the 
fountains. He depicted the various small 
decorated and columned structures 
around the proud Villa-once the resi- 
dence of a Cardinal-and, beyond it in 
the distance, the churches and palaces of 
the metropolis. 

It must be stressed that Ingres was 
among the first in France to exploit the 
Potentials of a relatively new tool: the 
graphite pencil as we know it today. (It 
was invented by Nicolas-Jacques Conte, 
a protege of Napoleon.) As a rule, Ingres 
liked a hard lead with a ver)' sharp point. 
With unswerving assiduity, he practiced 



until he had reached technical perfec- 
tion. He drew a precise, economical hne, 
superbly balanced and graceful, that de- 
fined solid form with strength through a 
firm contour. He made füll use of pure 
line, but he also created the effects of to- 
nality by cross-hatching and other 
means. Occasionally he applied touches 
of a highly elusive and subtie medium: 
brown or gray wash. added sparinely. 

Whether he drew the sights of Rome 
and its environment; made likenesses of 
members of his family, of friends. ac- 
quaintances, or rieh patrons; or set down 
his ideas for large. multi-figured compo- 
sitions; Ingres seems never to have used 
an eraser (according to experts who ex- 
amined his drawings with a magnifying 
glass). As a wielder of pencil on paper, 
he is equalled in sensitivity as well as vir- 
tuosity only by his foUower Degas (who 
owned and treasured some Ingres draw- 
ings). He avoided such "uncouth" means 
as smudging or stumping. Instead he 
created all nuances between the utmost 
white and the stärkest black through tiny 
parallel lines. The single line. clean and 
pale, is nowhere heavy; indeed, it is of- 
ten so thin and delicate that only a good 
eye can discern it. Though the modeling 
is somewhat slight. the füll sense of a 

Conümied on page 63 








-— \ 



..t. 



® 



Franz Liszt. lHi9. CoUection W. Wagner, Bayreuth. Photo Girau- 
don. In his pencil portraits, Ingres hrought' the head to ^reater 
completion than the hody. 

30 



Portrait of Paganini, 1819. Louvre, Paris. Ingres' love for mu.' 
hrought him into contact with numerous musicians. 



SIC 



American Artist 




% %' 



Madeleine Chapelle. Ingres Museum, Montauban. A subtle wash has been applied to the shadow areas in the hat to accent the face. 
September 1973 31 



.-.-.-.^^ 



-w 



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movements, such as Cubism, Abstract Expres- 
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INGRES (from page 30) 

three-dimensional form is nonethcless 
conveyed. 

As a teacher. this mastcr draftsman 
was a hard taskmaslcr. Innres insistcd 
(hat his pupils know their crafl thor- 
oughly and spcnd thousands of hoiirs on 
drawing betöre being allowed to pick up 
a brush. We know bis opinions on this 
v;iibio<;t froni hi*^ fr'cpd the ^ic.^nite 
Henri Delaborde. Delaborde culled the 
data from the artist's correspondence, 
the ortieial reports which the painter had 
to write as direetor of the F'reneh Acad- 
emy in Rome, and from conversations 
and atelier criticisnis ihat had been s'et 
down on the spol. Here are a few exam- 
ples: 

"Drawing includes three and a half 
quarters of the content of painting. If I 
were asked lo put up a sign over my 
door. I should inseribe it: School for 
Drawifii^, and I am sure ihat I should 
bring forth painlers." 

"Drawing contains evervihing. exeept 
the hue." 

"One must keep right on drawing: 
draw with your eyes when you cannot 
draw with a pencil. As long as vou do not 
hold a balanee between vour seeins of 
things and your execution. you will do 
nothing that is really good.'" 

But it would be wrong to assume, as is 



sometimes done. that he wanted to en- 
throne the merelricious draftsmanship 
that until reeenlly was taught evervwhere 
by totteringacademieians. He demanded 
more than mere leehnical proficiency: 
"To draw does not simplv mean to re- 
produce contours; drawing does not con- 
sist merely of lines." he eautioned his 
students. "Drawing is also expression, 
the inner form, the plane, modeling." 
Oric inusi not present him as a C olonel 
Blimp of academic drawing! 

Further. Ingres urged his acolytes not 
to be afraid of exaggeration: "What vou 
have to fear is lukewarmness." He did 
not wish to rear eopyists ("I want vou to 
takc the sap from the plant") or slaves of 
nature ("Raphael had so completely 
mastered nature and his mind so filled 
with her that instead o\' being ruled by 
her. one might say that she obeved 
him"). 

The best place, of course, to studv Iniz- 
res' draftsmanship is the Ingres Museum 
at Montauban. mentioned early above, 
which displays his drawings in a series of 
changing exhibiiions. In this countrv the 
Fogg Art Museum at Harvard University 
has a particularly rieh treasurv o\' Ingres 
drawings. InevitabIv. the viewer is 
bound to be more attracted by the por- 
traits. with their vividness and vitality, 
than by the quick sketches for composi- 
tions. by the notations dealing with drap- 
eries, with nude bodies. or with analomi- 



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American Artist 



cal details such as hands or feet. 
' Those portraits introduce us to his 
family, especially to his early love, 
Annc-Marie-JuHc Forcstier, to his wifc 
(Madcleinc Chapelle travclcd from 
France to Rome to wed the young 
painter. whom she had never seen be- 
iore. and became his devoted compan- 
ion for their 36-year marriage), and to 

men. These Httle pictures exude warmth. 
They are generally casual in pose, and 
extremely infbrmal. No backgrounds are 
sketched in and, due to the sitters' physi- 
cal nearness. the impact of modern Pho- 
tographie close-ups is achieved. 

More tbrmal are the commissioned 
Portrait sketches. The sitters are either 
some ot the artist's compatriots stationed 
in Rome, English aristocrats returning to 
an Italy that had been closed to them 
during the Napoleonic wars, or celebri- 
ties. For a set fee. Ingres drew them as he 
saw them, elegant and aloof. Somehow. 
the character of these men always comes 
through-their swagger, their self-impor- 
tance, their astuteness. their restraint. 
Bored though he may have been with 
his task, these "pot-boilers" never re- 
veal tatigue, but are lively in every de- 
tail: face, costume, or hand. They com- 
bine all Neo-Classical virtues: logic and 
clarity, tranquility, and harmony. The 
ascetic manner of drawing. the needle- 
sharp line. are bound to command our 



admiration. Occasionally a detail is 
stressed in a more opulent way. but 
never at the expcnse of the overall de- 
sign. 

There are no failures. All works show 
the strength. the power of an indomi- 
table man, who once declared. "I want 
everything or nothing," and added. by 
way of explanation, "I am not inclined to 






j ^..^ . -j, ~~j . . - 



outlined for myself; on the contrary, 
more than ever I am at home only with 
the idea of perfection." 

STEFAN ifrom pa^e 25) 

societies— not even the Society of Cow- 
boy Artists. though he was invited to 
charter membership-and he doesn't at- 
tend his own exhibition openings. other 
than those in Tucson. However. one 
thing that Stefan's father implanted in 
the mind of hisson was the value of Pub- 
licity and the need for systematic proce- 
dure in keeping records and advising the 
World of one\s capabilities. 

Atan early age. 13. Stefan initiated the 
practice of writing to the great artists of 
the World (such as Norman Rockwell, al- 
ready mentioned). They were gracious 
with their end of the correspondence. 
and from them he learned a great deal. 

"I bombarded the magazine Arizona 
Hii^lnvavs for 15 years with clippings. ex- 
hibition announcements, and the like," 



Stefan comments. A recent issue fea- 
tured a whole series of his paintings. 

I have already referred to his volumes 
of well-kept publicity material. Art his- 
torians of the future will have no diffi- 
culty in following the career of prodigy 
Ross Stefan. 



N E E L (from page 3 7) 

eotype image of women's art. Neel, also 
an ardent feminist, disagrees; she feels 
motherhood is part of the feminine ex- 
perience, and a valid one to paint. So she 
continues to pose mothers with chil- 
dren-typical of her rebellious unwil- 
lingness to conform to the going philoso- 
phy. 

This rebelliousness has been the hall- 
mark of her career. Early in life, Neel de- 
cided to "paint a human comedy, such as 
Balzac had done in literature. In the '30s 
I painted the 'Beat' of those days: Joe 
Gould, Sam Putnam. Kenneth Fearing, 
etc. I painted the neurotic, the mad. and 
the miserable. Also I painted the others, 
including some 'Squares.' Like Chichi- 
kov (in Gogol's Dead Souls), I am a col- 
lectorof souls." But while she was paint- 
ing her magnificently realistic portraits, 
all the World was celebrating abstract art. 
Her art was not only unsellable to the 
trendsetters of the art audience, but in- 
conceivable to them as well. 

Continued overleaf 




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September 1973 



63 



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And yct, she wasn't compictcly un- 
known. As far back as the \\ pa. Neel wa.s 
recognized by her peers. Joseph Solman. 
writing in The New Deal Art Projects: A n 
Anfhology of Memoirs (Edited by 
Francis V. O'Connor. Smithsonian Insti- 
tution Press, Washington, D.C"., 1972), 
describes her work at that time as "cur- 
iously original." But not until the early 
'60s did she exhibit with any regularity, 
iind ?.s leite 3s !^68 Solman could stü! sü^' 
of her: "She is a loner, unclassifiable, 
and therefore receives no populär Pub- 
licity, such as some fourth-rate followers 
of the hard-edge school obtain." 

Such freedom, ofcourse, doesn'tcome 
cheap. She has done without many 
things, and lived. for instante, in an inex- 
pensiveapartment in Spanish Harlem (a 
neighborhood she enjoyed immensely) 
for many years until she moved to an- 
other unfashionable address. But the 
price for going against the tide has in no 
way diminished either her or her paint- 
ing. 

Now she's "making it" at last. The 
Whitney Museum of American Art and 
the Museum of Modern Art are just two 
of the many museums who own her 
work. (The Whitney is now planning a 
one-woman show for her. to hang in the 
fall of 1974.) Among the awards she has 
recently won are the Childe Hassam 
Award. the National Endowment 
Award. the Benjamin Altman Award, 
the American Academy of Arts and Let- 
ters Award, and a degree as Honorary 
Doctor of Fine Arts at Moore College. 
And many prestigious groups through- 
out the country ask her to speak and 
serve on juries. 

Alice Neel is in the prime of her life. 
She has captured the respect of an au- 
dience who once couldn't see farther 
than the latest drip. spatter. or Camp- 
belTs soup can; she's providing an excit- 
ing model for young women artists; and 
she's more productive than ever. But the 
tirst image of her I de.scribed is true too. 
only its depressing aspects were illusion- 
ary. For. as Alice Neel says, "Painting 
in a room by yourself can be the most ex- 
citing adventure you can have." 

ANTONIOS (from page 49) 

subiect matter. But do they? Hiiihly de- 
tailed. with a great variety of texlures. 
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anthropormorphism is not as obvious as 
it sounds in description: the "gestures" 
of the trees suggest not just people. but 
even the human attributcs of will, 
energy. dominance. Submission, aspira- 
tion. exuberance, and the tender af- 
finities of friendship. These trees seem to 
enact their dramas in an abstract. self- 
surticient world. Antonios explains that 



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American Artist 



*■' 



AR r ßOOKS (from pai^c 27) 

well pholD^raphcd ilcnis in ihis sinall 
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(which camc inlo circulalion in thc Cier- 
man art world in 1912; the artists them- 
selves didn't use the label), for it is an 
ambiguous and most elusive word. 
ihough there is no doubt that it signifies a 
movement strongly counteracting Im- 
pressionism and was originally fostered 
by such non-Germans as Ciauguin. Van 
Gogh, and Munch. It is certain that the 
artists whom the critics called Expres- 

i,- • zürnet ».• f-ii« *.^/>» •>* 1 t r*.» / J 1 * ■ /^ •-« <» I «.,-. ^ ,.->,» « - -J 

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skills, held true creativity to be more im- 
portant than technique. emphasized the 
strength and honesty of their visions, and 
concerned themselves with personal 
confessions and emotions or with dra- 
matic protests against a society they 
could not influence. They produced fer- 
vently painted oils, watercolors. and 
prinLs, especially angular and austere 
woodcuts. 

Wolf- Dieter Dube rtrst sketches the 
Cierman scene around 1900 and then 
deals with the various anti-Impressionist 
groups in Dresden (The Bridge). Munich 
(The Blue Rider). Berlin (The Storni) 
and Dues.seldorf (The Sonderbund). 
While the coverage is adcquate. the 
omi.ssion of Vienna's Richard Cierstl and 
Berlin's Jakob Steinhardt is to be re- 
gretted. The most fertile period of Ex- 
pressionism which also manifested it- 
self in literature. music. the thealer. and 
even in architecture— was the decade 



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from ca. 1910 to 1920. Remarkably pow- 
erful works were crealed by the sculptor 
Ernst Barlach and by such painters as 
Beckmann. Kirchner. Klee. Kokoschka, 
Marc. Noide. and Schiele. After the fall 
of the Hohen/.ollern Empire and with 
the establishmenl of the German Re- 
public. it seemed. for a while. that Ex- 
pressionism would be the dominant and 
characleristic art form within the revolu- 
tionary system that came into being. But 
iuo soon Germany and Austna saw 
them.selves embroiled in a hopeless 
struggle between the extreme left and 
the extreme righl. which was to lead to 
the establishment of Nazism. Even be- 
töre 1933 Expression ism was dead 
(though some of its leaders survived both 
Hitlerism and the Second World War), 
as the original excilement and enthusi- 
asm could not be sustained. and the Slo- 
gan. "Man is good." was replaced b\ the 
cynical motto. "Man is a Beast." 

The book contains a bibliogiaphv that 
is much too short. as well as thumb-nail 
biographies of more ihan 20 artists, 
among them New York-born Lyonel 
I eininger. who took part in Ciermanv's 
progressive movements between 1887 
and his return to the United States fol- 
lowing the Nazis' Usurpation o'i power. 
The illustrations include several pre- Ex- 
pressionist works to demonstrate the gap 
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artists who stressed the harmonious 





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Design Is VV herc ^ oii Kind ll. h\ ()r\illc 
K. Chatt. 124 pp.. 7' 4 x 10' 4. ovcr 170 
photographs and ihumbnail sketches. 
manv in color. Iowa .State University 
Pres.s. Arnes. Iowa 50010. $6.95. 

This attractiveiy produced and easv-to- 
turn horizontal format book deals vvith 
band vvrought jewelry and the countless 
loiin.s in naiure ihai can expeciedly or 
unexpectedly serve as inspirations. The 
author explains the principles of desiun: 
unity. rhythm. baiance. emphasis. pro- 
portions. Opposition (contrast). and vari- 
ety: the element.s ofdesign: texture. line. 
form. Space, and color. in briefbut lucid 
sentences. The rest of the book shows 
jewelry made ot^ wood. silver. ivory. 
stone. and other materials. with the natu- 
ral orijzins or foundations of each desitin 
beautifully photographed bv Lou Facto. 
Svdnev K. Raton. and Richard Kraemer 
Sr. 

A slice of wood seen in a microscc^pe. 
an age-old tree trunk. a "cra/ed paint" 
pattern. the wing of a fly. curves and tex- 
tures of weathered cenient. the coastline 
of a body of water. ibm cards. Computer 
tapes. seed pods. shadows on the sn(nv. 
the floor of a forest, pebbles in a creek. 
even the clouds in the skv lead to creativ- 
ity. according to the author. v\ho proves 
every word he says with his delicate. of- 
ten intricate. occasionally fragile look- 
ing. highly modern jeweirv. 

Chatt's belief that design can be found 
everywhere seems to pav oft' very well. 
He has won awards at manv craft shows 
and is crafts coordinator at Skatiit Vallev 
College. Mount Vernon. Wash. You get 
plenty of inspiration from this book. but 
you have to learn how to make jewelr\ 
onceyou have the design. r.i . 

Southwest Indian Painting, A ( han^in^ 
Art. b\ ( lara Lee I anner. 477 pp.. 12' 4 x 
9' 4. profuse illus.. main in color. map of 
reservations. bibliog.. index: update of 
1957 edition. l'niversitN o\' Ari/ona 
f*ress. Box 339S. 1 ucson. An/. 8^722 
.S35. 

Quantities of paintings b\ ihe Southwest 
American Indians that were inftuenced 
by .\nglo Saxon art are \ iewed. alter two 
chapters on prehistoric and historic dec- 
orative art. as a transition from crafts to a 
Western style of painting. Nol a contem- 
porary approach to material culture or 
Indian art. the book nonetheless gives a 
reall\ closc look at thc rinthmic. Hat 
color Works oi' each artisl. Man\ like 
Fred Kabotie or .Awa Isirch became 
prominent m the culture at lamc. and 
American Indian easel painting. which 
began in the 192()s. has had somc lollow- 
ing as well as It^rmal and commcrcial In- 
spiration. 

Of ihe forms o\' realism and abslrac- 
tion. most striking are the paintings that 



usc hard. Ilal coK)r like lurquoise amf 
\ellou lo rcprcscnl the ritual dancers in 
cosiume. and thc patterned style 
ihroughout gi\cs thc Iccling ol' ritual. 
Iro/en in one dimension. Its'power and 
conlrollcd ferocit\ are feit, wiih an ink- 
ling of what occurs when rituals and cul- 
tures clash. Several linear representa- 
tions show in subject as well as style the 
rcsults of thecultural interaction.'Warm 
earth colors occasionallv occur. and se\- 
eral works are moving. while others are 
jusi siiis. Materials and stvies are dis- 
cussed. ■ K.c.i. 

The Art of Light & Color, bv Tom Doug- 
las Jones. 119pp., 11 xm.h b/w illus., 
frontispiece and 15 plates in color. Van 
Noslrand Reinhold. S15 

As an introduction bv Faber Birren. the 
noted experi on color. states. this is a re- 
niarkable book. the rcsull of a lifetime o{ 
studying color not as a pigment. but as 
Visual "nuisic" that can be composed 
and played without any sound. The art 
ol light and color has been proiiressin^' 
for somc tinic. but our ps\chedelic age 
ga\e ll an unexpected impetus. (\)lor is 
enji)) cd b\ man\ people for its own 
sake. 

Mi>bilc and kinetic color. "'lumia."' as 
an independent art. is comparativelv re- 
cenl. allhough there has probabK alwavs 
been a connection between color and 
nuisic. .lones agrees that the connection 
IS purely emotional. No scientific corre- 
lation between the vibrations o\' color 
and thc \ibrations o\' sound has been 
c\)n\ mcingl\ established. Still, manv art- 
ists besides Kandinsks have noticed such 
a relationship: and manv composers be- 
sides Wagner ha\ e used music as an "un- 
dcrpamtmg." 

Ihe illusiraiions and dcscnptions be- 
gin with Newlon's original "opticks.*' in- 
cluding the (irst known color circle dia- 
gram; thcn come the prism used and the 
diagrams drawn b\ (ioethe. .Also the 
drawing for the patent application for 
the Color-Oigan invented bv \. Wallace 
Rinungton (1S93). a picture sht)wing 
Ihomas W ilfred at the controls o\' his 
much-publici/ed Clavilux. Tom 
Douglas .lones with his Chromaton 
( 1940). \\ ,( hristian Sidemusat his color 
organ. somc magnificent color eft'ects 
created b\ Cecil Siokcs. "lumia"" se- 
cjuences b\ I arl Reibeck. a fantastic 
drauing b\ William Blake, and other 
pictures. 

A chapter is dc\t)tcd to ihc ps\chc- 
delic period w ith the discotheque and the 
elcclric circus. w hich reversed the proce- 
dure o\' takmii drutis b\ usini: tlashinii 
liühts. bokl colors. fluid desinns. with 
(luimpinLi sound. like bealinii hearts. 
roarinü music. so thal the real world is 
bU)ckcd out b\ niiihtmarish color lan- 
tansies. 

Ihc Colorlron was born when .lones 
wanled to pro\c to his sludcnts at Kansas 
l 'ni\ersit\ that red. üreen. and blue not 



62 



American Artist 



\ 




jxpcclations to send spaccprubes lo Hv 
h\ Saturn. Uranus. Neptunc. and Plulo 
in the laie l^7()s. A robt)l spaccprcibe is 
supposed U) leavc carth in 1976 and 
spend tcn years or so in scnding back 
hundreds o\' pictures and thousands of 
data beforc plunging into intergalactic 
Space and bccoming a manmade star. 
This, truly. is a mecting o( science and 
tantasy. 

riie pictures and texl try lo project 
vvi'uii iiicic i> bi:vi>iid Jupiici. Clicslcy 

Bonestell is a specialist on astronomical 
pictures. His work looks photograph- 
ically accurate. Arthur C. Clarke has 
written extensively and lectured on sci- 
ence and science fiction. In this book he 
traces the hislory of our spaceprobes 
(Vom I.una III to Mariner 9. There's no 
lalk about encountering superior nien 
and magnihcent women. or stränge ani- 
mals. It is all more serious and less spec- 
ulative than this. 

Many of the pictures are fascinating. 
especially Plale I. showing our ovvn 
gaiaxy. the Milkv Way. which looks like 
a modern geometric abstraction. The 
spacecraft shown in the paintings would 
be unbelieveable if we hadn't already 
seen photographs and modeis of such 
craft with extended wings on tv. and in 
our newspapers. 

Scientisis and directors oflhe Jet Pro- 
puision Laboratorv. the California Insti- 
tute of Technolosjv. the Smithsonian As- 
trophysical Observatory. and the Space 
Center in Houston ha\e helped in the 
preparation of this book. The text de- 
scribes preparations. lailures. and suc- 
cesses in our space program, including 
neu discoveries made possible bv the ad- 
venl of astronomical ph^nography. Pos- 
sibilities. probabilities. and inevitable 
catastrophies are frankly treated so that 
the reader and viewer of the book may 
have good or bad dreams about what, a 
Short time ago, was not even a dream. 

R.F. 



^-N g4^>f ^ og 73 



The New Deal for Artists, bv Richard D. 
McKin/ie. 203 pp.. 8'/: x 10' :. 90 illus. in 
black and white. Princeton University 
Press. $17.50 

In the past ihree years. interesi has risen 
in a period neglected during the pros- 
perous I950\s and I960's: the New Deal 
era. w hose w \\\ art projects contributed 
to making the i s\ the cultural leader it 
has become. Mr. McKinzie. research as- 
sociate at the Harry S. Truman Library 
Institute for National and International 
Artairs at Independence. Missouri, 
presents a scholarly account o\' the suc- 
cessful ertorts to save the creativ e lives of 
nearly six thousand painters. sculptors. 
printmakers and photographers during 
the worst depression America has ever 
seen. 

Painting goldfish and palm trees on 
the Walls o( speakeasies. Willem de 
Kooning and Anton Refregier were bet- 
ter otV than colleagues who had no work 



whatsoever. Luckily. President Roose 
velt. though w'ithout any deep feeling for 
the Visual arts. as a member oi' the en- 
lightened patrician elite responded to 
the pleas of a fellow-classmate at (iroton 
and Harvard, the painter George Biddle. 
w hen he spoke for those gifted confreres 
who. after the Stock Market Crash of 
1929. lost w hatever slim support and en- 
couragement Big Money otVered. f.d- 
ward Bruce, a businessman turned 
paiiiici, ilic all liiIil Fuibc.s WaLson, 
and the wriler Holger Cahill also plaved 
imporlant roles in the Federal Art Proj- 
ect. sponsored by the Works Progress 
Administration. 

McKinzie defines the scope ol" the 
Project: "In addition to providing work 
for artists in a free atmosphere. u pa in- 
tended to integrale art with daily life and 
sought to do it by promoling art appre- 
ciation and art sales." If the atmosphere 
was "tree." it was also poisoned by ideo- 
logical and aesthetic fights belween the 
political Establishment and the artists. 
and even belween the artists ihemselves. 
whose inlernecine squabbles did a lot to 
lessen the etticacy of w pa. 

The book is clearly based on thorough 
research. Fach chapter is followed by 
scholarly notes. and at the end there is a 
three-page "Note on Sources." a. v\ . 



The Picture Framer's Handbook: The 
Other Artist, by Laurence & Janet Burn- 
ett. 146 pp.. 10'/4 X 7. 64 b/w illus., Clark- 
son N. Potter. $7.95 

Anyone who has ever sat on a jury of se- 
lection knows how many professional 
artists disregard the tact that the frame is 
an integral pari of a picture. A good 
frame doesn't make a bad painting good. 
but a bad frame can "kill" the best pic- 
ture. A proper tYame is of immense 
value, but "proper" doesn't necessarily 
mcan expensive. As a matter of fact. 
inexpensive frames can be most attrac- 
tive and appropriate. 

A knowledgeable artist hands his 
painting over to "the other artist"— the 
framemaker. who must combine well 
trained taste and skilled craftsmanship 
to produce a frame that will enhance the 
beauty of the picture. There are 15,000 
picture framers in the United States, but 
youMI find little literature on the craft. 
Yet the tramemaker has to know about 
interior decoration. too, as the frame 
must harmonize with its surroundings no 
less than with the painting it encloses. 
The place and purposeof the frame have 
as much to do with its size, type, and 
color as the picture. The authors bemoan 
the fact that no younger generation fol- 
lows in the tbotsteps of the highly 
trained older framemaker in this age. 
when a College degree is valued more 
than any training. The book is concerned 
with the framemaker. but the artist 
might do the framing himself on the 
basis of the systematic instruction con- 
tained in this illustrated volume. 



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Design is of primary importance in a 
frame. There must be corrcct propor- 
tions between mat, liner. and moidin" 
There are different kinds of mals. and 
mounting is a tricky kind of work de- 
manding great skill. There\s pienty of in- 
struction here on fitting the piclure. cut- 
ling the glass, and joining the sections of 
molding. Finishing a frame is an art in it- 
selt; 

There's a sepa.ate chapter on shadow 
boxes used for jewelry. medals, and 
other objects of value and pictorial or 

aP<thf»ti/" inlprct A r\r%^« /^; v/ I ...11.. 

-. ...V«....». , »pj/\, ii\ji/v j iv,ii.-> VV>U 

aboutcleaning anoii painting. removing 
grease spots from mats. etc.. and a sec- 
ond appendix teils and shows you how to 
construct a carton. An index makes it 
easy to find whatever youVe looking for 
in refcrence to framemaking. r.f. 

IMunch, by Thomas M. Messer. 166 pp.. 
13 X 10. 200 iJJLis. (48 in color). Harry N 
Abrams. $22.50 

The Norwegian Fdvard Miinch (1863- 
l'^44) Stands in the hrst rank of founders 
Ofmodern art. even though his aesthetic 
vocabiilary was severely'restricted: the 
same figures appear and reappear in al- 
most indentical settings. vvhether the art- 
ist was acting as draughtsman. painter. 
or printmaker. Throiiglioui his long ca- 
reer. he u.sed the same symbolie'lan- 
guage. though its intensity and fervor 
lessened considerably in the course oi' 
years. Mr. Messer. ' director of New 
York's Guggenheim Museum (which 
presented us with a remarkably compre- 
hensive Muneh show eight veärs aizo) is 
perfectiy right in asserting t'hat the^Nor- 
wegian did his finest work as a fairly 
young man. in the "explosive" period 
that ran from 1892 to 1902. Vet. unlike 
other eritics. who dismiss the creations oi' 
the middle-aged Muneh and especiallv 
ihose of his final years. Messer insists 
that the artist continued to aive us 
"works of stunninti beautv" to his very 
end. 

In discussing a particular cycle oi' 
paintings and prints known as Friczc of 
Life. Messer olfers an excellenl resume 
of all of Munch"sr;t'/nvv: ". . . the joy and 
ecstasy, disquiet and anxiety. and the 
psychic yibrations of modern man are 
brought to the surface through images. 
Symbols, and forms that evoke some- 
thing of the indiyisibility of loyc. life. 
and death. the simultaneity of joy and 
pain, and the merely parabolic signili- 
cance of the transitory human cond^ition 
in the presence of the'elernal rhythms o( 
inanimate nature." Because Muneh. a 
shy and isolated man with a mania for 
trayel. feit and expressed the an[^s( of 
20th Century man. he speaks to thc^'frus- 
trated and perplexed of our era more 
nioyingly ihan many of his coeyals. such 
as Matisse. Bonnard and Vuillard. His 
feryent f-xpressionism infUienced the 
lirucikc group in Ciermany. as well as 
the Austrians Klimt and Schiele, and it 



continues to ha\e its mark c\en on ^'^-.1/ 



somc 



of the young ligure artisis o[' lod'ay. 

In the inlroduction. Messer deals ex- 
clusively with problems of aesthetics and 
psychology; the details of Munch's life 
are limited to a four-page "Biographical 
Outline;' f-acing each of the color plates. 
which reproduce 47 oils and one pasiel. 
1^ a very enlightemng commcntary. 
Much attention is paid^hroughoul the 
book to Munch's variations on Uie imaiie 
that possessed him; at timcs there were 
yery tinv changes. at other times yery siü- 
miicani ones. The oyerwhelming major- 
iiy of the pictures reprt)duced "in color 
are owned by museums in Oslo and Ber- 
gen. Plate 17. howeyer. shows an impor- 
tant Muneh from an American public 
collection: Ihc lOuc. in Boston's Mu- 
seum of Fine Arts. [Dated 1893. it is less 
tragic in mood than most others o( his 
early works. But. as Messer obseryes. "A 
tense acuteness nevertheless emanates 
from the woman in uhite who Stands 
erect and quiel like the trees that Sur- 
round her. listenmii inlentlv within her- 
self" 



A.W . 



American Indian Art: Form and Tradi- 
tion, by Walker Art Center. Indian Art 
Associatitm. and The Minneapolis Insti- 
tute of Arts. 154 pp.. lOU x 10'-.. 182 
illus.. 15 in color. two b/w maps of tribal 
locations. catalog list. biblioti.. F. \\ Dut- 
lon& Co.. S 12.9^5 

This book is a choice exhibil of the forms 
and object-types that persist in North 
American Indian art. Primitive, com- 
plex. and simply tinished. incorporaling 
everything from the American tlag to the 
night, from porcupine quills and birds to 
f-.uropean beads and sand. with the star.s. 
the sun. and the works of other tri bes. the 
basic object-types remain the same 
among all the iribes and centuries. 
-serving the peoples' physical. religious. 
and ritual needs. 

From three forwards. 13 essays. two 
maps. a catalog list (arranged bv object- 
types. from bags to weapons). and abib- 
liography. we glean the Information that 
while the Western artist challenges his 
cullure. the Indian artist perpctuak's his. 
The Western artist olfers new forms to 
make us regard the world in neu ways. in 
a tradilion of indi\idual expre.ssion' The 
Indian artist subordinates personal alti- 
tudes to those of the group. and in a clear 
role. wholly integrated. elaborates out 
the patterns perpeluating his culture on 
several le\els at once. 7 he American In- 
dian artist is commonly also a medicine 
man or a woman. weaving blankets. 
makimi pots. or beadinii desians for a rit- 
ual dance. He or she valued for Krical 
and intuitive qualities. has freedom for 
variations. and their forms and patterns 
respond to physical needs as they invoke 
and dispel the spirits feit in object.s, earth, 
and sky. 

Variations show in blanket stripes or 
in basket patterns that imitate and unite 

American Artist 






tlie spirits o\' harvcsting. pcoplc. and 
rccds. fVlorc iiKli\idiialit\ sliows in a 
paintcd and fcathcrcd shicid. bul ihe pri- 
mal signalurc is ihc liand of llic group. 
Morc cohcsivc and aniniatc than thc 
broadcast of a red and white corporate 
soup can. the imagcs. so iniportant in the 
absence oC a complex w ritten language. 
occasionally disperse into seeular de- 
scription. like pictures raced in a eircle 
across a butValo hide. lo be read from all 
sides Xhe essa^' "Of Tradition and Ks- 
thetics" by Kurator of Minneapolis' 
Walker Art Center Martin Friedman. 
who exhibited the material. explains the 
Indianas security in his relationship to 
nature: 

"Unlike Furo- American artists who 
domesticaled the theme o\' nature in an 
illusionistic consideration ofthe natural 
World, or the Impressionists. who shifted 
to a quasi-scientific interpretation of 
light and color in the iandscape. the 
American Indian artist feelsone with na- 
ture. He uses natural materials sensi- 
tivelv like wood and hone and the ele- 
mentarv Ibrms like tlovsers and animal 
imaiierv. Idenlifvinii with all matter, he 
emplovs abstraction in his design. and he 
believes the dreani part of nature is real 
as the waking State. Thus a totem pole 
that .seems a fantastic hybrid of human, 
animal. and demonic forms is just an ob- 
jectification of his all-inclusive reality. 
Contemporary expression expands our 



reality. and we respond to the cohesive. 
clear. primal. rhythmic. expressive, and 
detaiied forms of American Indian art. 
Their material integrity lets us appreciate 
as a unitv many highly charged forms we 
experience in our culture as separate. 
Also, stark, anaivtic. iieometric abstrac- 
tion in art and desiün encouraues us to 
seek to understand all aspects of the 
American experience. and a new pride in 
our Visual expression gives us that free- 



riom 






Diverse essavs in this volume bv an- 
thropologisls. curators. indians. an 
architect. and others explore the arts and 
relationships oi the North American 
people. Objects include rock paintings 
and date from earlv I9th Century to the 
present. r.( .t . 

Ivory Carvings in Early Medieval Eng- 
land^ by John Beckwith, 168 pp.. 270 
illus., one in color, 13 x 10, New York 
Graphic Society, Greenwich, Conn., 
$42.50 

in this large and well illustrated volume, 
Mr. Beckwith. deputy keeper of archi- 
tecture and sculpture at London's Vic- 
toria and Albert Mu.seum deals with ar- 
ti.stic crealions of an era that extended 
from the year 700 (when the conversion 
of the Anglo-Saxon heathens to Chris- 
tianity wa.s complete) to the year 1200 
(when the struggle for constitutional lib- 
erty, which culminated in the Magna 



Carta, began). The object.s discussed 
here are generally small and belong in 
the category of what is often calied "the 
minor arts." Yet they are süperb in exe- 
cution and often deeply appealing to 
Modern Man for what is now perceived 
as their "expressionist" character. 

They were created by anonymous 
craftsmen who carved their designs into 
the shining white teeth or bones of large 
mammals, usually the tusks of walruses 

or riMru/huK In th^ r\f^rirv/1 llr^i^^^r Tt:^\t\e^\\i 

they were made mostly by monks and 
preponderantly for religious purposes. 
For we have here: small diptychs (book- 
like altarpieces of two leaves); decora- 
tive Covers for illuminated Codices; 
Grosses; crosiers (pastoral staves carried 
by bishops); and other church para- 
phernalia. Yet, despite their devotional 
nature, seeular subject matter -even 
from pagan mythology-was often em- 
ployed. A few of the objects are strictly 
for lay use, among them the set of chess- 
men found in 1831 on the island of 
Lewis, probably from a wrecked ship. 

Stylistically, the pieces are in the cate- 
gories of Byzantine and Romanesque 
art. There are many narrative scenes, 
with much delicately executed detail; 
while there are often wild gestures, the 
faces themselves, with their bulging eyes, 
usually Stare past us in complete detach- 
ment into another world. 

Though ivory carving reached its apex 



Coming in November 



V^. ' i^^ 











Roi Partridge 



Louis Lozowick 



SPECIAL ISSUE ON PRINTS AND ART BOOKS 

THE PRINT REVOLUTION: WHAT THE COLLECTOR 
AND ARTIST SHOULD KNOW ABOUT NEW TRENDS 
by Susan E. Meyer 

Distinguishing the original print from the reproduction was 
once a clear-cut act of Classification. But things are chang- 
ing. What are some of the things you should know about 
new developments in the field of prints and reproductions 
that make this distinction more complex than ever before? 

HOW TO FRAME YOUR PRINTS 

Any werk that is prepared on paper— and for the printmaker 
and collector this question is of primary importance— must 
be framed using methods that flatter the work and preserve 
it at the same time. Here's what you should take into consid- 
eration before you frame your prints. 



THE LITHOGRAPHY OF LOUIS LOZOWICK 
by Esther Forman Singer 

Lozowick has concentrated almost exciusively on develop- 
ing his techniques in the most complex of all printmaking 
processes: lithography. This articie explores these discov- 
eries he has made on the way. 

THE ETCHINGS OF ROI PARTRIDGE 
by Frederic Whitaker 

Partridge has a remarkable ability to use line— rather than 
tone— to make a rieh variety of artistic Statements. He 
etches— the printmaking form most appealing to a linear art- 
ist— and his results are astounding. 

JOSEPH SOLMAN: A FORTY YEAR RETROSPECTIVE 
by Eve Medoff 

His Street scenes and interiors, his portraits and monotypes, 
all convey the spirit of the man who has never settied for any 
one subject expressed in any one way. 

WILSON HURLEY: LANSCAPIST OF GRANDEUR 
by Mary Carroll Nelson 

Wilson Hurley traveied an arduous journey to become a full- 
time artist. He was not born with the brush in his band, but 
earned the right to paint by making painfui sacrifices. 

WATERCOLOR PAGE: CAROL PYLE JONES 

This award-winning watercolorist from Pennsylvania works 
in mixed media: acrylics, casein, and transparent water- 
color, using one or all three in any painting. 

Plus special announcements of newiy released art books 
and all the regulär monthly departments: The Professional 
Page by Betty Chamberlain; The Technical Page by Ralph 
Mayer; Art Mart; Bulletin Board. 



October 1973 



69 



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